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A Chronicle of Current EventsA Journal of the Soviet Civil Rights Movementproduced bi-monthly in Moscow since 1968Issue No. 2111 September1971 (Moscow)CONTENTSPolitical trials [p. 269-73].The DAPropetrovskpsychiatrichospitalof special type [p. 273-74].Open lettersfrom A. I.Solzhenitsynto Andropov,USSR Ministerof StateSecurity,and Kosygm,Chairmanof the USSR Councilof Ministers[p. 274-76].Materialsof the Committeefor Human Rights(Moscow)[p. 276-79].The investigationinto the case of V.Bukovsky [p. 280-811.The Jewish movementto leave forIsrael [p. 281-861.The Meskhetianmovement[p. 286-87].Religiouspersecution[p. 287-88].News in brief [p. 289-95].Samizdat news [p. 296-98].Index of ProperNames(p. 299)AmnestyInternationalPublicationsDecember1971

Hiewementin Defence of HumanContinuesRights in the USSRtsnevEtnerruCfoleicnA Chroefretohtrigethshaeonry"Eveand expression:dom of (minionI his right Include.% freerl(mt to h()Idandvit h1nel interferenceopinionsh See . receive (Uhl Munro in foryanhugrothseaididmmi(aturrs."1111i)-ha and regardle vs of In mile.DeclarationUniversalHuman Rights, Anicleof1911 September 1971 (Moscow)Issue NO. 21CONTENTSenttriewptyethofnioatslantrl[This is a rather literaindtelaurccidanwcoosMindceRussian originals produneebeavhsetckrabearusqinsdsamizdat. Only the woradded by the Political trialsI.A.mfrorsttelenpeO].74327hospital of special type [py.ritcuSeeatStofrteisinMRSSUSolzhenitsyn to Andropov,MinistersofilncouCRSSUethofanirmha(Tand kosygin,shtigRanumHrfoeeittunonCeth[p. 274-76] Materials ofV.ofsecaethtoinnioatigstveIneTh].(Moscow) [p. 276-79rfoeavletotenemovmhiswJeBukovsky [p. 280-81]. The].87628.[ptenemovmntaetkhesIsrael [p. 281-861 The M951.928.[pfiebrinsewN].88728.[pnioReligious persecutSurnizdat news [p. 296-981.267

The Movement in Defence of Human Rights in the USSRContinuesA Chronicle of Current Eventshas the right to freedom of opinion and expression:this right includes freedom to holdopinions without interference andto seek „ receive and impart inf ormotion and ideas through anymedia and regardless of frontiers.""EveryoneUniversal Declaration ofHuman Rights, Article 19Issue No. 2111 September 1971 (Moscow)CONTENTSPolitical trials [p. 269-73]. The Dnepropetrovsk psychiatrichospital of special type [p. 273-741. Open letters from A. I.Solzhenitsyn to Andropov, USSR Millster of State Security,and Kosygin. Chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers[p. 274-76] Materials of the Committee for Human Rights(Moscow) [p. 276-79] The investigation into the case of V.Bukovsky [p. 280-81]. The Jewish movement to leave forIsrael [p. 281-86]. The Meskhetian movement [p. 286-87].Religious persecution [p. 287-88]. News in brief [p. 289-95].Samizdat news [p. 296 98].267

PoliticalTrialsFlu' Trial ( f V. DremlyugaYakWiwiAutonomousRepublicINF Siberia].The trialof laidimirDremlyuga, indicted for a second time underarticle 190-I [of the Russian Criminal Code], took placein late August at an assize session of the Yakutian SupremeCourt in the town of Lensk, on penal institution territory.11A2 court sentenced Dremlyuga to three years of strictregime camps. Defence counsel Kulginsky (of Yakutsk).\Ohl had been engaged by relatives of the accused, was notpresent at the trial: another lawyer ( hosename isunknown) was sent in his place. An attempt to engage alawxer in Moscow hail met with no success, as permissionfor this had been refused bv the Moscow Collegium ofLawyers (for deutils see Cho/tid('No. 20). 25 Augustmarked the end of the three-year term in the camps towhich Dremlyugawas sentenced for taking part in thedemonstrationin Red Square (1968).' During these threeyears he has received only one parcel and a few letters. Hismother. an aged invalid, has been unable to make thejourney to visit hi in, while contacts with friends have beenMocked by the canip administration.According to unconfirmed reports, about forty witnesses—all felkiw prisonersof Dremlyugawere caned at the trial. and testified thathe had expressed "slanderolls fabrications".'The Trial of I). Itlikheverand 1. de Perr6,PauxMosonv.The trial of Dmitry Mikheyev and Francois dePerregaux (a citizen of Switzerland) took place in public onthe premises of the Moscow City Court On 17-23 August(for the arrests and investigations see Chnmicle Nos. 16, 18).The investigator was KGB Major Fochenkov.The chairman of the court was [V. V.] Bogdanov, theprosecutor—ProcuratorVasilev, counsel for Mikheyevand trial see N. tiorbanevskaya's11. On Elk demonstrationbook-Po/i/ri(Posscv-Verlag,F riblish in JanuaryFrankfurt.1972 byNums.12691969), due to be publishedDeutschas Red Squaw(ll

BorovikYPopov, for de Perregaux—[Nikolail[Leonid]Those present in court included, besides the "regalarmotherpolice], Mikheyev's[i.e. plain-clothesaudience"and female cousin, de Perregaux's father, tsvo or three representatives of the Swiss embassy, member of the Committee for Human Rights A. D. Sakharov, and representaoftives of the Physics Faculty and the iidministrationcine-camera andA 32-millimetreMoscow University.were installed in the court-room.Videotape-recorder . F. Mikheyev (born 1e/41, post-graduate student atand viceUniversitythe Physics Faculty of MoscowDiscussion Club)president of the Physicists' Internationalwas charged under articles 64 (via 15), 70, 83 and 196 of theRussian Criminal (70de: de Perregaux (born 1937, a Nologist)—under article 64 (via 17).against Niikheyev made the followingThe indictmentcharges:( I) that in consequence of his anti-Soviet beliefs and withtreacherous aims, including engaging in anti-Soviei propaganda, he attempted to carry out an escape across theborder, in connection with which he twice travelled to thefronder for purposes of reconarea of the Soviet-Finnishnaissance, and received a map of this area by diplomaticin Sweden;mail from his friend Anika ftickstriiinthat after his escape he intended to request politicalasylum, issue anti-Soviet statements, and engage in antiSoviet propaganda activity:Karlthat through the Austrian exchange-studentoseph Vogelmann he attempted to send abroad by diplomatic mail a packet containing personal articles, 165 dollars,his diaries, and manuscripts of slanderous content called"How to fool the people" and "Empire of lies";that he was the author of the slanderous work "How tofool the people", hich he typed in four copies and gave todie Shakhnazarovs, the Veliicanovshis friends Ovchinnikov,and others to read: that he made slanderous statementsverbally (about the level of democracy in the USSR, theand of the pre-conditionslack of freedom of informationfor free creative work; about the sending of troops intoto deferi-d12. Borovik has been provided by the Soviet authoritiesseveral other foreigners in political cases. e.g. the EnglkhmanGgrald Brooke in 19b5.]270and about the ntas repression which heCzechoslovakia,claimed would take place if there were to be a war with(Anna, and so on);books by [theand circulatedthat he duplicated01 Power byTechnolokyRerdyayev,philosopher]of the Democrats of;Ind the "ProgrammeAvtorkhanov"Russia, the Ukraine, Belorussia and the lialtic"yithat he exchange( Siwiet currency in a number ofand a falseusing false documentsillegal operations,signature, and that he Prklctisc&l forging die signature;that he attempted to leave the USSR by using thepassport and aeroplane ticket of the Swiss national dePerregallX.De Perregaux was charged vith coming to the USSRto leave the country,with the object Of helping Nilikfor which purpose he had given the latter his passport andhis ticket for an aeroplane hound for Austria.When questioned, Mikheyev testified that when he was astudent at Moscow University he had shared a room withforeign students, made friends with many of them, anddiscussed with them various questions of the internal affairsto develop independence ofof the USSR. Attemptingthought, he had analysed the state of affairs in the countryand gradually evolved one-sided views on events takingplace, making an incorrect appraisi.t1 of Soviet reality. Hisviews had now altered, for which he was grateful to theofficials of the KGB, When dreaming of going abroad hehad intended to live a modest life there as a secondaryschool teacher, not engaging in politics. Fle had not realisedat the time that those who were helping him to carry out hisescape would not leave him in peace.De Perregaux testified that he had been aware that thereasons for Mikheyev's escape were political, but he knewlittle of such matters, as he was not interested in politics.He had agreed to help Mikheyev because he wished to visitMoscow. He had not taken money for helping, but hadhelped out of humanitarian considerations.Qiwstioning of. iv/messesKisin refused to answer a question as to what MikheyevTekhnologiyaI.e. A. Avtorkhanov.Demoknitichnko.20I.e. ProuanunaSoyuza, Amsterdam, 1970.]271I9591vlasti, Frankfurt,SoverskogoDrizheniya

had given him to read (Kisin was due to defend his dissertation on 3 March 1971, but this was cancelled, and thenotice announcing it withdrawn front the newspaper Evenhad reached the relevanting Moscow. since informationauthority that Kisin was "insincere in his testimony in theinvestigation of Mikheyev's case").and his wife Olga VelikanovaVelikanovVyacheslavdenied knowing in advance that Mikheyev had conceiveda plan to flee the country (Olga Velikanova, a piano-teacherhad already been expelledat the Moscow Conservatory,from the party before the beginning of the trial).character in positiveFon Sekki, assessing Mikheyev'sterms, told of how Mikheyev, after changing roubles fordollars, had given part of the dollars to Nedbailo, a povertystricken artist.The Procurator, whose speech lasted 40 minutes, did littlebut repeat the indictment. Taking into account the youthof the defendants and their assistance in the investigation,he requested the following sentences: for Mikheyev—oneyear under article 196 (forgery of documents), three yearsfive yearsunder article 88 (illegal currency operations),under article 70, ten years under article 64 (betrayal of thefatherland) via 15, all taken together : ten years. For dePerregaux—three years under article 64 via 17 (complicity).Popov, counsel for Mikheyev, drew the court's attentionto the fact that his client, having heard the Procurator'saddress, was smiling. This was evidence of his spiritualrecovery. Under the influence of a hostile environment theideas of formal democracy,had assimilateddefendantwhereas we knew democracy to be a class concept. Counselmaintained that his client did not have the particular aim ofundermining or weakening Soviet authority (the existenceof such an aim is required by articles 64 and 70). His statements carne within the scope of article 190-1 of the CriminalCode, not of article 70 (at other trials similar statementsabout the sending of troops into Czechoslovakia had beenclassified under article 190-1). Counsel asked the court tochange article 70 in the indictment to article 190-1, and toshow the defendant mercy.Borovik, counsel for de Perregaux, described his client'shispolitical naiveté, his kind-heartedness,personality—his272inability to refuse a request made by a friLnd —and askedthe court to limit his punishment to the period he had spentin pre-trial detention.The court sentenced Mikheyev to eight years of strictofcamps (with the applicationregime corrective-labourarticle 43 of the Russian Criminal Cotle--a sentence lessthan the minimum as reward for assistance in the investigation and for sincere remorse), and de Perregaux to threeyears.Long articles about the trial have appeared in theSoviet press: in 0,gonyok Nos. 34-36 [in fact : 35-371 ("Thevoyage of Francois de Perregaux" by L. Leroy, V. Pavlovarid Yu. Chernyavsky I and in Kornsomoiskaya Pravda of 25by V.and 27 August 1971 ("An exchange of butterflies"Ignatenko and N. Kolesnikov).The Dnepropetrovk ISE Ukrainel PsychiatricHospital ofSpecial Type(postalof Special Type"HospitalThis "Psychiatricaddress: Dnepropetrovsk-La, p/ya YaE-308) was establishedin 1965-6. The hospital occupies the premises of a formerthe same as that ofprison. The regime is approximatelysimilar institutions in Kazan and Leningrad. The hospitalconsists of at least ten sections. The number of patients isabout 900. They were almost all sent there by court orderstreatment. Politicals are held inprescribing compulsorythe same cells as criminals. By mid-1969 the cell-wards werefull to overflowing. In section ten the most lightly-populatedcells contained eleven or twelve persons, the remainder-as many as 30.The absence of obvious or even faint symptoms of thereport of the diagnosticillness indicated in the [pre-trial]team which accompanies the patient does not spare himA course of twentyfrom the most effective "therapy".injections of sulphazm [a 1% sterile solution of purifiedmethod; it isphur in peach oil] is a widely-practisedadministered according to a curve rising from one c.c. to tenc.c., then falling back to one c.c.It is known about nine inmates of the Dnepropetrovskhospital that they were placed there as a result of political273

about these people is inexact andcases. Our informationThe names of some of them are known:incomplete.Ma ltsev andShvedov, Fedosov, nSolzI.A.fromerLett PenMinister of State Security!MR'For many years I have borne the lawless acts of yourofficials in silence: the inspection of all my mail by x-raytechniques, the confiscation of half of it, the tracking downof my correspondents, the persecution of them at work andorgans, the spying around my house, theby administrativefollowing of vi.sitors, the tapping of telephone conversations, the drilling of holes in my ceiling. the installation ofrecording apparatus in my town Hat and at my countrycottage, and the continuous slanderous campaign wagedwhenever these areagainst Itic from lecture-platformsplaced at the disposal of officials of your ministry.5"But after yesterday's raid I shall keep silent no longer.My country cottage (in the village of Rozhdestvo in theDistrict) was standing empty, and the eavesNaro-Fominskhavingwas away. However,droppers presumed thatreturned to Moscow because of a sudden illness. I askedmy friend Alexander Gorlov to go to my country cottageto fetch a motor-car part. But the lock on the door of thecottage was missing, and voices could be heard from inside.Gorlov entered and demanded the raiders' documents. Inthe small building, hardly large enough for three or fourpeople to turn round, there proved to be as many as tenof them, dressed in plain clothes. At the command of theirleader: 'To the woods with him! And shut his mouth! ',they twisted Gorlov's arms behind his back, knocked himoff his feet, dragged hint into the wood with his face tothe ground and began to beat him cruelly. Meanwhile therunning back to their cars by anothers were hurriedlyindirect route through the bushes, taking with them parcels,papers and other articles (possibly some of the equipment[5.ForbackgroundmentaryYork,Record,A DocuLabedy„SoL72(790syn:see LeopoldNewedition,1970, 2nd (expanded)London.1971.]274they had brought with them). But Gorlov resisted vigorouslyand shouted for witnesses. In answer to his cry, neighboursfrom the other cottages ran up, barred the raiders' pathto the highway, and demanded their documents. At thisone of the raiders showed a red identification card, and theneighbours made way for them. Gorlov, his face disfiguredand his suit in tatters. W a s led to one of the cars. 1 like yourtine methods! ' he said to his escorts. 'We're On anthe replied, Sand on an assignmentASSIGNMENT,'everything is permittA.''The man who had shown the neighbours his identification, iwcording to vvhich he was a Captain, and who himselfgave his name as Ivanov, (irst took Carlos/ to the emanded'I vanov'respect. Therewith'Ivanov'about what hadfrom Eiorlovstatementexplanatoryoccurred (!). Although badly beaten up, Gorlov set out inwriting the object of his visit and all the circumstances.After this the raiders leader demanded an undertakingthe incident. CorbyTO DIVULGEfront Gorlov Nal'They then drove to Moscow. On therefused point-blank.way the raiders' leader tried to prevail upon Gorlov inexactly the following terms: 'If Solzhenitsyn ever finds outwhat happened at his dacha, it'll he all up with von. Yourcareer (Gorlov is a Master of Technological Sciences, hassubmitted his doctoral dissertation. and works at GiprotisPattern Design[the USSR State Institute for Experimentaland Technical Research]) will come to a full stop, and youwon't be defending any dissertation. It'll affect your family,your children, and if need be well PUT Y011 IN .1A11.'"Those who know lmw we live know that these threatscan be carried out in full. But Gorlov did not give in tothem: he refused to give any undertaking, and now he is inUnminent danger of reprisal."I demand from you, citizen minister. public identificationof all the raiders, their punishment according to criminallaw, and a public explanation of this incident. Othorwise1 shall be forced to conclude tliLit they were sent by yourself.A. Solzhenitsyn"1.3 August 1971"To the Chairman of the ljSSR Council of Ministers, A. N.Kosygi"I am sezIing. you a copy Of my letter to the Minister of275

State Security. I consider him to be personally responsiblefor all the lawless acts listed in it. If the government of theUSSR does not endorse these actions of Minister Andropov,I await an investigation.13 August 1971A. Solzhenitsyn"During the days which followed Gorlov was several timessummoned to the KGB for interview. KGB representativesstated that their organisation had had nothing to do withthe incident, attributing responsibility for the entire affairto the local police. The Naro-Fominskchief of policeapologised to Gorloy in person, saying that the policeofficials had mistakenly taken him to be a burglar, whileguarding Solzhenitsyn'shouse. The police-chief assuredGorlov that the guilty officials had been punished. [For moredetail see the report in The Guardian and the tos AngelesTimes. 9 September 1971.1Materials of the Committee for Human RightsTo the Supreme Court of the RSFSR [i.e. the RussianRepublic]Concerningthe strange trialin SverdlovskWe have familiarised ourselves with reports and a transcript of the trial of V. Kukui (Sverdlovsk, 15-16 June 1971[see Chronicles 19 and 20]), who was charged with thecirculation of deliberately false information libelling theSoviet social and political system. We believe the information we have received to be accurate, and regard it asexpedient to inform the Supreme Court of several extremelystrange details, suspecting that because of their very singularity they did not find due reflection in the official protocol.The fact that during the court examination an unusuallywide range of topics was scrutinized is in itself strange.Such questions as the following were put to witnesses:to witness Prutkin —"Have you experienced persecutionfor being a Jew?"276 to witness Markman:"What did Kukui say about theR ussian language and R u ss la n literature?""Why did you(i.e. Markman) submit an application to emigrate to Israel?"Riese questions, and others having no relevance to .thesubstance of the indictment, are of course most interesting,hut it is doubtful whether a thorough study of them couldhave been made, without detriment to the evauination ofthe case, in the two days the hearing lasted.lt is strange that the court was indifferent to the fact thatOw witnesses directly accused the [pre-trial] investigator ofhaving created an atmosphere during questioning such thatthey, the witnesses, had been compelled to give testimonyto the investigator's liking. All the witnesses who appearedat the trial repudiated, diredly or indirectly, the testimonythey had given during the pre-trial investigation. The courtsimply took the view that they ha

Chronicle No. 17) was released on 6 September. On 28 July Olga bole (on her see Chronicle No. 15) was released from a psychiatric hospital of ordinary type in Moscow. an At the beginning of August Victor Kuznetsov (on him see Chronicle No. 9) was released from the special psychia-tric hospital in Kazan [5(X) m.

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