Code of Civil Procedure, 1908.ACT[21st March 1908]NO.VOF1908An Act to consolidate and amend the laws relating to the Procedure of the Courts of CivilJudicature.WHEREAS it is expedient to consolidate and amend the laws relating to the procedure ofthe Courts of Civil Judicature; It is hereby enacted as follows: -PRELIMINARY1.-(l) This Act may be cited as the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908.(2) It shall come into force on1[(3) It extends to the whole of Pakistan.]thefirstdayofJanuary1909.2. In this Act, unless there is anything repugnant in the subject or context,(1)"Code"includesrules:(2) "decree" means the formal expression of an adjudication which, so far as regards thecourt expressing it, conclusively determines the rights of the parties which regard to all orany of the matters in controversy in the suit and may be either preliminary or final. Itshall be deemed to include the rejection of a plaint 2[the determination of any questionwithin section 144 and an order under rule 60, 98, 99, 101, or 103 of Order XXI] but shallnot include;(a) any adjudication form which an appeal lies as an appeal from an order, or(b) any order of dismissal for default.Explanation. - A decree is preliminary when further proceedings have to be taken beforethe suit can be completely dispose of. It is final when such adjudication completelydisposes of the suit. It may be partly preliminary and partly final;(3) "Decree-holder" means any person in whose favour a decree has been passed or anorder capable of execution has been made:(4) "District" means the local limits of the jurisdiction of a principal civil Court oforiginal jurisdiction (hereinafter called a "District Court"), and includes the local limits ofthe ordinary original civil jurisdiction of a High Court:
(5) "Foreign Court" means a Court situate beyond the limits of 1[Pakistan] which has noauthority in 1[Pakistan] and is not established or continued by 2[the Central Government3***]:(6) "Foreign judgment" means the judgment of a foreign Court:(7) "Government Pleader" Includes any officer appointed by the 4(ProvincialGovernment] to perform all or any of the functions expressly imposed by this Code onthe Government Pleader and also any pleader acting under the directions of theGovernment Pleader :(8) "Judge" means the presiding officer of a civil Court:(9) "Judgment" means the statement given by the Judge of the grounds of a decree ororder:(10) "Judgment-debtor" means any person against whom a decree has been passed or anorder capable of execution has been made:(11) "Legal representative" means a person who in law represents the estate of a deceasedperson, and includes any person who intermeddles with the estate of the deceased andwhere a party sues or is sued in a representative character the person on whom the estatedevolves on the death of the party so suing or sued:(12) "Mesne profits" of property means those profits which the person in wrongfulprofession of such property actually received or might with ordinary diligence havereceived therefrom, together with interest on such profits but shall not include profits dueto improvements made by the person in wrongful possession:(13) "Movable property" includes growing crops:(14) "Order" means the formal expression of any decision of a civil Court which is not adecree:(15) "Pleader" means any person entitled to appear and plead for another in Court, andincludes an advocate, a civil and an attorney of a High Court:(16) "Prescribed" means prescribed by rules:(17) "Public officer" means a person falling under any of the following descriptions,namely:(a) every Judge;(b) [every person in the service of Pakistan].1
(c) every commissioned or gazetted officer in the military, 2[naval or airy] forces of3[Pakistan while in the service of the State];(d) every officer of a Court of Justice whose duty it is, as such officer, to investigate orreport on any matter of law or fact, or to make, authenticate or keep any document, or totake charge or dispose of any property, or to execute any judicial process, or toadminister any oath, or to interpret, - or to preserve order, in the Court, and every personespecially authorized by a Court of Justice to perform any of such duties;(e) every person who holds any office by virtue of which he is empowered to place orkeep any person in confinement;(f) every officer of 4[the 5[Government] ] whose duty it is, as such officer, to preventoffences, to give information of offences, to bring offenders to justice, or to protect thepublic health, safety or convenience;(g) every officer whose duty it is, as such officer, to take, receive, keep or expend anyproperty on behalf of 4[the 5[Government]], or to make any survey, assessment orcontract on behalf of '[the 2(Government] 1. or to execute any revenue-process, or toinvestigate, or to report on, any matter affecting the pecuniary interests of 1[the2[Government], or to make, authenticate or keep any document relating to the pecuniaryinterests of 1[the [Government] ] or to prevent the infraction of any law for the protectionof the pecuniary interest of 1[the 2[Government] ]; and(h) every officer in the service or pay of 1[the 2[Government]], or remunerated by fees orcommission for the performance of any public duty:(18) "Rules" means rules and forms contained in the First Schedule or made undersection 122 or section 125.(19) "Share in a corporation" shall be deemed to include stock, debenture-stock,debentures or bonds; and(20) "Signed", save in the case of a judgment or decree, includes stamped.3. For the purposes of this Code, the District Court is subordinate to the High Court, andevery civil Court of' a grade inferior to that of a District Court and every Court of SmallCauses is subordinate to the High Court and District Court.4.-(l) In the absence of any specific provision to the contrary, nothing in this Code shallbe deemed to limit or otherwise affect any special or local law now in force or anyspecial jurisdiction or power conferred, or any special form of procedure prescribed, byorunderanyotherlawforthetimebeinginforce.(2) In particular and without prejudice to the generality of the proposition contained insubsection (1), nothing in this Code shall be deemed to limit or otherwise
affect any remedy which a landholder or landlord may have under any law for the timebeing in force for the recovery of rent of agricultural land from the produce of such land.5.-(1) Where any Revenue Courts are governed by the provisions of this Code in thosematters of procedure upon which any special enactment applicable to them is silent, the3[Provincial Government]4 * * * may, by notification in the 5(official Gazette], declarethat any portions of those provisions which are not expressly made applicable by thisCode shall not apply to those Courts, or shall only apply to them with such modificationsas the 3[Provincial Government]*** may prescribe.(2) "Revenue Court" in subsection (1) means a Court having jurisdiction under any locallaw to entertain suits or other proceedings relating to the rent, revenue or profits of landused for agricultural purposes, but does not include a civil Court having originaljurisdiction under this Code to try such suits or proceedings as being suits or proceedingsof a civil nature.6. Save in so far as is otherwise expressly provided, nothing herein contained shalloperate to give any Court jurisdiction over suits the amount or value of the subject-matterof which exceeds the pecuniary limits (if any) of its ordinary jurisdiction.7. The following provisions shall not extend to Courts cons- Provincial Small CauseCourts Act, 1887, 1*** or to Courts exercising the jurisdiction of a Court of SmallCauses Courts 3[under the said Act], that is to say,(a) So much of the body of the Code as relates to(i) Suits excepted from the cognizance of a Court of Small Causes;(ii) The execution of decrees in such suits;(iii) The execution of decrees against immovable property; ndsections 94 and 95 3[far as they authorize or relate 96to112and115.8.-Omitted by the 4.0, 1949.
[1908:ACTCivil(Part I.- Suits in General. Jurisdiction of the Courts and Res judicata)V]ProcedurePART ISUITS IN GENERALJURISDICTION OF THL3 COURTS AND Res Judicata9. The Courts shall (subject to the provisions herein cone tamed) have jurisdiction to tryall suits of a civil nature excepting suits of which their cognizance is either expressly orimpliedly barred.Explanation.- A suit is which the right to property or to an office is contested is a suit of acivil nature, notwithstanding that such right ma depend entirely on the decision ofquestions as to religious rites or ceremonies.10. No Court shall proceed With the trial of any suit in which the matter in issue is alsodirectly and substantially in issue in a previously instituted suit between the same parties,or between parties under whom they or any of them claim litigating under the same titlewhere such suit is pending in the same or any other Court in 1[Pakistan] havingjurisdiction to grant the relief claimed, or in any Court beyond the limits of 1[Pakistan]established or continued by 2[the Central Government 3***] and having like jurisdiction,or before 4[the Supreme Court].Explanation.- The pendency of a suit in a foreign Court does not preclude the Courts in1[Pakistan] from trying a suit founded on the same cause of action.11. No Court shall try suit or issue in which the matter directly and substantially in issuehas been directly and substantially in issue in a former suit between the same parties, orbetween parties under whom they or any of them claim, litigating under the same title, ina Court competent to try such subsequent suit or the suit in which such issue has beensubsequently raised, and has been heard and finally decided by such Court.Explanation I.- The expression "former suit" shall denote a Suit which has been decidedprior to the suit in question whether or not it was instituted prior thereto.Explanation II.- For the purposes of this section, the competence of a Court shall bedetermined irrespective of any provisions as 0 a right of appeal from the decision ofsuch Court.
Explanation III.-The matter above referred to must in the former suit have been allegedby one party and either denied or admitted, expressly, or impliedly by the other.Explanation 1V.-Any matter which might and ought to have been made ground ofdefence or attack in such former suit shall be deemed to have been a matter directly andsubstantially in issue -in such suit.Explanation V.-Any relief claimed in the plaint, which is not expressly granted by thedecree, shall, for the purposes of this section, be deemed to have been refused.Explanation VI.-Where persons litigate bona fide in respect of a public right or of aprivate right claimed in common for themselves and others, all persons interested in suchright shall, for the purposes of this section, be deemed to claim under the person solitigating.12. 1[(1)] Where a plaintiff is preclude by rules from instituting a further suit in respectof any particular cause of action, he shall not be entitled to institute a suit in respect ofsuch cause of action in any Court to which this Code applies.1[(2) Where a person challenges the validity of a judgment, decree or order on the pica offraud, misrepresentation or want of jurisdiction, he shall seek his remedy by making anapplication to the Court which passed the final judgment, decree or order and not by aseparate suit.]13. A foreign judgment shall be conclusive as to any matter When thereby directlyadjudicated upon between the same parties or between parties under whom they or any ofthem claim litigating under the same title except;(a) Where it has not been pronounced by a Court of competent jurisdiction;(b) Where LI has not been given on the merits of the case;(c) Where it appears on the face of the proceedings to be founded on an incorrect view ofinternational law or a refusal to recognize the law of 2[Pakistan] in cases in which suchlawisapplicable;(d) Where the proceedings in which the judgment was obtained are opposed to ) Where it sustains a claim founded on a breach of any law in force in 2[Pakistan).14. The Court shall presume, upon the production of any document purporting to be acertified copy of a foreign judgment, that such judgment was pronounced by a Court ofcompetent jurisdiction, unless the contrary appears on the record; but such on.15. Every suit shall be instituted in the Court of the lowest grade competent to try it.
16. Subject to the pecuniary or other limitations prescribed by any law, suits;(a) for the recovery of immovable property- with or without rent or profits;(b)forthepartitionofImmovableproperty;(c) for foreclosure, sale or redemption In the case of a mortgage of or charge uponimmovableproperty,(d) for the determination of any other right to or Interest in immovable erty,(f) for the recovery of movable property actually under distraint or attachment;shall be instituted in the Court within the local limits of whose jurisdiction the property issituated '[, or, in the case of suits referred to in- clause (c), at, at the place where the causeof action his wholly or partly arisen: Provided that a suit to obtain relief respecting, or compensation for wrong to, immovableproperty held by or on behalf of the defendant may, where the relief sought can beentirely obtained through his personal obedience, be instituted either in the Court withinthe local limits of whose jurisdiction the property is situate 1[or, in the case of suitsreferred to in clause (c), at the place where the cause of action has wholly or partlyarisen) or in the Court within the local limits of whose jurisdiction the defendant actuallyand voluntarily resides, or carries on business, or personally works for gain.Explanation.- In this section "property" means property situate in 2[Pakistan].17. Where a suit is to obtain relief respecting, or compensation for wrong to immovableproperty situate within the jurisdiction of different Courts, the suit may be instituted inany Court within the local limits of whose jurisdiction any portion of the property issituate: Provided that, in respect of the value of the subject-matter of the suit, the entire claim iscognizable by such Court.18.-(1) Where it is alleged to be uncertain within the local limits of the jurisdiction ofwhich of two or more Courts any immovable property is situate, any one of those Courtsmay, if satisfied that there is ground for the alleged uncertainty, record a statement to thateffect and thereupon 1iroceed to entertain and dispose of any suit relating to thatproperty, and its decree in the suit shall have the same effect as if the property weresituate within the-local limits of its jurisdiction:Provided that the suit is one with respect to which the Court is competent as regards thenature and value of the suit to exercise jurisdiction.(2) Where a statement has not been recorded under subs section (1), and an objection istaken before an appellate or revisional Court that a decree or order in a suit relating tosuch property was made by a Court not having jurisdiction where the property is situate,the appellate or revisional Court shall not allow the objection unless in its opinion there
was, at the time of the institution of the suit, no reasonable ground for uncertainty as tothe Court having jurisdiction with respect thereto and there has been consequent failureof justice.19. Where a suit is for compensation for wrong done to the person or to movableproperty, if the wrong was done within the local limits of the jurisdiction of one Courtand the defendant resides, or carries on business, or personally works for gain, within thelocal limits of the jurisdiction of another Court, the suit may be instituted -at the option ofthe plaintiff in either of the said Courts.Illustrations(a) A, residing in '[Karachi], beats B in 1[Quetta]. B may sue A either in I[Quetta or1[Karachi].(b) A, residing in [Karachi] published in [Quetta] statements defamatory of B. B may sueA either in [Quetta] or in [Karachi].20. Subject to the limitations aforesaid, every suit shall be in a Court within the locallimits of whose jurisdiction.(a) the defendant-, or each of the defendants where there are more than one, at the time ofthe commencement of the suit, actually and voluntarily resides, or carries on business, orpersonally works for gain; or(b) any of the defendants, where there are more than one, at the time of thecommencement of the suit, actually and voluntarily resides, or carries on business, orpersonally works for gain, provided that in such case either of the Court is given, or thedefendants who reside, or carry on business, or personally work as aforesaid, acquiesce insuch institution; ation I.- Where a person has- a one place and also a temporary residence shall bedeemed to reside at both places in action arising at the place where he residence.Explanation II.-A corporation shall be deemed to carry on business at its sole or principaloffice in '[Pakistan] or, in respect of any cause of action arising at any place where it hasalso a subordinate office, at such place.Illustrations(a) A is a tradesman in [Lahore]. B carries on business in [Karachi]. B, by his agent in[Lahore], buys goods of A and requests A to deliver them to the [Pakistan InternationalAirways]. A delivers the goods accordingly in [Lahore]. A may sue B for the price of the
goods either in [Lahore] where the cause of action has arisen or in [Karachi] where Bcarries on business.(b) A resides at [Murree], B at [Lahore], and C at [Karachi]. A, B and C being together at[Bahawalpur] B and C make a joint promissory note payable on demand, and deliver it toA. A may sue B and C at [Bhawalpur], where the cause of action arose. He may also suethem at [Lahore], where B resides, or at [Karachi], where C resides: but in each of thesecases, if the non-resident defendant objects, the suit cannot proceed without the leave ofthe Court.21. No objection as to the place of suing shall be allowed by any appellate or revisionalCourt unless such objection was taken in the Court of first instance at the earliest possibleopportunity and in all cases where issues are settled at or before such settlement andunless there has been a consequent failure of justice.22. Where a suit may be instituted in any one.- of two or more Courts and is instituted inone of such Courts, any defendant after notice to the other parties, may, at the earliestpossible opportunity and in all cases where issues are settled at or before such settlement,apply to have the suit transferred to another Court, and the Court to which suchapplication is made, after considering the objections of the other parties (ii any), shalldetermine in which of the several Courts having jurisdiction be suit shall proceed.23. (1) Where the several Courts having jurisdiction are subordinate to the sameAppellate Court, an application under section 22 shall be made to the Appellate Court.(2) Where such Courts are subordinate to different Appellate Courts but to the same HighCourt, the application shall be made to the said High Court.(3) Where such Courts arc subordinate to different High Courts, the application shall bemade to the High Court within the local limits of whose jurisdiction the Court in whichthe suit is brought is situate.24.-.(l) On the application of any of the parties and after notice to theparties and after hearing such of be heard, or of its own motion withoutsuch notice, the
Code of Civil Procedure, 1908. ACT NO. V OF 1908 [21st March 1908] An Act to consolidate and amend the laws relating to the Procedure of the Courts of Civil Judicature. WHEREAS it is expedient to consolidate and amend the laws relating to the procedure of the Courts of Civil Judicature; It is hereby enacted as follows: - PRELIMINARY 1.-(l) This Act may be cited as the Code of Civil Procedure .
THE CODE OF CIVIL PROCEDURE, 1908 (ACT NO. V OF 1908). [21st March, 1908] the Courts of Civil Judicature. 1 An Act to consolidate and amend the laws relating to the Procedure of WHEREAS it is expedient to consolidate and amend the laws relating to the procedure of the Courts of Civil Judicature; It is hereby enacted as follows:- PRELIMINARY Short title, commencement and extent 1.(1) This Act .
(1) This Act may be called the Registration Act, 1908. (2) It extends to the whole of India except the State of Jammu and Kashmir: Provided that the State Government may exclude any district or tracts of country from its operation. (3) It shall come into force on the first day of January, 1909. 2. Definitions In this Act, unless there is .
6 of 2001, Act No. 7 of 2002, Act No. 15 of 2003, Act No. 4 of 2004, Act No. 6 of 2005, Act No. 10 of 2006, Act No. 9 of 2007, Act No. 8 of 2008, Act No. 8 of 2009, Act No. 10 of 2010, Act No. 4 of 2012.] PART I - PRELIMINARY 1. Short title and commencement This Act may be cited as the Income Tax Act, 1973 and shall, subject to the
Short title, commencement and extent- (1) This Act may be cited as the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908. (2) It shall come into force on the first day of January, 1909. [(3) It extends to the whole of India except-(a) the State of Jammu and Kashmir; (b) the State of Nagaland and the tribal areas : Provided that the State Government concerned may, by notification in the Official Gazette, extend .
Act I, Scene 1 Act I, Scene 2 Act I, Scene 3 Act II, Scene 1 Act II, Scene 2 Act II, Scene 3 Act III, Scene 1 20. Act I, Scene 1–Act III, Scene 1: Summary . Directions: Summarize what you what you have read so far in Divided Loyalties (Act I-Act III, Scene1). 21. Act III, Scenes 2 and 3:
LAW BOOK Act 358 of 1955 As Amended By Act 490 of 1961 Act 403 of 1965 Act 400 of 1969 Act 566 of 1973 Acts 532 & 644 of 1975 Act 465 of 1987 Act 1228 of 1991 Act 1056 of 1993 Act 771 of 1995 Act 512 of 1997 Acts 595,596 & 680 of 2003 Act 207 of 2005 Act 223 of 2007 Issued by ARKANSAS STAT
EVIDENCE ACT [Date of assent: 9th December, 1963.] [Date of commencement: 10th December, 1963.] An Act of Parliament to declare the law of evidence [Act No. 46 of 1963, L.N. 22/1965, Act No. 17 of 1967, Act No. 8 of 1968, Act No. 10 of 1969, Act No. 13 of 1972, Act No. 14 of 1972, Act No. 19 of 1985, Act
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