TC 9-524FUNDAMENTALS OF MACHINE TOOLSOCTOBER 1996HEADQUARTERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMYDISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release; distribution isunlimited.
TC 9-524PrefaceThe purpose of this training circular is to provide a better understanding of power-driven machine tools. It alsosupplements technical manuals in the 9-3400-series covering power-driven machine tools.One of the main objectives is for this publication is to be clear and understandable. Illustrations throughout thispublication show the step-by-step process of many machine shop operations. The tables, charts, formulas, weights,and measurements in this publication can be a ready reference for selecting the proper tooling and math formulasfor machining different materials.The proponent of this publication is HQ TRADOC. Send comments and recommendations on DA Form 2028directly to the Department of the Army, Training Directorate, ATTN: ATCL-AO, 801 Lee Avenue, Fort Lee,Virginia 23801-1713.Unless this publication states otherwise, masculine nouns and pronouns do not refer exclusively to men.ii
TC 9-524Chapter 1INTRODUCTION TO THE MACHINE SHOPGENERAL INFORMATIONFORMS, RECORDS, AND REPORTSAccurate records are valuable. Unit officers are responsiblefor completion of forms, records, and reports. DA Pam 738750 lists records, reports, and authorized forms that arenormally used for inspection and repair. Properly executedforms authorize and record repair or replacement of materiel.The forms, records, and reports document the work required,follow the progress of the work within the shops, and indicatethe status of the material upon completion of repairs.FIELD REPORT OF ACCIDENTSThe reports necessary to comply with the requirements ofthe Army Safety Program are prescribed in detail in AR 38540. These reports are required for any accidents involvinginjury or damage. For a listing of all forms, refer to DA Pam25-30.Any deficiencies detected in the equipment covered hereinshould be immediately reported in accordance with DA Pam738-750. These reports will be submitted as an EquipmentImprovement Recommendation on SF 368.DEFINITION OF MACHINE TOOLSMachine tools are power-driven equipment designed todrill, bore, grind, or cut metal or other material.machines, brake reliners, valve seat grinders. and so forth) byvarious manufacturers, no attempt has been made to includeinformation pertinent to them in this manual. For completeinformation on these tools, see pertinent TM 9-3400-, TM 95100-, and TM 9-9000-series technical manuals covering thespecific machines.RISK-MANAGEMENTTo assure a high degree of safety, no machine -tool is to beused unless the risk management process as outlined below isunderstood and applied by the user and the supervisor:1. Identify the potential hazard(s) that the machine tool cangenerate.2. Assess the probability and severity of the hazard(s) byutilizing the Risk Assessment Matrix in figure 1-1. Riskacceptance decision authority for the risk levels is as follows:a. Extremely high - CG, TRADOC; DCG, TRADOC;or the Chief of Staff, TRADOC.b. High - Major subordinate commands, installationcommanding generals, and school commandants of generalofficer rank.c. Moderate and low - Delegated to the appropriatelevel in your unit chain of command.LISTING OF MACHINE TOOLS3. Determine the risk control measures that will eliminate thehazard(s) or reduce the risk.A complete list of machine tools including specializedmachine tools currently authorized for issue is in ComponentList C 3405/70-lL.4. Implement the risk control measures before and duringoperation of the machine tool to eliminate the hazards orreduce their risks.SPECIALIZED MACHINE TOOLS5. Supervise and evaluate the process. Enforce theestablished standards and risk control measures. Evaluate theeffectiveness of the control measures and adjust/update themas necessary.In view of the different design and operating featuresincorporated in specialized machine tools (cylinder boring1-1
TC 9-524PROBABILITYA.B.C.FREQUENT - Individual soldier/item - Occurs often inthe career/equipment service life. All soldiers or iteminventory exposed - Continuously experienced duringoperation/mission.LIKELY - Individual soldier/item - Occurs several timesin career/equipment service life. - All soldiers or iteminventory exposed. - Occurs frequently duringoperator/mission.OCCASIONAL - Individual soldier/item. - Occurssometimes in career/equipment service life. All soldiersor item inventory exposed. Occurs sporadically, orseveral times in inventory service or operations/mission.D. REMOTE - Individual soldier/item - Possible to occurin career/equipment service life. All soldiers or iteminventory exposed, Remote chance of occurrence Expected to occur sometime in inventory service life oroperation/mission.E.UNLIKELY - Individual soldier/item - Can assume willnot occur in career/equipment/service life. All soldiersor item inventory exposed. - Possible, but improbable;occurs only very rarely during operation/mission.SEVERITYI. CATASTROPHIC - Death or permanent totaldisability. System loss. Major property damage.II CRITICAL - Permanent partial disability. Temporarytotal disability in excess of 3 months. Major system damage.Significant property damage.III. MARGINAL - Minor injury. Lost workday accidentwith compensable injury/illness. Mirror system damage.Minor property damage.IV. NEGLIGIBLE - First aid or minor supportive medicaltreatment. Minor system impairment.RISK LEVELSEXTREMELY HIGH - Loss of ability to accomplishmission.HIGH - Significantly degrades mission capabilities in termsof required mission standards.MODERATE- Degrades mission capabilities in terms ofrequired missions standards.LOW - Little or no impact on accomplishment of mission.1-2
TC 9-524MACHINE SHOP WORKSCOPEMachine shop work is generally understood to include allcold-metal work by which an operator, using either powerdriven equipment or hand tools, removes a portion of themetal and shapes it to some specified form or size. It does notinclude sheet metal work and coppersmithing.in the finished workpiece, For that reason, all scribed linesshould be exactly located and all scriber, divider, and centerpoints should be exact and sharp.LAYING OUT WORKThe shiny surface, found on most metals, makes it difficultto see the layout lines.“Laying out” is a shop term which means to scribe lines,circles, centers, and so forth, upon the surface of any materialto serve as a guide in shaping the finished workpiece. Thislaying out procedure is similar to shop drawing but differsfrom it in one important respect. The lines on a shop drawingare used for reference purposes only and are not measured ortransferred. In layout work, even a slight error in scribing aline or center may result in a corresponding or greater errorSCRIBING LINES ON METALLayout dye (Figure 1-2), when applied to the metal surface,makes it easier for the layout lines to be seen. Layout dye isusually blue and offers an excellent contrast between the metaland the layout lines.Before applying layout dye, ensure that all grease and oilhas been cleaned from the work surface. Otherwise the dyewill not adhere properly.1-3
TC 9-524COMMON LAYOUT TOOLSScriberTo obtain an accurate layout, fine lines must be scribed inthe metal. A scriber (Figure 1-3) is the layout tool that is usedto produce these lines. The point is made of hardened steeland is kept chain by honing on an oilstone.DividerWhen laying out circles, arcs, and radii, it is best to use thedivider (Figure 1-4). The legs of the divider must be of thesame length and be kept sharp. The divider cart be used to1-4lay out and measure distances (Figure 1-5). To set the dividerto the correct length, place one point on an inch mark of asteel rule and open the divider until the other leg matches thecorrect measure-merit required (Figure 1-6).
TC 9-524TrammelWhen scribing circles, arcs, and radii that are too large to beproduced with the divider, a trammel should be used (Figure1-7). The trammel is made of three main parts: the beam, twosliding heads with scriber points, and an adjusting screw thatis attached to one of the heads. The trammel can be made toscribe larger distances with the use of extension rods. Thislayout tool is set in the same manner as the divider.Hermaphrodite CaliperThe hermaphrodite caliper (Figure 1-8) is a tool used to layout lines that are parallel with the edges of the workpiece(Figure 1-9). It can also be used to locate the center ofcylindrical shaped workplaces (Figure 1-10).Surface GageA surface gage (Figure 1-11) is used for many purposes, butis most often used for layout work. The gage can be used toscribe layout lines at any given distance parallel to the worksurface (Figure 1-12).1-5
TC 9-524Surface PlateA surface plate (Figure l-14) provides a true, smooth, planesurface. It is used in conjunction with surface and height gagesas a level base on which the gages and the workpiece areplaced to obtain accurate measurements. These plates aremade of semi-steel or granite and should never be used forany job that would scratch or nick the surface.The spindle may be adjusted to any position with respect tothe base and tightened in place with the spindle nut (Figure 111). The rocker adjusting screw provides for finer adjustmentof the spindle by pivoting the spindle rocker bracket. Thescriber can be positioned at any height and in any desireddirection on the spindle by adjusting the scriber. A surfaceplate and combination square (Figure l-13) are needed to setthe surface gage to the correct dimension.1-6
TC 9-524Vernier Height GageThe vernier height gage (Figure 1-15) is a caliper with aspecial foot block to adapt it for use on a surface plate. Heightgages are available in several sizes: the most common are the10, 18, and 24 inch gages in English measure and the 25 and46 cm gages in metric measure. Like the vernier caliper, theseheight gages are graduated in divisions of 0.025 inch and avernier scale of 25 units for reading measurements tothousandths of an inch. Always be sure the bottom of the footblock (Figure 1-15) is clean and free from burrs.Figure 1-17 illustrates the use of an offset scriber with theheight gage. This scriber reaches below the gage base. Do notattempt to adjust the sliding jaw while it is clamped to theupright beam.Figure 1-16 shows the height gage with a tungsten carbidemarker. This marker is used to lay out lines on glass, hardenedsteel. or other hard materials.Combination Square SetThe combination square set (Figure 1-18) is used for anumber of layout operations. The set consists of a blade(graduated rule), square head, protractor, and center head.1-7
TC 9-524BladeThe blade is designed to allow the different heads to slidealong the blade and be clamped at any desired location. Thegroove in the blade is concave to eliminate dirt buildup andpermit a free and easy slide for the heads. By removing all theheads, the blade may be used alone as a rule.Square HeadThe square head is designed with a 45 and 90 edge, whichmakes it possible to be used as a try square and miter square.By extending the blade below the square, it can be used as adepth rule. The square head can also be used as a level.Protractor HeadThe protractor head is equipped with a revolving turretgraduated in degrees from 0 to 180 or to 90 in either direction.It is used to measure or lay out angles to an accuracy of 1 .Center HeadThe center head, when inserted on the blade, is used tolocate and lay out the center of cylindrical workplaces.STEPS IN MAKING A LAYOUTPlanning before beginning any layout is one of the mostimportant steps. Each job may require different layout toolsdepending on the accuracy needed; however, there are certainprocedures which should be followed in any layout. Figure 120 shows a typical layout.Study the shop drawing or blueprint carefully before youcut off the stock. Allow enough material to square theends if required.Remove all oil and grease from the work surface andapply layout dye.Locate and scribe a reference or base line. All the othermeasurements should be made from this. If the workpiecealready has one true edge, it can be used in place of thereference line.Using the base line as a reference line, locate and scribeall center lines for each circle, radius, or arc.Mark the points where the center lines intersect using asharp prick punch.Bevel ProtractorThe bevel protractor (Figure 1-19) consists of an adjustableblade with a graduated dial. The blade is usually 12 incheslong and 1/16 inch thick. The dial is graduated in degreesthrough a complete circle of 360 . The most common use forthis tool is laying out precision angles. The vernier scale isused for accurate angle adjustments and is accurate to 5minutes or 1/12 .1-8Scribe all circles, radii, and arcs using the divider ortrammel.Using the correct type protractor, locate and scribe allstraight and angular lines.Scribe all lines for internal openings.All layout lines should be clean, sharp, and fine. Reapplylayout dye to all messy, wide, or incorrect lines andrescribe.
TC 9-524JIGS AND FIXTURESThe layout tools mentioned in this section are only the mostcommonly used. For more information on the use and care ofthese tools and other layout and measuring tools, refer to TM9-243.The primary purpose of jigs and fixtures is to align the tooland hold the workpiece properly during machining. A fixtureis a device which holds the work while cutting tools are inoperation. It differs from a jig in that it has no guides orspecial arrangements for guiding tools. A jig is also a fixturefor locating or holding the work and guiding the cutting toolin operations such as drilling, reaming, counterboring, andcountersinking.1-9
Jigs and fixtures can greatly reduce the cost ofmanufacturing large quantities of parts. Their use is also anadvantage when the interchangeability and accuracy of thefinished products are important. They also can be used in lowor limited production jobs if extreme accuracy must bemaintained. One of their greatest advantages is that relativelyunskilled labor can accomplish the job using these specialtools.MECHANICAL DRAWINGS ANDBLUEPRINTSMechanical DrawingsA mechanical drawing, made with special instruments andtools, gives a true representation of an object to be made,including its shape, size, description, material to be used, andmethod of manufacture.BlueprintsA blueprint is an exact duplicate of a mechanical drawing.These are the most economical and satisfactory workingdrawings in use. They do not soil easily and arecomparatively easy to read. Blueprint paper is a good grade ofwhite paper coated with a chemical solution. making itgreenish yellow. A blueprint is made by placing a tracing of amechanical drawing on a sheet of blueprint paper andexposing it to light. During exposure. the light penetrateswhere there are no lines or printing on the tracing but doesnot penetrate where there are lines or printing. The print isthen washed in water. which changes the exposed chemical toa dark blue and washes the chemical off where lines andprinting prevented exposure. In other words. the processleaves white lines on dark blue background.Working From DrawingsDetail prints usually show only the individual part or piecethat must be produced. They show two or more orthographic(straight-on) views of the object. and in special cases. theymay show an isometric projection. without dimension lines,near the upper right corner. An isometric projection showshow the part will look when made. Each drawing or blueprintcarries a number. located in the upper left-hand corner and inthe title box in the lower right-hand corner of the print. Thetitle box also shows the part name, the scale used, the patternnumber. the material required. the assembly or subassemblyprint number to which the part belongs. the job order number,the quantity and date of the order. and the names or initials ofthe persons who drew. checked. and approved the drawings(Figure 1-20). Accurate and satisfactory fabrication of a partdescribed on a drawing depends upon the following:1-10Correctly reading the drawing and closely observing alldata on the drawing.Selecting the correct tools and instruments for laying outthe job.Use the baseline or reference line method of locating thedimensional points during layout. thereby avoidingcumulative errors.Strictly observing tolerances and allowances.Accurate gaging and measuring of work throughout thefabricating process.Giving due consideration when measuring for expansionof the workpiece by heat generated by the cuttingoperations. This is especially important when checkingdimensions during operations, if work is being machinedto close tolerances.Limits of AccuracyWork must be performed within the limits of accuracyspecified on the drawing. A clear understanding of toleranceand allowance will help you avoid making small, butpotentially large errors. These terms may seem closely relatedbut each has a very precise meaning and application. Theparagraphs below point out the meanings of these terms andthe importance of observing the distinctions between them.ToleranceWorking to the absolute or exact basic dimension isimpractical and unnecessary in most instances: therefore, thedesigner calculates. in addition to the basic dimensions, anallowable variation. The amount of variation. or limit of errorpermissible is indicated on the drawing as plus or minus ( )a given amount. such as 0.005 or 1/64. The differencebetween the allowable minimum and the allowable maximumdimension is tolerance. When tolerances are not actuallyspecified on a drawing, fairly concrete assumptions can bemade concerning the accuracy expected. by using thefollowing principles, For dimensions which end in a fractionof an inch. such as 1/8, 1/16, 1/32, 1/64. consider theexpected accuracy to be to the nearest 1/64 inch. When thedimension is given in decimal form the following applies: If adimension is given as 2.000 inches, the accuracy expected is 0.005 inch: or if the dimension is given as 2.00 inches, theaccuracy expected is 0,010 inch. The 0.005 is called inshop terms, "plus or minus five thousandths of an inch.” The 0.010 is called “plus or minus ten thousandths of an inch.”
TC 9-524AllowancePrecautionsAllowance is an intentional difference in dimensions ofmating parts to provide the desired fit. A clearance allowancepermits movement between mating parts when assembled. Forexample, when a hole with a 0.250-inch diameter is fitted witha shaft that has a 0.245-inch diameter, the clearance allowanceis 0.005 inch. An interference allowance is the opposite of aclearance allowance. The difference in dimensions in this caseprovides a tight fit. Force is required when assembling partswhich have an interference allowance. If a shaft with a 0.251inch diameter is fitted in the hole identified in the precedingexample, the difference between the dimensions will give aninterference allowance of 0.001 inch. As the shaft is largerthan the hole, force is necessary to assemble the parts.Be sure you have the correct print for the part to be made orrepaired. You want the print which has not only the correcttitle, but also the correct assembly number. Never take ameasurement with a rule directly from the print because thetracing from which the print was made may not have beencopied from the original drawing perfectly and may containscaling errors. Also, paper stretches and shrinks with changesin atmospheric conditions. Dimensions must be taken onlyfrom the figures shown on the dimension lines. Be verycareful in handling all blueprints and working drawings.When they are not in use, place them on a shelf, in a cabinet,or in a drawer. Return them to the blueprint file as soon as thejob is done. Blueprints and working drawings are alwaysvaluable and often irreplaceable. Make it a point never tomutilate, destroy, or lose a blueprint.1-11
TC 9-524GENERAL SHOP SAFETYAll
Machine tools are power-driven equipment designed to drill, bore, grind, or cut metal or other material. LISTING OF MACHINE TOOLS A complete list of machine tools including specialized machine tools currently authorized for issue is in Component List C 3405/70-lL. SPECIALIZED MACHINE TOOLS In view of the
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