SPECIFICATION P-501. PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE PAVEMENT

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SPECIFICATION P-501. PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE PAVEMENTDESCRIPTION501–1.1 This Work consists of pavement composed of Portland cement concrete, constructed on a prepared underlying surface in accordance with theseSpecifications and shall conform to the lines, grades, thickness, and typical cross sections shown on the Plans. Reinforcement is required when shown onthe Plans.MATERIALS501–2.1 AGGREGATES.a. Reactivity. Aggregate shall be free of substances that are deleteriously reactive with the alkalis in the cement in an amount sufficient tocause excessive expansion of the concrete. Acceptable aggregate shall be based on satisfactory evidence furnished by the Contractor that the aggregate isfree from these materials. Include as part of the evidence service records of concrete of comparable properties under similar conditions of exposure and/orcertified records of tests by a testing laboratory that meets the requirements of ASTM C 1077. Test aggregate in accordance with ASTM C 295. Ifreactive materials are identified, test the aggregate in accordance with ASTM C 289. If the results are positive, test the aggregate in accordance withASTM C 227.NOTE TO SPECIFIER:Aggregates from operational pits and quarries can be relied upon only if there is evidence that the natureof the aggregate has not changed as the quarry is exhausted.The tests for reactivity in the Standard Specifications were based on the following recommendations.Normally the tests are performed in specific order. The petrographic analysis (ASTM C 295) is conductedfirst. If reactive minerals are identified, a quick chemical test (ASTM C 289) is conducted. If the results arepositive, a mortar–bar expansion test (ASTM C 227) is conducted.While not wholly conclusive, petrographic examination (ASTM C 295) and chemical test (ASTM C 289),provide valuable indicators. However, ASTM C 289 test results may not be correct for aggregatescontaining carbonates of calcium, magnesium or ferrous iron, such as calcite, dolomite, magnesite orsiderite; or silicates of magnesium such as serpentine. The mortar bar method (ASTM C 227) whilepreferable and more reliable, requires at least 6 months and preferably one year to yield results. It shouldbe used for new sources of aggregate.See ASTM C 33, Appendix X1, Methods for Evaluating Potential Reactivity of An Aggregate foradditional information.Proposed test method ASTM P 214, Accelerated Detection of Potentially Deleterious Expansion of MortarBars Due to Alkali–Silica Reaction, may be substituted for ASTM C 227 at the option of the Engineer,including test parameters.b. Fine Aggregate. Fine aggregate shall conform to the requirements of ASTM C 33. Gradation shall meet the requirements of Table 1 when tested inaccordance with ASTM C 136, except as may otherwise be qualified under Section 5 of ASTM C 33. Fine aggregate shall comprise 30 to 45 percent oftotal aggregate (fine aggregate plus coarse aggregate).

TABLE 1. GRADATION FOR FINE AGGREGATEASTM C 33Sieve Designation(square openings)Percentage by WeightPassing Sievesin.mm.3/8 in.No. 4No. 8No. 16No. 30No. 50No. 1009.5 mm4.75 mm2.36 mm1.18 mm600 micro–m300 micro–m150 –10c. Coarse Aggregate. Coarse aggregate shall conform to the requirements of ASTM C 33. Gradation, within the separated size groups, shallmeet the requirements of Table 2 when tested in accordance with ASTM C 136. When the nominal maximum size of the aggregate is greater than oneinch, furnish the aggregates in two size groups.Aggregates delivered to the mixer shall consist of crushed stone, crushed or uncrushed gravel, air–cooled blast furnace slag, crushed recycled concretepavement, or a combination thereof. The aggregate shall be composed of clean, hard, uncoated particles and shall meet the requirements for deleterioussubstances contained in ASTM C 33, Class 4S. Remove dust and other coating from the aggregates by washing. The aggregate in different size groupsshall not contain more than 8 percent by weight of flat or elongated pieces when tested in accordance with ASTM D 4791. A flat or elongated particle isone having a ratio between the maximum and the minimum dimensions of a circumscribing rectangular prism exceeding 5 to 1.Prior to approval of mixture design, submit written certification that the aggregate does not have a history of D–Cracking and that the aggregate isapproved by the Division of Transportation, Infrastructure Development specifically addressing susceptibility to D–Cracking. If the aggregate is notapproved by the Division of Transportation, Infrastructure Development, the aggregates may be approved provided the aggregate is tested in accordancewith ASTM C 666 and receives a durability factor of 95 percent or greater.NOTE TO SPECIFIER:Class was specified in accordance with Table 3 of ASTM C 33. ASTM C 666, Resistance of Concrete toRapid Freezing and Thawing, was added to the list of testing requirements.The percentage of wear shall be no more than 40 percent when tested in accordance with ASTM C 131 or ASTM C 535.NOTE TO SPECIFIER:The percentage of wear was specified per FAA to not exceed 40 percent. In certain cases where aggregateof this quality cannot be obtained economically, aggregate with a higher percentage of wear may bespecified in a Special Provision if a satisfactory service record of at least 5 years' duration under similarconditions of service and exposure has been demonstrated.The FAA recommended gradations were inserted into Table 2 of the Standard Specifications. Wherelocally available aggregates cannot be economically blended to meet the grading requirements, thegradations may be modified by the Engineer to fit the characteristics of locally available aggregates bySpecial Provision upon approval of WBOA and ADO.The concrete mix design shall be based upon use of Coarse Aggregate (C.A.) Mix unless otherwise specified in the Plans or Special Provisions. In C.A.Mix A and B, aggregate sizes No. 3 and No. 4 shall comprise 35 to 65 percent of the total amount of coarse aggregate.

TABLE 2. GRADATION FOR COARSE AGGREGATEPercentage by Weight Passing SievesSieveDesignations(square openings)C.A. Mix AFrom 2" to No. 4(50.0 mm–4.75 mm)C.A. Mix BFrom 1–1/2" to No. 4(38.0 mm–4.75 mm)C.A. Mix CFrom 1" to No. 4 (25.0mm–4.75 mm)in.mmNo. 3*(2" – 1")No. 57*(1" – No. 4)No. 4*(1–1/2"–3/4")No. 67*(3/4"–No.4)No. 57*(1"–No.4)2–1/221–1/213/41/23/8No. 4No. ��100–5* ASTM C 33 Table 2 Size Number501–2.2 CEMENT. Cement shall conform to the requirements of ASTM C 150 Type I, Type II, or Type III.NOTE TO SPECIFIER:The FAA allows the following: ASTM C 150 – Type I, II, III, or IV. ASTM C 595 – Type IP, IS, S, I. TypeI, Type II, or Type III cement was used in the Standard Specifications other types may be specified in theSpecial Provisions.ASTM C 150 covers Portland cements. ASTM C 595 covers blended hydraulic cements as follows: IP –Portland–Pozzolan Cement, IS – Portland Blast–Furnace Slag Cements, S – Slag Cement, I – PozzolanModified–Portland Cement.The chemical requirements for all cement types specified should meet suitable criteria for deleteriousactivity in accordance with ASTM C 33 or based on historical data. Low alkali cements (less than 0.6%total equivalent alkalinity) should be specified when any doubt exists.Do not use cement that is partially set or contains lumps of caked cement. Do not use cement salvaged from discarded or used bags.501–2.3 CEMENTITIOUS MATERIALS.a. Fly Ash. Fly ash shall meet the requirements of ASTM C 618, Class C or F with the exception of loss of ignition, where the maximum shallbe less than 6 percent for Class F. When reactive cements or aggregates are used in the concrete, supplementary optional chemical and physical propertiesof Tables 1A and 2A contained in ASTM C 618 shall apply.b. Blast Furnace Slag. Ground blast furnace slag shall meet the requirements of ASTM C 989, Grade 100 or 120.NOTE TO SPECIFIER:Fly ash may be accepted from sources that are prequalified by other agencies such as the Division ofTransportation, Infrastructure Development, Department of Transportation Division of Highways,provided it meets the loss of ignition requirement of this specification and is accompanied by a certificationand test data.501–2.4 PREMOLDED JOINT FILLER. Premolded joint filler for expansion joints shall conform to the requirements of ASTM D 1751 or ASTM D1752, Type II or III, and shall be punched to admit the dowels where called for on the Plans. Unless otherwise specified by the Engineer, furnish the fillerfor each joint in a single piece for the full depth and width required for the joint. When the use of more than one piece is required for a joint, fasten theabutting ends securely and hold accurately to shape by stapling or other positive fastening means satisfactory to the Engineer.NOTE TO SPECIFIER:

Joint filler must be compatible with joint sealants.501–2.5 JOINT SEALER. The joint sealer for the joints in the concrete pavement shall meet the requirements of Specification P–605 and shall be ofthe type(s) specified in the Plans.501–2.6 STEEL REINFORCEMENT. Reinforcing, when shown on the Plans, shall consist of welded steel wire fabric conforming to the requirementsof ASTM A 185 or ASTM A 497. Provide either type unless a specific type is indicated on the Plans.NOTE TO SPECIFIER:The FAA allows the following:Welded Steel Wire Fabric ASTM A 185Welded Deformed Steel FabricASTM A 497Bar MatsASTM A 184 or A 704Welded wire fabric shall be furnished in flat sheets only.Welded steel wire fabric was specified in the Standard Specifications; changes can be made by SpecialProvision.501–2.7 DOWEL AND TIE BARS. Tie bars shall be deformed steel bars and conform to the requirements of ASTM A 615, ASTM A 616, or ASTM A617, except that rail steel bars, Grade 50 or 60, shall not be used for tie bars that are to be bent or restraightened during construction. Tie bars designatedas Grade 40 in ASTM A 615 can be used for construction requiring bent bars.Dowel bars shall be plain steel bars conforming to ASTM A 615, ASTM A 616 or ASTM A 617 and shall be free from burring or other deformationrestricting slippage in the concrete. High strength dowel bars shall conform to ASTM A 714, Class 2, Type S, Grade I, II or III, Bare Finish. Beforedelivery to the construction site paint each dowel bar on all surfaces with one coat of paint meeting Federal Specification TT–P–664. If plastic or epoxy–coated steel dowels are used no paint coating is required, except when specified for a particular situation on the Contract Plans. Coated dowels shallconform to the requirements of AASHTO M 254.NOTE TO SPECIFIER:The designer should consider which dowel sizes and coating are commonly available locally in order to reducedelivery times and prices. 1- 1/4” and 1-1/2” dowels, 18 inches in length, are currently common sizes for highwayprojects. Epoxy coating is the standard on highway projects. It costs about 7 cents more per lineal foot of dowel thanpainting; however, it is more durable.The sleeves for dowel bars used in expansion joints shall be metal or other type of an approved design to cover 2 to 3 inches (50 mm to 75 mm) of thedowel, with a closed end and with a suitable stop to hold the end of the bar at least 1 inch (25 mm) from the closed end of the sleeve. Sleeves shall bedesigned so that they will not collapse during construction.501–2.8 WATER. Water used in mixing or curing shall be clean and free of oil, salt, acid, alkali, sugar, vegetable, or other substances injurious to thefinished product. Water will be tested in accordance with the requirements of AASHTO T 26. Water known to be of potable quality may be used withouttesting.501–2.9 COVER MATERIAL FOR CURING. Curing materials shall conform to one of the following specifications:a. Liquid membrane–forming compounds for curing concrete shall conform to the requirements of ASTM C 309, Type 2, Class B.b. White polyethylene film for curing concrete shall conform to the requirements of ASTM C 171.c. White burlap–polyethylene sheeting for curing concrete shall conform to the requirements of ASTM C 171.d. Waterproof paper for curing concrete shall conform to the requirements of ASTM C 171.501–2.10 ADMIXTURES. The Engineer will approve the use of material added to the concrete mix. Submit certificates indicating that the material tobe furnished meets all of the requirements indicated below. In addition, the Engineer may require the Contractor to submit complete test data from anapproved laboratory showing that the material to be furnished meets all of the requirements of the cited specifications. Subsequent tests may be made ofsamples taken by the Engineer from the supply of material being furnished or proposed for use on the Work to determine whether the admixture isuniform in quality with that approved.a. Air–Entraining Admixtures. Air–entraining admixtures shall meet the requirements of ASTM C 260 and shall consistently entrain the aircontent in the specified ranges under field conditions. The air–entrainment agent and chemical admixtures shall be compatible.

b. Chemical Admixtures. Water–reducing, set retarding, and set–accelerating admixtures shall meet the requirements of ASTM C 494,including the flexural strength test.501–2.11 EPOXY–RESIN. Epoxy–resin used to anchor dowels and tie bars in pavements shall conform to the requirements of ASTM C 881, Type I,Grade 3, Class C. Class A or B shall be used when the surface temperature of the hardened concrete is below 60 F (16 C).501–2.12 MATERIAL ACCEPTANCE. Prior to use of materials, submit certified test reports to the Engineer for those materials proposed for useduring construction. The certification shall show the appropriate ASTM test(s) for each material, the test results, and a statement that the material passedor failed.The Engineer may request samples for testing, prior to and during production, to verify the quality of the materials and to ensure conformance with theapplicable specifications.MIX DESIGN501–3.1 PROPORTIONS. Design concrete to achieve a 28-day flexural strength so that not more than 20 percent of the concrete produced will fallbelow a flexural strength of 650 psi (4480 kPa). Design the mix using the procedures contained in Chapter 7 of the Portland Cement Association'sManual, "Design and Control of Concrete Mixtures."NOTE TO SPECIFIER:The design flexural strength was specified as 650 psi (4480 kPa) in the Standard Specifications. Theminimum flexural strength allowable for airport pavements is 600 psi (4136 kPa). The design strength canbe modified by Special Provision upon approval by WBOA.Higher flexural strength can be specified when local materials make this economically feasible. However, itmust be recognized that due to variations in materials, operations, and testing the average strength ofconcrete furnished by a supplier must be substantially above the specified strength to insure a goodstatistical chance of meeting the acceptance criteria throughout the duration of the job.For pavements designed to accommodate aircraft gross weights of 30,000 pounds (13 600 kg) or less, thissection may be modified to indicate that concrete shall be designed to achieve a 28 day compressivestrength such that not more than 20 percent of the concrete produced will fall below the designcompressive strength of 4,400 psi (30 300 kPa).If the specified strength is required earlier than 28 days, the Engineer shall designate the time period.To ensure that not more than 20 percent of the concrete actually produced will fall below the specified strength, the mix design average strength must beconsiderably higher than the specified strength. The amount of overdesign necessary to meet specification requirements depends on the producer'sstandard deviation of flexural test results and the accuracy which that value can be estimated from historic data for the same or similar materials. Theminimum cementitious material (cement plus fly ash) shall be 500 pounds per cubic yard (297 kg per cubic meter). The ratio of water to cementitiousmaterial, including free surface moisture on the aggregates but not including moisture absorbed by the aggregates shall not be more than 0.50 by weight.NOTE TO SPECIFIER:A minimum cement content of 500 pounds (227 kg) was specified in the Standard Specifications. A higherminimum may be necessary to meet the specified strength when other cementitious materials aresubstituted or to meet durability requirements for severe freeze/thaw, deicer, or sulfate exposure.A maximum water/cementitious ratio of 0.50 was specified in the Standard Specifications. A lowerwater/cementitious material ratio may be necessary for severe freeze/thaw, deicer, or sulfate exposure.Prior to the start of paving operations and after approval of all material to be used in the concrete, submit a mix design showing the proportions andflexural strength obtained from the concrete at 7 and 28 days. Include with the mix design copies of test reports, including test dates, and a complete listof materials including type, brand, source, and amount of cement, fly ash, ground slag, coarse aggregate, fine aggregate, water, and admixtures. Show thefineness modulus of the fine aggregate and the air content. Submit the mix design to the Engineer at least 15 days prior to the start of operations. Do notbegin production until the mix design is approved in writing by the Engineer.Should a change in sources be made, or admixtures added or deleted from the mix, submit a new mix design must be submitted to the Engineer forapproval.

NOTE TO SPECIFIER:A minimum of 10 days was included in the Standard Specification. A longer time may be required bySpecial Provision. The Engineer may specify that previously approved mix designs older than 90 days shallnot be used.Flexural strength test specimens shall be prepared in accordance with ASTM C 31 and tested in accordance with ASTM C 78. The mix determined shallbe workable concrete having a slump for side–form concrete between 1 and 2 inches (25 mm and 50 mm) as determined by ASTM C 143. For vibratedslip–form concrete, the slump shall be between 1/2 inch (13 mm) and 1 1/2 inches (38 mm).NOTE TO SPECIFIER:If the basis of the design strength in paragraph 501–3.1 is changed by Special Provision to compressivestrength, the specimens should be tested in accordance with ASTM C 39. Substitute "compressivestrength" for "flexural strength" in appropriate sections of the Specification.501–3.2 CEMENTITIOUS MATERIALS.a. Fly Ash. Fly ash may be used in the mix design. When fly ash is used as a partial replacement for cement, the minimum cement contentmay be met by considering Portland cement plus fly ash as the total cementitious material. The replacement rate shall be determined from laboratory trialmixes, but shall not exceed 20 percent by weight of the total cementitious material.b. Ground Slag. Ground blast–furnace slag may be used in a mix design containing Type I or Type II cement. The slag, or slag plus fly ash ifboth are used, may constitute between 25 to 55 percent of the total cementitious material by weight. If the concrete is to be used for slipformingoperations and the air temperature is expected to be lower than 55 F (13 C) the percent slag shall not exceed 30 percent by weight.NOTE TO SPECIFIER:The percentage of fly ash allowed in the mix was specified as 20% of total cementitious material in theStandard Specifications.Due to variations in fly ash, cement, strength requirements, etc. the replacement rate specified can bechanged by Special Provision based on local materials, but should be between 10–20 percent.Concrete containing fly ash will ultimately develop a flexural strength greater than concrete without flyash. However, the rate of development and

* ASTM C 33 Table 2 Size Number 501–2.2 CEMENT. Cement shall conform to the requirements of ASTM C 150 Type I, Type II, or Type III. NOTE TO SPECIFIER: The FAA allows the following: ASTM C 150 – Type I, II, III, or IV. ASTM C 595 – Type IP, IS, S, I. Type I, Type II, or Type III cement was used in the Standard Specifications other types may be specified in the Special Provisions. ASTM C .

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