GIAN PPA7 FM Xii Xix V2.1HR1.1

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GIAN PPA7 FM xii xix v2.1HR1.1.QXD3-04-201313:09Page xiiiPrefaceWhat’s New?Lots! Much is new and unseen before. Here are the big four:1. Multiple-choice Questions added to the end of each Chapter. They are not theusual type. These are called MisConceptual Questions because the responses(a, b, c, d, etc.) are intended to include common student misconceptions.Thus they are as much, or more, a learning experience than simply a testingexperience.2. Search and Learn Problems at the very end of each Chapter, after the otherProblems. Some are pretty hard, others are fairly easy. They are intended toencourage students to go back and reread some part or parts of the text,and in this search for an answer they will hopefully learn more—if onlybecause they have to read some material again.3. Chapter-Opening Questions (COQ) that start each Chapter, a sort of“stimulant.” Each is multiple choice, with responses including commonmisconceptions—to get preconceived notions out on the table right at thestart. Where the relevant material is covered in the text, students find anExercise asking them to return to the COQ to rethink and answer again.4. Digital. Biggest of all. Crucial new applications. Today we are surrounded bydigital electronics. How does it work? If you try to find out, say on theInternet, you won’t find much physics: you may find shallow hand-wavingwith no real content, or some heavy jargon whose basis might take months oryears to understand. So, for the first time, I have tried to explain The basis of digital in bits and bytes, how analog gets transformed intodigital, sampling rate, bit depth, quantization error, compression, noise(Section 17–10). How digital TV works, including how each pixel is addressed for each frame,data stream, refresh rate (Section 17–11). Semiconductor computer memory, DRAM, and flash (Section 21–8). Digital cameras and sensors—revised and expanded Section 25–1. New semiconductor physics, some of which is used in digital devices,including LED and OLED—how they work and what their uses are—plusmore on transistors (MOSFET), chips, and technology generation as in22-nm technology (Sections 29–9, 10, 11).Besides those above, this new seventh edition includes5. New topics, new applications, principal revisions. You can measure the Earth’s radius (Section 1–7). Improved graphical analysis of linear motion (Section 2–8). Planets (how first seen), heliocentric, geocentric (Section 5–8). The Moon’s orbit around the Earth: its phases and periods with diagram(Section 5–9). Explanation of lake level change when large rock thrown from boat(Example 10–11).xiiiGIAN PPA7 FM xii xix v2.1HR1.1 - april 3, 2013

GIAN PPA7 FM xii xix v2.1HR1.1.QXD3-04-201313:09Page xiv Biology and medicine, including: Blood measurements (flow, sugar)—Chapters 10, 12, 14, 19, 20, 21; Trees help offset CO2 buildup—Chapter 15; Pulse oximeter—Chapter 29; Proton therapy—Chapter 31; Radon exposure calculation—Chapter 31; Cell phone use and brain—Chapter 31. Colors as seen underwater (Section 24–4). Soap film sequence of colors explained (Section 24–8). Solar sails (Section 22–6). Lots on sports. Symmetry—more emphasis and using italics or bold face to make visible. Flat screens (Sections 17–11, 24–11). Free-electron theory of metals, Fermi gas, Fermi level. New Section 29–6. Semiconductor devices—new details on diodes, LEDs, OLEDs, solar cells,compound semiconductors, diode lasers, MOSFET transistors, chips, 22-nmtechnology (Sections 29–9, 10, 11). Cross section (Chapter 31). Length of an object is a script l rather than normal l, which looks like 1 orI (moment of inertia, current), as in F IlB. Capital L is for angularmomentum, latent heat, inductance, dimensions of length [L].6. New photographs taken by students and instructors (we asked).7. Page layout: More than in previous editions, serious attention to how eachpage is formatted. Important derivations and Examples are on facing pages:no turning a page back in the middle of a derivation or Example. Throughout,readers see, on two facing pages, an important slice of physics.8. Greater clarity: No topic, no paragraph in this book was overlooked in thesearch to improve the clarity and conciseness of the presentation. Phrasesand sentences that may slow down the principal argument have beeneliminated: keep to the essentials at first, give the elaborations later.9. Much use has been made of physics education research. See the newpowerful pedagogic features listed first.10. Examples modified: More math steps are spelled out, and many newExamples added. About 10% of all Examples are Estimation Examples.11. This Book is Shorter than other complete full-service books at this level.Shorter explanations are easier to understand and more likely to be read.12. Cosmological Revolution: With generous help from top experts in the field,readers have the latest results.See the World through Eyes that Know PhysicsI was motivated from the beginning to write a textbook different from the otherswhich present physics as a sequence of facts, like a catalog: “Here are the factsand you better learn them.” Instead of beginning formally and dogmatically,I have sought to begin each topic with concrete observations and experiencesstudents can relate to: start with specifics, and after go to the great generalizationsand the more formal aspects of a topic, showing why we believe what we believe.This approach reflects how science is actually practiced.xiv PREFACEGIAN PPA7 FM xii xix v2.1HR1.1 - april 3, 2013

GIAN PPA7 FM xii xix v2.1HR1.1.QXD3-04-201313:09Page xvThe ultimate aim is to give students a thorough understanding of the basicconcepts of physics in all its aspects, from mechanics to modern physics. A secondobjective is to show students how useful physics is in their own everyday lives andin their future professions by means of interesting applications to biology, medicine,architecture, and more.Also, much effort has gone into techniques and approaches for solvingproblems: worked-out Examples, Problem Solving sections (Sections 2–6, 3–6,4–7, 4–8, 6–7, 6–9, 8–6, 9–2, 13–7, 14–4, and 16–6), and Problem SolvingStrategies (pages 30, 57, 60, 88, 115, 141, 158, 184, 211, 234, 399, 436, 456, 534,568, 594, 655, 666, and 697).This textbook is especially suited for students taking a one-year introductory course in physics that uses algebra and trigonometry but not calculus.†Many of these students are majoring in biology or premed, as well as architecture,technology, and the earth and environmental sciences. Many applications tothese fields are intended to answer that common student query: “Why must I studyphysics?” The answer is that physics is fundamental to a full understanding ofthese fields, and here they can see how. Physics is everywhere around us in theeveryday world. It is the goal of this book to help students “see the world througheyes that know physics.”A major effort has been made to not throw too much material at studentsreading the first few chapters. The basics have to be learned first. Many aspects cancome later, when students are less overloaded and more prepared. If we don’toverwhelm students with too much detail, especially at the start, maybe they canfind physics interesting, fun, and helpful—and those who were afraid may losetheir fear.Chapter 1 is not a throwaway. It is fundamental to physics to realize that everymeasurement has an uncertainty, and how significant figures are used. Convertingunits and being able to make rapid estimates are also basic.Mathematics can be an obstacle to students. I have aimed at including all stepsin a derivation. Important mathematical tools, such as addition of vectors andtrigonometry, are incorporated in the text where first needed, so they come witha context rather than in a scary introductory Chapter. Appendices contain a reviewof algebra and geometry (plus a few advanced topics).Color is used pedagogically to bring out the physics. Different types of vectorsare given different colors (see the chart on page xix).Sections marked with a star * are considered optional. These contain slightlymore advanced physics material, or material not usually covered in typicalcourses and/or interesting applications; they contain no material needed in laterChapters (except perhaps in later optional Sections).For a brief course, all optional material could be dropped as well as significantparts of Chapters 1, 10, 12, 22, 28, 29, 32, and selected parts of Chapters 7, 8, 9,15, 21, 24, 25, 31. Topics not covered in class can be a valuable resource for laterstudy by students. Indeed, this text can serve as a useful reference for years becauseof its wide range of coverage.†It is fine to take a calculus course. But mixing calculus with physics for these students may oftenmean not learning the physics because of stumbling over the calculus.PREFACEGIAN PPA7 FM xii xix v2.1HR1.1 - april 3, 2013xv

GIAN PPA7 FM xii xix v2.1HR1.1.QXD3-04-201313:09Page xviThanksMany physics professors provided input or direct feedback on every aspect of thistextbook. They are listed below, and I owe each a debt of gratitude.Edward Adelson, The Ohio State UniversityLorraine Allen, United States Coast Guard AcademyZaven Altounian, McGill UniversityLeon Amstutz, Taylor UniversityDavid T. Bannon, Oregon State UniversityBruce Barnett, Johns Hopkins UniversityMichael Barnett, Lawrence Berkeley LabAnand Batra, Howard UniversityCornelius Bennhold, George Washington UniversityBruce Birkett, University of California BerkeleyRobert Boivin, Auburn UniversitySubir Bose, University of Central FloridaDavid Branning, Trinity CollegeMeade Brooks, Collin County Community CollegeBruce Bunker, University of Notre DameGrant Bunker, Illinois Institute of TechnologyWayne Carr, Stevens Institute of TechnologyCharles Chiu, University of Texas AustinRoger N. Clark, U. S. Geological SurveyRussell Clark, University of PittsburghRobert Coakley, University of Southern MaineDavid Curott, University of North AlabamaBiman Das, SUNY PotsdamBob Davis, Taylor UniversityKaushik De, University of Texas ArlingtonMichael Dennin, University of California IrvineKarim Diff, Santa Fe CollegeKathy Dimiduk, Cornell UniversityJohn DiNardo, Drexel UniversityScott Dudley, United States Air Force AcademyPaul DykeJohn Essick, Reed CollegeKim Farah, Lasell CollegeCassandra Fesen, Dartmouth CollegeLeonard Finegold, Drexel UniversityAlex Filippenko, University of California BerkeleyRichard Firestone, Lawrence Berkeley LabAllen Flora, Hood CollegeMike Fortner, Northern Illinois UniversityTom Furtak, Colorado School of MinesEdward Gibson, California State University SacramentoJohn Hardy, Texas A&MThomas Hemmick, State University of New York StonybrookJ. Erik Hendrickson, University of Wisconsin Eau ClaireLaurent Hodges, Iowa State UniversityDavid Hogg, New York UniversityMark Hollabaugh, Normandale Community CollegeAndy Hollerman, University of Louisiana at LafayetteRussell Holmes, University of Minnesota Twin CitiesWilliam Hopzapfel, University of California BerkeleyChenming Hu, University of California BerkeleyBob Jacobsen, University of California BerkeleyArthur W. John, Northeastern UniversityTeruki Kamon, Texas A&MDaryao Khatri, University of the District of ColumbiaTsu-Jae King Liu, University of California BerkeleyRichard Kronenfeld, South Mountain Community CollegeJay Kunze, Idaho State UniversityJim LaBelle, Dartmouth CollegeAmer Lahamer, Berea CollegeDavid Lamp, Texas Tech UniversityKevin Lear, SpatialGraphics.comRan Li, Kent State UniversityM.A.K. Lodhi, Texas TechLisa Madewell, University of WisconsinBruce Mason, University of OklahomaMark Mattson, James Madison Universityxvi PREFACEGIAN PPA7 FM xii xix v2.1HR1.1 - april 3, 2013Dan Mazilu, Washington and Lee UniversityLinda McDonald, North Park CollegeBill McNairy, Duke UniversityJo Ann Merrell, Saddleback CollegeRaj Mohanty, Boston UniversityGiuseppe Molesini, Istituto Nazionale di Ottica FlorenceWouter Montfrooij, University of MissouriEric Moore, Frostburg State UniversityLisa K. Morris, Washington State UniversityBlaine Norum, University of VirginiaLauren Novatne, Reedley CollegeAlexandria Oakes, Eastern Michigan UniversityRalph Oberly, Marshall UniversityMichael Ottinger, Missouri Western State UniversityLyman Page, Princeton and WMAPLaurence Palmer, University of MarylandBruce Partridge, Haverford CollegeR. Daryl Pedigo, University of WashingtonRobert Pelcovitz, Brown UniversitySaul Perlmutter, University of California BerkeleyVahe Peroomian, UCLAHarvey Picker, Trinity CollegeAmy Pope, Clemson UniversityJames Rabchuk, Western Illinois UniversityMichele Rallis, Ohio State UniversityPaul Richards, University of California BerkeleyPeter Riley, University of Texas AustinDennis Rioux, University of Wisconsin OshkoshJohn Rollino, Rutgers UniversityLarry Rowan, University of North Carolina Chapel HillArthur Schmidt, Northwestern UniversityCindy Schwarz-Rachmilowitz, Vassar CollegePeter Sheldon, Randolph-Macon Woman’s CollegeNatalia A. Sidorovskaia, University of Louisiana at LafayetteJames Siegrist, University of California BerkeleyChristopher Sirola, University of Southern MississippiEarl Skelton, Georgetown UniversityGeorge Smoot, University of California BerkeleyDavid Snoke, University of PittsburghStanley Sobolewski, Indiana University of PennsylvaniaMark Sprague, East Carolina UniversityMichael Strauss, University of OklahomaLaszlo Takac, University of Maryland Baltimore Co.Leo Takahashi, Pennsylvania State UniversityRichard Taylor, University of OregonOswald Tekyi-Mensah, Alabama State UniversityFranklin D. Trumpy, Des Moines Area Community CollegeRay Turner, Clemson UniversitySom Tyagi, Drexel UniversityDavid Vakil, El Camino CollegeTrina VanAusdal, Salt Lake Community CollegeJohn Vasut, Baylor UniversityRobert Webb, Texas A&MRobert Weidman, Michigan Technological UniversityEdward A. Whittaker, Stevens Institute of TechnologyLisa M. Will, San Diego City CollegeSuzanne Willis, Northern Illinois UniversityJohn Wolbeck, Orange County Community CollegeStanley George Wojcicki, Stanford UniversityMark Worthy, Mississippi State UniversityEdward Wright, UCLA and WMAPTodd Young, Wayne State CollegeWilliam Younger, College of the AlbemarleHsiao-Ling Zhou, Georgia State UniversityMichael Ziegler, The Ohio State UniversityUlrich Zurcher, Cleveland State University

GIAN PPA7 FM xii xix v2.1HR1.1.QXD3-04-201313:09Page xviiNew photographs were offered by Professors Vickie Frohne (Holy Cross Coll.),Guillermo Gonzales (Grove City Coll.), Martin Hackworth (Idaho State U.),Walter H. G. Lewin (MIT), Nicholas Murgo (NEIT), Melissa Vigil (Marquette U.),Brian Woodahl (Indiana U. at Indianapolis), and Gary Wysin (Kansas State U.).New photographs shot by students are from the AAPT photo contest: MattBuck, (John Burroughs School), Matthew Claspill (Helias H. S.), Greg Gentile(West Forsyth H. S.), Shilpa Hampole (Notre Dame H. S.), Sarah Lampen (JohnBurroughs School), Mrinalini Modak (Fayetteville–Manlius H. S.), Joey Moro(Ithaca H. S.), and Anna Russell and Annacy Wilson (both Tamalpais H. S.).I owe special thanks to Prof. Bob Davis for much valuable input, and especiallyfor working out all the Problems and producing the Solutions Manual for allProblems, as well as for providing the answers to odd-numbered Problems at theback of the book. Many thanks also to J. Erik Hendrickson who collaborated withBob Davis on the solutions, and to the team they managed (Profs. Karim Diff,Thomas Hemmick, Lauren Novatne, Michael Ottinger, and Trina VanAusdal).I am grateful to Profs. Lorraine Allen, David Bannon, Robert Coakley, KathyDimiduk, John Essick, Dan Mazilu, John Rollino, Cindy Schwarz, Earl Skelton,Michael Strauss, Ray Turner, Suzanne Willis, and Todd Young, who helped withdeveloping the new MisConceptual Questions and Search and Learn Problems,and offered other significant clarifications.Crucial for rooting out errors, as well as providing excellent suggestions, wereProfs. Lorraine Allen, Kathy Dimiduk, Michael Strauss, Ray Turner, and DavidVakil. A huge thank you to them and to Prof. Giuseppe Molesini for his suggestions and his exceptional photographs for optics.For Chapters 32 and 33 on Particle Physics and Cosmology and Astrophysics,I was fortunate to receive generous input from some of the top experts in the field,to whom I owe a debt of gratitude: Saul Perlmutter, George Smoot, Paul Richards,Alex Filippenko, James Siegrist, and William Hopzapfel (UC Berkeley), LymanPage (Princeton and WMAP), Edward Wright (UCLA and WMAP), MichaelStrauss (University of Oklahoma), and Bob Jacobsen (UC Berkeley; so helpful inmany areas, including digital and pedagogy).I also wish to thank Profs. Howard Shugart, Chair Frances Hellman, and manyothers at the University of California, Berkeley, Physics Department for helpfuldiscussions, and for hospitality. Thanks also to Profs. Tito Arecchi, GiuseppeMolesini, and Riccardo Meucci at the Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, Florence, Italy.Finally, I am grateful to the many people at Pearson Education with whom Iworked on this project, especially Paul Corey and the ever-perspicacious KarenKarlin.The final responsibility for all errors lies with me. I welcome comments, corrections, and suggestions as soon as possible to benefit students for the next Jim.Smith@Pearson.comPost: Jim Smith1301 Sansome StreetSan Francisco, CA 94111About the AuthorDouglas C. Giancoli obtained his BA in physics (summa cum laude) from UCBerkeley, his MS in physics at MIT, and his PhD in elementary particle physics backat UC Berkeley. He spent 2 years as a post-doctoral fellow at UC Berkeley’s Viruslab developing skills in molecular biology and biophysics. His mentors includeNobel winners Emilio Segrè and Donald Glaser.He has taught a wide range of undergraduate courses, traditional as well asinnovative ones, and continues to update his textbooks meticulously, seekingways to better provide an understanding of physics for students.Doug’s favorite spare-time activity is the outdoors, especially climbing peaks.He says climbing peaks is like learning physics: it takes effort and the rewards aregreat.xviiGIAN PPA7 FM xii xix v2.1HR1.1 - april 3, 2013

GIAN PPA7 FM xii xix v2.1HR1.1.QXD3-04-201313:09Page xviiiTo StudentsHOW TO STUDY1. Read the Chapter. Learn new vocabulary and notation. Try to respond toquestions and exercises as they occur.2. Attend all class meetings. Listen. Take notes, especially about aspects you do notremember seeing in the book. Ask questions (everyone wants to, but maybe youwill have the courage). You will get more out of class if you read the Chapter first.3. Read the Chapter again, paying attention to details. Follow derivations andworked-out Examples. Absorb their logic. Answer Exercises and as many ofthe end-of-Chapter Questions as you can, and all MisConceptual Questions.4. Solve at least 10 to 20 end of Chapter Problems, especially those assigned. Indoing Problems you find out what you learned and what you didn’t. Discussthem with other students. Problem solving is one of the great learning tools.Don’t just look for a formula—it might be the wrong one.xviii PREFACENOTES ON THE FORMAT AND PROBLEM SOLVING1. Sections marked with a star (*) are considered optional. They can be omittedwithout interrupting the main flow of topics. No later material depends onthem except possibly later starred Sections. They may be fun to read, though.2. The customary conventions are used: symbols for quantities (such as m formass) are italicized, whereas units (such as m for meter) are not italicized.BSymbols for vectors are shown in boldface with a small arrow above: F.3. Few equations are valid in all situations. Where practical, the limitations ofimportant equations are stated in square brackets next to the equation. Theequations that represent the great laws of physics are displayed with a tanbackground, as are a few other indispensable equations.4. At the end of each Chapter is a set of Questions you should try to answer.Attempt all the multiple-choice MisConceptual Questions. Most importantare Problems which are ranked as Level I, II, or III, according to estimateddifficulty. Level I Problems are easiest, Level II are standard Problems, andLevel III are “challenge problems.” These ranked Problems are arranged bySection, but Problems for a given Section may depend on earlier materialtoo. There follows a group of General Problems, not arranged by Section orranked. Problems that relate to optional Sections are starred (*). Answers toodd-numbered Problems are given at the end of the book. Search and LearnProblems at the end are meant to encourage you to return to parts of the textto find needed detail, and at the same time help you to learn.5. Being able to solve Problems is a crucial part of learning physics, and providesa powerful means for understanding the concepts and principles. This bookcontains many aids to problem solving: (a) worked-out Examples, includingan Approach and Solution, which should be studied as an integral part ofthe text; (b) some of the worked-out Examples are Estimation Examples,which show how rough or approximate results can be obtained even ifthe given data are sparse (see Section 1–7); (c) Problem Solving Strategiesplaced throughout the text to suggest a step-by-step approach to problemsolving for a particular topic—but remember that the basics remain thesame; most of these “Strategies” are followed by an Example that is solvedby explicitly following the suggested steps; (d) special problem-solvingSections; (e) “Problem Solving” marginal notes which refer to hints withinthe text for solving Problems; (f) Exercises within the text that you shouldwork out immediately, and then check your response against the answergiven at the bottom of the last page of that Chapter; (g) the Problems themselves at the end of each Chapter (point 4 above).6. Conceptual Examples pose a question which hopefully starts you to thinkand come up with a response. Give yourself a little time to come up withyour own response before reading the Response given.7. Math review, plus additional topics, are found in Appendices. Useful data, conversion factors, and math formulas are found inside the front and back covers.GIAN PPA7 FM xii xix v2.1HR1.1 - april 3, 2013

GIAN PPA7 FM xii xix v2.1HR1.1.QXD3-04-201313:09Page xixUSE OF COLORVectorsA general vectorresultant vector (sum) is slightly thickercomponents of any vector are dashedBDisplacement (D, Br )Velocity (vB)BAcceleration (a )BForce ( F )Force on second objector third object in same figureBMomentum (por m vB)BAngular momentum ( L)Angular velocity (VB)BTorque (T)BElectric field ( E)BMagnetic field ( B)Electricity and magnetismElectric circuit symbolsElectric field linesWire, with switch SEquipotential linesResistorMagnetic field linesSCapacitorElectric charge ( ) or InductorElectric charge (–)–or–BatteryGroundOpticsLight raysObjectReal image(dashed)Virtual image(dashed and paler)OtherEnergy level(atom, etc.)Measurement lines1.0 mPath of a movingobjectDirection of motionor currentPREFACEGIAN PPA7 FM xii xix v2.1HR1.1 - april 3, 2013xix

PREFACE xv GIAN_PPA7_FM_xii_xix_v2.1HR1.1 - april 3, 2013 The ultimate aim is to give students a thorough understanding of the basic concepts of phys