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2APPENDICESStirling University Campus Conservation Plan

APPENDIX IARCHITECTS AND DESIGNERS’ BIOGRAPHIESArchitects at the University of Stirling1.1Robert Matthew Johnson-Marshall and PartnersRobert Hogg Matthew was born in Edinburgh in 1906 and was educated at the thenEdinburgh Institution (now Stewarts Melville College). He trained to be an architectat the Edinburgh College of Art, gaining his diploma in 1930. Upon graduationMatthew subsequently worked for his father, John Matthew, who had recentlyassumed sole partnership of Lorimer and Matthew. Matthew Senior had been madea partner with Sir Robert Lorimer in 1927 after working for him since 1893, andbecame the sole partner after Lorimer’s death in 1929. Matthew worked full-time forhis father’s firm for four years, and continued on a part-time basis when he returnedto the College of Art as a postgraduate student. After graduation Matthew wassuccessful, against stiff competition, in gaining the post of Assistant Architect withthe Department of Health for Scotland in 1936 and started his own practice in thesame year.Figure 1 Sketch perspective of winning competition entry for Ilkeston Baths by RobertMatthew and Alan Reiach. Adam Swan/The Scottish ThirtiesInterestingly, in the following years he entered a number of competitions incollaboration with his close contemporary Alan Reiach, three decades before theirjoint efforts at Stirling. These competitions included Duncan of Jordanstone Collegeof Art in 1936 (won by James Wallace though not built until the 1950s) and IlkestonBaths in 1938 (which they won, but was not built). The pair also designed WatfordFire Station in c1937.After the war, Matthew moved to London to take up the role of architect for LondonCounty Council, a post he retained until 1953 when he returned to Scotland asProfessor of Architecture at the University of Edinburgh. His return was to “prove, inretrospect, the decisive turning point of the Modern Movement in Scotland”1.RMJM was formed in 1956 when Matthew formed a partnership with StirratJohnson-Marshall (1912-1981). The year after, Matthew was presented with acentenary medal from the Edinburgh Architectural Association for his TurnhouseAirport terminal building that he had been commissioned for in 1952, his firstcommission since recommencing private practice.Robert Matthew’s accolades continued in the following years: he became a Fellow ofthe RIBA in 1955, was knighted in 1962 and was awarded the Royal Gold Medal in1970. He died in June 1975.After Matthew’s death, the firm continued under Johnson-Marshall who retired in1977. RMJM was re-formed as a limited holding company in 1986.1Glendinning, M. et al, A History of Scottish Architecture, p440Stirling University Campus Conservation PlanAPPENDICES3

As of the end-2008, RMJM was the eighth-largest architecture firm in the world, witha total of 14 offices in the UK, US, Middle East, Russia and Asia. RMJM “employ over1200 people, spanning 47 nationalities and speaking more than 50 languages”2.Selected works:iTurnhouse Airport, 1952-56Figure 2 1954 perspective view of the terminal building by Robert Matthew. Note theexpanse of glazing to the double-height upper level restaurant, and the generous viewingterrace, indicative of the exciting nature of aviation at that time. RMJM/GlendinningDescribed by Patrick Nuttgens as ‘the earlysymbolic building of the Modern Movement inScotland’3, Matthew’s terminal building forTurnhouse Airport was somewhat of a revelationto 1950s Edinburgh. Receiving the EAA award in1957 meant that Matthew’s reputation, and futurecareer was well assured.The building is a representation of Matthew’s‘strong call for the Modernist application of scientificmethod to the use of stone in building’4 in hisinaugural lecture at the University of Edinburgh.The distinctive style was largely confined to the1950s – by 1960 tastes had moved on.Figure 3 Typical materials used inMatthew’s1950svernacularModernism, on the Turnhouseterminal building (demolished).RCAHMSDespite being recognised as one of Scotland’s keybuildings of the modern movement, it wasdemolished in the 1990s – almost twenty yearsafter its original function had moved to thereplacement terminal building of 1977. 18-Feb-2009Patrick Nuttgens, quoted by Glendinning, Miles, Modern Architect: The Life and Times ofRobert Matthew, 2008, p1614 Glendinning, Miles, Modern Architect: The Life and Times of Robert Matthew, 2008, p159234APPENDICESStirling University Campus Conservation Plan

iiQueen’s College Tower, Dundee, 1958-61The tower building, recently refurbished,is a landmark building in Dundee, boldlyannouncing the presence of theUniversity.The building replaced aseries of linked villas that had undergoneseveral additions and alterations as theybecame institutionalised, but despiteproposals to aggrandise, the villas didnot have the presence that was requiredof the recently renamed Queen’s College– the institution, first established in 1881,had been a constituent part of theUniversity of St Andrews from 1897. Inthe 1950s the College began to gaingreater independence from St Andrews –this tower was in many ways anexpression of that independence whichwas fully realised only a few years later,in 1967.The tower remains as anexcellent example of Robert Matthew’sFigure1950s ‘vernacular Modernist’ style.4Queen’s CollegeScran/University of Dundee ArchivesTower.iiiUniversity of Edinburgh, George Square (David Hume Tower, 1960-3; Theatre,1964-7)Figure 5 1963 oblique aerial view showing David Hume Tower nearing completion. Note thesoon to be demolished 18th century buildings immediately to the left and below, and thecleared site to the top-left ready for the construction of Alan Reiach’s Appleton Tower.Scran/University of EdinburghThe redevelopment of George Square by the University of Edinburgh was acontroversial period in Edinburgh planning history that spurred the conservationStirling University Campus Conservation PlanAPPENDICES5

movement into action to prevent further similar demolition in other parts of the city.Nevertheless, RMJM’s DHT, one of the first buildings that arose above the 18thcentury tenements and townhouses, was a remarkable addition to the Edinburghskyline. The slate and sandstone cladding was a clear demonstration of Matthew’sconcern for an appropriate application of modernism in such a location – despite it’sdistinct massing and verticality, it is a building that was determined to respect theneighbouring historic buildings that survived the University’s master planning.DHT is now listed at category A.ivNinewells Hospital, 1961-74Figure 6 1972 oblique aerial view showing Ninewells Hospital nearing completion.Scran/University of Dundee ArchivesThis was a substantial project, creating what was the first completely new teachinghospital in the UK, and the largest hospital in Europe at the time.5 According toMcKean, the hospital “makes an interesting comparison to the same architects’ laterStirling University campus [though] not so blessed with a beautiful site”.6 Thesimilarities can be seen in the methodical approach to planning the buildings inrelation to their function: at Ninewells the functionality was likened to that of anairport terminal.McKean, C and Walker, D, Dundee: An Illustrated Introduction, p83;,accessed 20-Apr-2009.6 McKean, C and Walker, D, Dundee: An Illustrated Introduction, p8356APPENDICESStirling University Campus Conservation Plan

vUniversity of York, 1962-70Figure 7 View of the University of York Central Hall and artificial lake. Scran/Robert GordonUniversityIn many ways the University of York is one of Stirling’s closest comparators: it also acampus university of the post-Robbins era, and one designed by RMJM7. Thecampus was largely a greenfield site on the outskirts of the city – the estate ofHeslington Hall. The main focus of the campus is a lake, though this was artificiallycreated, rather than pre-existing as at Airthrey8. The University, being based on acollegiate model, is arranged quite differently from Stirling, and the buildings werebuilt using the CLASP system, which RMJM rejected at Stirling.viRoyal Commonwealth Pool, 1965-7Builtforthe1970Commonwealth Games, thislarge swimming pool complexwas built on a sensitive siteclose to Holyrood Park andArthur’s Seat.The cleanlayering of horizontal roofslabs is remarkably similar tothe Pathfoot building atStirling – not surprising asboth projects were designed inFigure 8The opening ceremony of the Royal the RMJM office at the sameCommonwealth Pool, 17-Jan-1970.Scran/Scotsman time with John Richards as thePublicationsProject Architect.Like the 1963 David Hume Tower, the Royal Commonwealth Pool is now listed incategory A.78The architect Andrew Derbyshire was the lead architect.The lake on the campus is actually a plastic-lined pond, the largest example in Europe.Stirling University Campus Conservation PlanAPPENDICES7

viiBritish Home Stores, Edinburgh, 1966-8The BHS building on Princes Street isan excellent example of the PrincesStreet Panel era – a short-lived periodinwhichthewholesaleredevelopment of Princes Street wasenvisaged with modernist buildingsarranged with both shop entrances atstreet level and from a first-floorterrace. Only a few buildings werebuilt to this plan before it wasFigure 9 1994 view of British Home Stores on abandoned, meaning the isolated firstPrinces Street, Edinburgh. RCAHMSfloor terraces that were built werenever used.viiiMidlothian County Buildings, 1967Figure 10 Former Midlothian County Council buildings (demolished). Scran/RFACSMidlothian County Council held a competition in 1960 for an extension to theirexisting building on George IV Bridge – this went no further, and it wasn’t until asecond competition held in 1967 (won by RMJM) that building commenced. Thebuilding was the result of a careful Geddesian approach in researching the historicform of the complex site which resulted in the building comprising four thin verticalblocks, slightly off-set against each other in order to fill the site. The new buildinghad the benefit of appearing to be entirely separate from the existing building (whichwas a typical example of Edwardian civic self-importance), being connected only bya tunnel beneath street level, indeed appearing to align itself to the historic pattern ofthe neighbouring buildings, albeit with a very modern interpretation. The Craigleithsandstone rubble walls as teak-framed windows were ‘almost a nostalgic throwbackto Matthew’s 1950s vernacular buildings’9. After the abolition of Midlothian CountyCouncil in 1975 the two buildings were used by the new Lothian Regional Council.9p298, Glendinning, Miles, Modern Architect: The Life and Times of Robert Matthew, 20088APPENDICESStirling University Campus Conservation Plan

After this too was abolished in 1996, both buildings came under the care of the Cityof Edinburgh Council, and were used for a variety of purposes, including temporaryaccommodation for the Scottish Parliament from 1999 until 2004. RMJM’s buildingsubsequently remained empty until its unfortunate demolition in 2007.ixNew University of Ulster, 1966-77Figure 11 2005 view of the central buildings of the University of Ulster, Coleraine. CAINThis University, on the outskirts of Coleraine was a contemporary of the Universityof Stirling, but with Matthew himself taking a lead in the project until his death in1975 (John Richards took the lead at Stirling, though he had been involved on theUlster project until early 1967).John Deacon Richards (1931 – 2003)“The distillation of form and detail to an elegant minimum is the essence of his work.”10John Richards studied for his Architecture diploma at the Architectural Associationand moved to Edinburgh in 1955. After a short spell with the National Coal Board,he joined RMJM in November 1957.Richards became a partner in the firm at the same time as Kenneth Graham in 1964.He was the project architect for RMJM’s work for the University of Edinburgh atGeorge Square and the partner in charge for the Royal Commonwealth Pool and atthe University of Stirling.In 1976 John Richards was conferred with an honorary doctorate from the Universityof Stirling in recognition of his architectural work and development plan for theUniversity. He continued his connection with the university in the subsequentdecades, and revised the Development Plan in 199411.1011Duncan, M., ‘Appreciation: John Richards’, The Scotsman, 13-Nov-2003, p20Bomont, R.G., p70Stirling University Campus Conservation PlanAPPENDICES9

1.2 Alan Reiach, Eric Hall and PartnersBorn in London in 1910, Alan Reiach moved to Edinburgh in 1922 with his auntwhere he was educated at the Edinburgh Academy. In 1928 he joined the firm ofLorimer and Matthew, where he met the latter partner’s son, Robert Matthew. Inthese years he also studied part time at the Edinburgh College of Art. He stayedwith the practice until 1932 when he left the in order to commence full time study atthe College, gaining his diploma two years later. Whilst at college he started his ownsmall private practice Architectural accolades were achieved at a young age: in thesetwo years Reiach won the Soane Medallion, the RIBA Tite Prize, the RIBA SilverMedal and an Andrew Grant travelling scholarship. After completing a diploma inTown Planning, his travelling scholarship took him to France, Scandinavia, the USAand the USSR. What he saw in each of these countries was to prove highlyinfluential in his later work – not least by him meeting Frank Lloyd Wright at hisexperimental summer home and studio, Taliesin12.Figure 12 A typical page from the 1944 reprint ofBuilding Scotland: A Cautionary Guide by Alan Reiach andRobert Hurd, first published when Alan Reiach was only30, and highlighting his enthusiasm for Scandinavianand North American modernism as well as acting as aclarion call for a more bold architectural culture inScotland.After a short spell in London,Reiach returned to Edinburghin 1938, accepting a post as aresearch and teaching fellow atthe College of Art. In 1940 hepublishedasmallbutsignificant book with RobertHurdentitled“BuildingScotland: A Cautionary Guide”– which was anything butcautionary in its expression ofopinions. The basis of many ofthe ideas in the book wasReiach’s travels abroad, inparticularthemodernmovements of Scandinavia andNorth America. The polemicalwork hailed the simplicity andhonesty of the vernacular andrailed against the stylisticexcesses of much of the ngitscuesfrominternationalModernism,Reiach and Hurd argued for abold reinvention of Scottisharchitectural aspirations.Reiach’s friendship with Matthew was to prove useful when the latter drew Reiachinto the Department of Health for Scotland in 1940, where he was to use his planningTaliesin, which had originally been built by Frank Lloyd Wright in 1911 was burned downand rebuilt twice over the next two decades. The third house, Taliesin III was used by Wrightas an test-bed for architectural ideas of his own and those of the architectural students in theTaliesin Fellowship which was founded in 1932.1210APPENDICESStirling University Campus Conservation Plan

and architectural skills for Clyde Valley Regional Planning Advisory Committee. Heremained there until 1946, the same year as Matthew left for London. After settingup in private practice again, Reiach soon found himself back at the College of Art –this time as a Senior Lecturer, a position he retained until 1957 when he found hisprivate practice required his full attention.Alan Reiach & Partners merged with the equally successful firm Eric Hall & Partners,become Alan Reiach, Eric Hall and Partners. Alan Reiach stayed with the firm until1975, though remained as a consultant to the firm until 1980. The firm was renamedReiach and Hall in 1981. Alan Reiach died in 1992.An interesting quote from the Dictionary of Scottish Architects suggests that it isdifficult to fully appreciate Reiach’s contribution to Scottish architectural history:‘Because of the war years, his teaching commitments and the early involvement of partners inhis university hospital and school projects, the period in which Reiach's own ability as anarchitect can be clearly recognised was short’. 13Selected works:iCollege of Agriculture, Edinburgh, 1948-60Figure 13 1948 perspective by Alan Reiach showing theUniversity of Edinburgh College of Agriculture. RCAHMSAlthough designed in1948-50 in collaborationwith his College of Artcolleague Ralph Cowan,constructionwasdelayed until 1954, withthebuildingbeingopened by the Duke ofEdinburgh in October1960. In his obituary forReiach, Stuart Rentondescribed the buildingas being ‘a building ofsensitive human scale withadmirabledetailingevolvingoutofScandinavian influence’14.The main block of the building comprised a three storey block above an open cloister– allowing for unobstructed views through the site the Liberton Tower in ukRenton, Stuart, ‘Obituary: Alan Reiach’, The Independent, 22-Aug-1992Stirling University Campus Conservation PlanAPPENDICES11

iiExhibition Gallery, Edinburgh, 1955Figure 14 Plans, elevations and section of unbuilt exhibition gallery on The Mound inEdinburgh, placed immediately adjacent to the Royal Scottish Academy and National Galleryof Scotland buildings. RCAHMSiiiRoyal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, 1967-71Figure 15 Sketch perspective showing Alan Reiach, Eric Hall and Partners’ extension (left) tothe Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies. RCAHMSAlan Reiach, Eric Hall and Partners designed this new Brutalist style tower, replacingthe Hope Park United Free Church that previously stood on the prominent cornersite at the east end of The Meadows. Along with the rest of the buildings on the site,Reiach and Hall’s extensions are listed category B.iv12Appleton Tower, University of Edinburgh, 1967-71APPENDICESStirling University Campus Conservation Plan

Figure 16 Sketch perspective showing Alan Reiach Eric Hall and Partners’ Appleton Towerand 1st Year science and mathematics buildings. RCAHMSWhilst never quite managing to achieve the same critical acclaim as its nearneighbour David Hume Tower (listed at category A), Appleton Tower remains,academically at least, functional and effective. After significant criticism (evenReiach himself was to later question the validity of such a tall building on the site)the building was removed from the selection of University buildings considered forlisting in 2005. Figure 16 shows the group of low-rise buildings that were tosurround the building, providing accommodation for 1st Year Science andMathematics students as part of a plan to integrate these students into the centralcampus. This plan was abandoned and these subjects were housed at the King’sBuildings campus. Appleton Tower was left isolated and practically and aestheticallyincomplete.15vThe New Club, University of Edinburgh, 1966-69Figure 17 The New Club. RCAHMSCompetingwithMatthew’scontemporary BHS building as thefavourite building of the Princes StreetPanel era16, the category A listed NewClub building is one of Reiach’s mostcelebrated buildings.Controversiallyreplacing a William Burn building of1834, the bold addition to Princes Street,incorporated parts of that building on theinterior, such as panelling in the diningroom.The four-storey plus roof terrace of themain elevation hides the true bulk of thebuilding that extends to the full depth ofFenton, C, ‘A Century of Change in George Square, 1876 – 1976’, Book of the Old EdinburghClub, New Series Vol. 5, 2002, pp35–8116In Edin

APPENDIX I ARCHITECTS AND DESIGNERS’ BIOGRAPHIES Architects at the University of Stirling 1.1 Robert Matthew Johnson-Marshall and Partners Robert Hogg Matthew was born in Edinburgh in 1906 and was educated at the then Edinburgh Institution (now Stewarts Melville College). He trained to be an architect at the Edinburgh College of Art, gaining his diploma in 1930. Upon graduation Matthew .

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