The Cold War

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The Cold War1945-1960

The Cold WarStudent Chapter Objectives: Discuss the creation of the United Nationsand its purpose. Discover the postwar goals of the UnitedStates and the Soviet Union. Express how the Cold War affectedAmerican life at home.

The Cold WarI. Yalta ConferenceThe Soviet Union and the United States hadnever really been allies since 1917. Eachdisagreed over battle plans and tacticsduring the war and the U.S. was upset withthe Soviet Union signing the non-aggressionpact. Stalin was angry that the U.S. waitedso long to get involved in the war.

The Cold WarYalta ConferenceWho: Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin.Where: Yalta, Soviet Union.What: to discuss the shape of the postwar world.Decision: to split Germany, along withBerlin, into four zones.

The Cold War( )A. Stalin promised to hold elections in hisnewly acquired areas and to join theAmericans in helping defeat theJapanese.B. Creation of the United Nations (U.N.) a new international peacekeepingorganization.

The Cold War(-)A. Stalin never fulfilled any of thepromises.B. Critics of Yalta accused Roosevelt andChurchill for not doing enough to stopStalin’s takeover of Eastern Europe.

The Cold WarII. Death of Roosevelt and the Birth ofa New PresidentA. Not long after the meeting in Yalta,Roosevelt will die of a stroke on April 12,1945.B. This will make Vice-president Harry S.Truman the 33rd President of the UnitedStates.

The Cold WarC. Truman’s first meetingwith Stalin occurred at aconference in Potsdam,Germany. Stalin along withthe new British PrimeMinister Clement Attlee, allcontinued to discuss thefuture of Germany andPoland and each stilldemanding that which wasdiscussed at Yalta.

The Cold WarD. Because of Soviet and U.S. relations,Truman wanted to intimidate Stalin. Whileat the conference, Truman told Stalin aboutthe creation of the atomic bomb. But thething was, Stalin already knew.

The Cold WarIII. Post War ViewsA. American View:1. Wanted nations to be democraticand have economic opportunity.a. Marshall Plan – gave moneyto democratic nations that wereeconomically depressed by the war. Italso helped to create economic ties andto help ward off Communism.

The Cold WarB. Soviet View:1. Needed to rebuild their economyand the number of people in their nation.2. Spread communism throughout theworld.3. DEFINE COMMUNISM: wheregovernment assumes responsibility for thewell-being of their people.

The Cold War4. That which separates the American viewsfrom the Soviet Union views is the IronCurtain. And the tensions between the twocountries for the next 50 years will beknown as the Cold War.

The Cold WarIV. How will each side accomplish theirview on the post war world?A. United States:1. Containment – since theSoviet Union was already lost tocommunism, the United States had to resistSoviet attempts to form Communistgovernments elsewhere in the world.

The Cold War2. Truman Doctrine – wouldprovide aid to any country that needed helpresisting communism.

The Cold War3. NATO – North Atlantic TreatyOrganization – collective security; membernations agreed that an armed attack againstone or more shall be considered an attackagainst them all.

The Cold WarB. Soviet Union:1. Create satellite nations as a bufferzone from democracy. AlbaniaBulgariaCzechoslovakiaHungaryRomaniaEast GermanyPoland

The Cold War2. Warsaw Pact – a response to theNATO organization which included theSoviet Union and its satellite nations.COMPLETE YOUR MAP ON NATO/WARSAW

The Cold WarV. Berlin AirliftA. Since West Berlin was surroundedby communism, Stalin and the United Statesagreed that U.S. troops would be allowed touse the roads/trains to bring in materials forthe people of West Berlin.B. On June 19, 1948, Stalin blockadedthe roads into West Berlin.

The Cold WarC. He wanted the West Berliners toturn to his country for materials andultimately become communistic.D. The United States decided that ifthe blockade could not be removed, theywould air lift the materials into West Berlin.E. This frustrated Stalin and eventuallyafter 11 months, he will remove theblockade.

The Cold WarVI. Was the United States successful instopping the spread of communism andrelaxing tensions?

The Cold WarA. Arms race - race to gain weaponssuperiority.B. Deterrence – making the U.S. militaryso strong that no nation would dare attack.C. Brinkmanship – the ability to get to theverge of war without actually going to war.

The Cold WarD. By 1949, the Soviet Union had successfulbuilt and tested their own atomic bomb.E. So we built a bigger more destructivebomb – the hydrogen bomb.F. We also created the Federal Civil DefenseAdministration to educate the public on anuclear attack.

The Cold WarG. Soviet Union created the ICBM intercontinental ballistic missile.H. They also created Sputnik – the firstartificial satellite to orbit Earth.

The Cold WarI. They will also shoot down one of our U-2spy planes.J. This will require the U.S. to spend aconsiderable about of resources and moneyto catch up to the Soviet Union.

The Cold WarVII. Other countries that will fall toCommunismA. ChinaB. North KoreaC. Vietnam, Laos, CambodiaD. Latin America

The Cold WarVIII. Fears of Communism at HomeA. During the Great Depression manyAmericans joined the Communist partybecause they had serious doubts about theAmerican capitalist system. But after thewar, many saw the Communist party as anassociation with Stalin and the Soviet Union.

The Cold WarB. Anti-Communist Crusade: to root outcommunism in the United States.1. Loyalty program – all new federalemployees hired were to be investigatedfor suspicious communist activity.2. HUAC – House Un-American ActivitiesCommittee – will charge Hollywoodactors with being members of thecommunist party.

The Cold Wara. Hollywood 10 – ten very prominentactors invoked their 5th amendmentrights when asked to testify. They werecited for contempt and served jail termsranging from six months to a year.b. Blacklist – studios compiled a list tocirculate among employers the names ofpersons who should not be hired.

The Cold WarC. Court Spy Cases:1. Alger Hiss2. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg

The Cold WarD. Red Scare – McCarthyism1. Joseph McCarthya. Senator from Wisconsin whoneeded a platform for re-election.b. He focused on communismwithin the U.S. and took his crusade tothe senate floor.

The Cold Warc. He will engage in smear tacticsfocused on government employees.Merely being accused by McCarthycaused people to lose their jobs.d. Then he accused Army officialsand the Army as being communist. Thiscaused his reputation to fall.e. The Army–McCarthy hearingswere televised and ruined McCarthybecause of his outlandish accusations.

A. China B. North Korea C. Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia D. Latin America. The Cold War VIII. Fears of Communism at Home A. During the Great Depression many Americans joined the Communist party because they had serious doubts about the American capitalist system. But after the war, many saw the Communist party as an association with Stalin and the Soviet Union. The Cold War B. Anti-Communist Crusade .

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