The Seafarer RL 4 The Wanderer The Wife’s Lament

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Reflections of Common LifeRL 4 Analyze the impact ofspecific word choices on meaningand tone, including words withmultiple meanings or languagethat is fresh, engaging, orbeautiful. RL 10 Read andcomprehend literature, includingpoems. L 4 Determine or clarifythe meaning of unknown andmultiple-meaning words andphrases. L 4b Identify andcorrectly use patterns of wordchanges that indicate differentmeanings or parts of speech.L 5b Analyze nuances in themeaning of words with similardenotations.The SeafarerThe WandererThe Wife’s LamentPoetry from the Exeter BookMeet the AuthorThe Exeter Bookc. 950first bishop of Exeter. He donated it tothe Exeter Cathedral library sometimebetween 1050 and 1072. For severalcenturies the book was neglected andabused; few people were able to read theOld English language in which it waswritten and thus had little use for it. Somepages are badly stained or scorched. Theoriginal binding and an unknown numberof pages are lost.did you know?The Exeter Book . . . consists of 131 leaves ofparchment, each slightlybigger than a standardsheet of paper. has knife cuts on someof its pages, whichsuggests that at onepoint it was used as acutting board. inspired the building ofa 19-foot-high stainlesssteel statue imprintedwith riddles in the cityof Exeter.Rediscovery With the rise of Anglo-SaxonNothing is known about the authors of“The Seafarer,” “The Wanderer,” and“The Wife’s Lament.” All three poemssurvive in the Exeter Book, a manuscript ofAnglo-Saxon poems produced by a singlescribe around a.d. 950. In addition tothese and other secular poems, the ExeterBook contains religious verse, nearly 100riddles, and a heroic narrative. It is thelargest collection of Old English poetry inexistence.Neglected Treasure Originally, the ExeterBook belonged to Leofric (lAPE-frGk), thestudies in the 19th century, scholarsbegan to take an interest in the ExeterBook. Benjamin Thorpe published thefirst complete translation in 1842. Heassigned titles to “The Seafarer” and “TheWanderer,” as none of the poems in themanuscript had titles. A photographicfacsimile was published in 1933; it becamethe basis for later scholarly editions. A CDversion, with facsimile pages and audioreadings, was released in 2006.The original manuscript still resides atthe library at Exeter Cathedral, where itis cherished as one of the few survivingcollections of Anglo-Saxon poetry.102NA L12PE-u01s22-brLament.indd10211/22/1012:03:58 PM

text analysis: imageryPoets communicate through imagery, words and phrases thatre-create sensory experiences for the reader by appealing toone or more of the five senses. Notice how the imagery in thispassage from “The Seafarer” appeals to the senses of sight,touch, and hearing:My feet were castIn icy bands, bound with frost,With frozen chains, and hardship groanedAround my heart.The images bring to mind coldness and confinement andsuggest the speaker’s lonely, painful emotional state. As youread the following three poems, pay attention to the imagery,allowing it to evoke ideas and feelings in you.Review: Old English Poetryreading strategy: monitor your understandingThese poems have been translated from Old English intoModern English, but sections of the texts may still be hard tounderstand. Use the following strategies to understand them: Visualize the many images layered in the poems. Question as you read. Ask who the speaker is, for example. Reread passages that are confusing. Paraphrase difficult lines, restating them in your own words. Clarify events. The speakers remember past experiences andreflect on their present experiences. Let indentations andstanza breaks alert you that the speaker is turning to a newthought.For each poem, create a chart to record what the speakerremembers or ponders in each section of the poem to helpclarify events the speaker describes.“The Seafarer”SectionSection 1 (lines 1–26)Speaker Remembers or Pondersbeing cold, hungry, and lonely onthe seaWhen arepeople mostalone?When people find themselves cut offfrom contact with others, the sense ofisolation can be all consuming. It is notsurprising that loneliness is a frequenttopic in poetry written during theAnglo-Saxon era—an era during whichdisease, war, and other perils oftenwrenched people away from their lovedones. In many Anglo-Saxon poems,images of freezing seas and jaggedcliffs mirror this sense of isolationand the challenge of living in a harsh,unpredictable world.QUICKWRITE Imagine that you aremaking a five-minute silent film aboutisolation and loneliness. What wouldyou show onscreen? Where would youset the film? Who would the maincharacter be, and what would he or shebe doing? List some visual images thatcome to mind.Film Images single robed traveler,trudging across the SaharaDesert endless sand dunesSection 2Complete the activities in your Reader/Writer Notebook.103NA L12PE-u01s22-brLament.indd10311/22/1012:04:05 PM

The Seafarerbackground The poems in the Exeter Book reflect the hardship anduncertainty of life in Anglo-Saxon times. Men who made their living on the seahad to leave behind their families and sail long distances in primitive, poorlyequipped boats. The women and children left behind endured months andeven years without knowing whether their menfolk would return. In addition,frequent outbreaks of disease and war scattered communities and broughtuntimely death to many people.5101520104This tale is true, and mine. It tellsHow the sea took me, swept me backAnd forth in sorrow and fear and pain,Showed me suffering in a hundred ships,In a thousand ports, and in me. It tellsOf smashing surf when I sweated in the coldOf an anxious watch, perched in the bowAs it dashed under cliffs. My feet were castIn icy bands, bound with frost,With frozen chains, and hardship groanedAround my heart. Hunger toreAt my sea-weary soul. No man shelteredOn the quiet fairness of earth can feelHow wretched I was, drifting through winterOn an ice-cold sea, whirled in sorrow,Alone in a world blown clear of love,Hung with icicles. The hailstorms flew.The only sound was the roaring sea,The freezing waves. The song of the swanMight serve for pleasure, the cry of the sea-fowl,The death-noise of birds instead of laughter,The mewing of gulls instead of mead.Storms beat on the rocky cliffs and were echoedL 5bLanguage CoachEtymology A word’s etymology,or origin, can help you understandits connotations—the images orfeelings connected with a word.Wretched, which comes from theOld English wrecca (“outcast orexile”), means “miserable.” Whyis wretched a better word thanmiserable in lines 12–17?22 mead (mCd): an alcoholic beveragedrunk at Anglo-Saxon gatherings.unit 1: the anglo-saxon and medieval periodsNA L12PE-u01s22-Lament.indd10411/22/1012:04:39 PM

Analyze VisualsDescribe the mood of thisphotograph as well asthose on pages 109 and113. What features of eachlandscape determineits mood?25303540By icy-feathered terns and the eagle’s screams;No kinsman could offer comfort there,To a soul left drowning in desolation. aAnd who could believe, knowing butThe passion of cities, swelled proud with wineAnd no taste of misfortune, how often, how wearily,I put myself back on the paths of the sea.Night would blacken; it would snow from the north;Frost bound the earth and hail would fall,The coldest seeds. And how my heartWould begin to beat, knowing once moreThe salt waves tossing and the towering sea!The time for journeys would come and my soulCalled me eagerly out, sent me overThe horizon, seeking foreigners’ homes.But there isn’t a man on earth so proud,So born to greatness, so bold with his youth,Grown so brave, or so graced by God,That he feels no fear as the sails unfurl,Wondering what Fate has willed and will do.No harps ring in his heart, no rewards,24 terns: sea birds similar to gulls.a IMAGERYIn lines 12–26, what senses does theimagery appeal to? Describe themood created by the imagery.the seafarerNA L12PE-u01s22-Lament.indd10510511/22/1012:04:40 PM

455055606570758085106No passion for women, no worldly pleasures,Nothing, only the ocean’s heave;But longing wraps itself around him.Orchards blossom, the towns bloom,Fields grow lovely as the world springs fresh,And all these admonish that willing mindLeaping to journeys, always setIn thoughts traveling on a quickening tide.So summer’s sentinel, the cuckoo, singsIn his murmuring voice, and our hearts mournAs he urges. Who could understand,In ignorant ease, what we others sufferAs the paths of exile stretch endlessly on? bAnd yet my heart wanders away,My soul roams with the sea, the whales’Home, wandering to the widest cornersOf the world, returning ravenous with desire,Flying solitary, screaming, exciting meTo the open ocean, breaking oathsOn the curve of a wave.Thus the joys of God cAre fervent with life, where life itselfFades quickly into the earth. The wealthOf the world neither reaches to Heaven nor remains.No man has ever faced the dawnCertain which of Fate’s three threatsWould fall: illness, or age, or an enemy’sSword, snatching the life from his soul.The praise the living pour on the deadFlowers from reputation: plantAn earthly life of profit reapedEven from hatred and rancor, of braveryFlung in the devil’s face, and deathCan only bring you earthly praiseAnd a song to celebrate a placeWith the angels, life eternally blessedIn the hosts of Heaven.The days are goneWhen the kingdoms of earth flourished in glory;Now there are no rulers, no emperors,No givers of gold, as once there were,When wonderful things were worked among themAnd they lived in lordly magnificence.Those powers have vanished, those pleasures are dead,The weakest survives and the world continues,Kept spinning by toil. All glory is tarnished,50 admonish (Bd-mJnPGsh): criticize orcaution.53 summer’s sentinel (sDnPtE-nEl), thecuckoo: summer’s guard or watchman.The cries of cuckoos are common inEurope in summer, but in autumn thebirds migrate south.b IMAGERYNote how the images in lines44–57 contrast with the images ofthe sea. How is the speaker affectedby thoughts of life on land?cMONITORNotice the break at line 64. Herethe speaker turns to a new idea.How do you interpret the sentencebeginning “Thus the joys of God . . .”?80 hosts of Heaven: bands of angels.unit 1: the anglo-saxon and medieval periodsNA L12PE-u01s22-Lament.indd10611/22/1012:04:43 PM

9095100105110115120The world’s honor ages and shrinks,Bent like the men who mold it. Their facesBlanch as time advances, their beardsWither and they mourn the memory of friends,The sons of princes, sown in the dust.The soul stripped of its flesh knows nothingOf sweetness or sour, feels no pain,Bends neither its hand nor its brain. A brotherOpens his palms and pours down goldOn his kinsman’s grave, strewing his coffinWith treasures intended for Heaven, but nothingGolden shakes the wrath of GodFor a soul overflowing with sin, and nothingHidden on earth rises to Heaven. dWe all fear God. He turns the earth,He set it swinging firmly in space,Gave life to the world and light to the sky.Death leaps at the fools who forget their God.He who lives humbly has angels from HeavenTo carry him courage and strength and belief.A man must conquer pride, not kill it,Be firm with his fellows, chaste for himself,Treat all the world as the world deserves,With love or with hate but never with harm,Though an enemy seek to scorch him in hell,Or set the flames of a funeral pyreUnder his lord. Fate is strongerAnd God mightier than any man’s mind.Our thoughts should turn to where our home is,Consider the ways of coming there,Then strive for sure permission for usTo rise to that eternal joy,That life born in the love of GodAnd the hope of Heaven. Praise the Holy eGrace of Him who honored us,Eternal, unchanging creator of earth. Amen.d MONITORVisualize the images of the worldin lines 80–102. What main idea dothey convey?110 chaste (chAst): pure in thought anddeed.114 funeral pyre (pFr): a bonfire forburning a corpse.eMONITORParaphrase the advice the speakergives in lines 117–122. Where is “ourhome”?Translated by Burton RaffelText Analysis1. Paraphrase What views does the speaker express aboutearthly life and God in lines 64–124 ?2. Compare How does the last half of the poem (from line64 on) relate to the first half of the poem?the seafarerNA L12PE-u01s22-Lament.indd10710711/22/1012:04:44 PM

The anderer5101520253035108This lonely traveler longs for grace,For the mercy of God; grief hangs onHis heart and follows the frost-cold foamHe cuts in the sea, sailing endlessly,Aimlessly, in exile. Fate has openedA single port: memory. He seesHis kinsmen slaughtered again, and cries:“I’ve drunk too many lonely dawns,Grey with mourning. Once there were menTo whom my heart could hurry, hotWith open longing. They’re long since dead.My heart has closed on itself, quietlyLearning that silence is noble and sorrowNothing that speech can cure. SadnessHas never driven sadness off;Fate blows hardest on a bleeding heart.So those who thirst for glory smotherSecret weakness and longing, neitherWeep nor sigh nor listen to the sicknessIn their souls. So I, lost and homeless,Forced to flee the darkness that fellOn the earth and my lord. fLeaving everything,Weary with winter I wandered outOn the frozen waves, hoping to findA place, a people, a lord to replaceMy lost ones. No one knew me, now,No one offered comfort, allowedMe feasting or joy. How cruel a journeyI’ve traveled, sharing my bread with sorrowAlone, an exile in every land,Could only be told by telling my footsteps.For who can hear: “friendless and poor,”And know what I’ve known since the long cheerful nightsWhen, young and yearning, with my lord I yet feastedMost welcome of all. That warmth is dead.He only knows who needs his lordAs I do, eager for long-missing aid;He only knows who never sleepsL 4bLanguage CoachRoots and Affixes Added to anadjective, the suffix -ly forms anadverb (like endlessly or aimlessly,lines 4–5). Added to a noun, -lymeans “relating to” and forms anadjective. How is the suffix used inghostly and worldly (lines 71–72)?fMONITORWhat has happened to the speaker,and what is his state of mind?31 telling: counting.unit 1: the anglo-saxon and medieval periodsNA L12PE-u01s22-Lament.indd10811/22/1012:04:44 PM

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404550556065707580110Without the deepest dreams of longing.Sometimes it seems I see my lord,Kiss and embrace him, bend my handsAnd head to his knee, kneeling as thoughHe still sat enthroned, ruling his thanes.And I open my eyes, embracing the air,And see the brown sea-billows heave,See the sea-birds bathe, spreadingTheir white-feathered wings, watch the frostAnd the hail and the snow. And heavy in heartI long for my lord, alone and unloved.Sometimes it seems I see my kinAnd greet them gladly, give them welcome,The best of friends. They fade away,Swimming soundlessly out of sight,Leaving nothing. gHow loathsome becomeThe frozen waves to a weary heart.In this brief world I cannot wonderThat my mind is set on melancholy,Because I never forget the fateOf men, robbed of their riches, suddenlyLooted by death—the doom of earth,Sent to us all by every risingSun. Wisdom is slow, and comesBut late. He who has it is patient;He cannot be hasty to hate or speak,He must be bold and yet not blind,Nor ever too craven, complacent, or covetous,Nor ready to gloat before he wins glory.The man’s a fool who flings his boastsHotly to the heavens, heeding his spleenAnd not the better boldness of knowledge.What knowing man knows not the ghostly,Waste-like end of worldly wealth:See, already the wreckage is there,The wind-swept walls stand far and wide,The storm-beaten blocks besmeared with frost,The mead-halls crumbled, the monarchs thrown downAnd stripped of their pleasures. The proudest of warriorsNow lie by the wall: some of them warDestroyed; some the monstrous sea-birdBore over the ocean; to some the old wolfDealt out death; and for some dejectedFollowers fashioned an earth-cave coffin.Thus the Maker of men lays waste43 thanes (thAnz): followers of a lord.g IMAGERYIn what way do the images fromthe speaker’s past contrast with theimages of the present?69 spleen: bad temper. The spleen is abody organ that was formerly thought tobe the seat of strong emotions.unit 1: the anglo-saxon and medieval periodsNA L12PE-u01s22-Lament.indd11011/22/1012:04:58 PM

859095100105110This earth, crushing our callow mirth.And the work of old giants stands withered and still.”84 callow (kBlPI) mirth: childish joy.hh IMAGERYWhat ideas about earthly life do youget from the images in lines 74–85?Note that “work of old giants” refersto old ruins and burial mounds.He who these ruins rightly sees,And deeply considers this dark twisted life,Who sagely remembers the endless slaughtersOf a bloody past, is bound to proclaim:“Where is the war-steed? Where is the warrior?Where is his war-lord?Where now the feasting-places? Where now the mead-hallpleasures?Alas, bright cup! Alas, brave knight!Alas, you glorious princes! All gone,Lost in the night, as you never had lived.And all that survives you a serpentine wall,Wondrously high, worked in strange ways.Mighty spears have slain these men,Greedy weapons have framed their fate.These rocky slopes are beaten by storms,This earth pinned down by driving snow,By the horror of winter, smothering warmthIn the shadows of night. And the north angrilyHurls its hailstorms at our helpless heads.Everything earthly is evilly born,Firmly clutched by a fickle Fate.Fortune vanishes, friendship vanishes,Man is fleeting, woman is fleeting,And all this earth rolls into emptiness.”So says the sage in his heart, sitting alone with Histhought.It’s good to guard your faith, nor let your grief come forthUntil it cannot call for help, nor help but heedThe path you’ve placed before it. It’s good to find your graceIn God, the heavenly rock where rests our every hope. i95 serpentine (sûrPpEn-tCnQ): winding ortwisting, like a snake.iMONITORReread lines 110–113. Is the wandererspeaking, or is someone else? Whatadvice is offered in these lines?Translated by Burton RaffelText Analysis1. Compare How does the wanderer’s present lifecompare with his former life?2. Summarize What does a wise man understand,according to the wanderer?the wandererNA L12PE-u01s22-Lament.indd11111111/22/1012:04:58 PM

The ife’s ament5101520I make this song about me full sadlymy own wayfaring. I a woman tellwhat griefs I had since I grew upnew or old never more than now.Ever I know the dark of my exile.jFirst my lord went out away from his peopleover the wave-tumult. I grieved each dawnwondered where my lord my first on earth might be.Then I went forth a friendless exileto seek service in my sorrow’s need.My man’s kinsmen began to plotby darkened thought to divide us twoso we most widely in the world’s kingdomlived wretchedly and I suffered longing.My lord commanded me to move my dwelling here.I had few loved ones in this landor faithful friends. For this my heart grieves:that I should find the man well matched to mehard of fortune mournful of mindhiding his mood thinking of murder. kjOLD ENGLISH POETRYThe translator has divided eachline with a caesura, or pause,which helps maintain the rhythmof the line. What do the pausesemphasize?6 my lord: the speaker’s husband.7 wave-tumult: a kenning, or compoundmetaphoric expression, for the sea.L4Language CoachMultiple Meanings Service (line10) can mean “help” or “the job ofa servant,” among other things.One obsolete meaning is “a pledgeof love.” How do these differentmeanings affect your interpretationof the events in lines 11–14?k MONITORWhy is the wife in exile?25112Blithe was our bearing often we vowedthat but death alone would part us twonaught else. But this is turned roundnow . . . as if it never wereour friendship. I must far and nearbear the anger of my beloved.The man sent me out to live in the woodsunit 1: the anglo-saxon and medieval periodsNA L12PE-u01s22-Lament.indd11211/22/1012:04:59 PM

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under an oak tree in this den in the earth.Ancient this earth hall. I am all longing.3035404550The valleys are dark the hills highthe yard overgrown bitter with briarsa joyless dwelling. Full oft the lack of my lordseizes me cruelly here. Friends there are on earthliving beloved lying in bedwhile I at dawn am walking aloneunder the oak tree through these earth halls.There I may sit the summerlong daythere I can weep over my exilemy many hardships. Hence I may not restfrom this care of heart which belongs to me evernor all this longing that has caught me in this life.28–29 den . . . earth hall: In describingher living quarters, the speaker uses anexpression something like the modern“hole in the ground.”llMay that young man be sad-minded alwayshard his heart’s thought while he must weara blithe bearing with care in the breasta crowd of sorrows. May on himself dependall his world’s joy. Be he outlawed farin a strange folk-land— that my beloved sitsunder a rocky cliff rimed with frosta lord dreary in spirit drenched with waterin a ruined hall. My lord enduresmuch care of mind. He remembers too oftena happier dwelling. Woe be to themthat for a loved one must wait in longing. mIMAGERYWhat does the speaker’s descriptionof her surroundings express abouther emotional state?42 that young man: the speaker’shusband. In these final lines, the speakerseems to wish for her husband to leadthe same sort of life that he has forcedher to endure.m IMAGERYWhat sad images does the speakerimagine in lines 42–50?Translated by Ann Stanford114unit 1: the anglo-saxon and medieval periodsNA L12PE-u01s22-Lament.indd11411/22/1012:05:14 PM

After ReadingComprehension1. Recall How does the speaker in “The Seafarer” feel about life at sea?2. Clarify Why is the title character in “The Wanderer” in exile?3. Clarify In “The Wife’s Lament,” what does the wife wish for her husband?Text Analysis4. Monitor Understanding Review the charts you made as you read. What isthe speaker remembering or pondering in each poem? What elements ineach poem helped you reach these conclusions?5. Compare Texts Compare these three poems, noting similarities you see ineach of the following elements: subject mood imagery themeRL 2 Determine two or morethemes or central ideas ofa text and analyze theirdevelopment over the courseof the text, including howthey interact and build on oneanother to produce a complexaccount. RL 4 Analyze theimpact of specific word choiceson meaning and tone, includingwords with multiple meanings orlanguage that is fresh, engaging,or beautiful. RL 9 Demonstrateknowledge of how two ormore texts from the sameperiod treat similar themesor topics. RL 10 Read andcomprehend literature, includingpoems.6. Synthesize Ideas What ideas about Anglo-Saxon life and religious attitudesdo you get from the poems?7. Evaluate Imagery How does the imagery in these poems reflect the passageof time? Support your answer with details from the poems.8. Apply Themes What advice might the speakers of “The Seafarer” and “TheWanderer” give the speaker of “The Wife’s Lament”? In what circumstancescould modern people benefit from this advice?Text Criticism9. Critical Interpretations There has been much debate over the numberof speakers in “The Seafarer.” Some critics believe that a second personbegins to speak at line 64, and others believe that there is only one speakerthroughout the poem. Which interpretation do you believe is more accurate,and why?When are people mostalone?A cold, stony landscape mirrors the harsh, unpredictable lives of theAnglo–Saxons. What other kinds of landscapes might evoke a feeling ofisolation or loneliness?the seafarer / the wanderer / the wife’s lamentNA L12PE-u01s22-arLament.indd11511511/22/1012:06:50 PM

survive in the Exeter Book, a manuscript of Anglo-Saxon poems produced by a single scribe around a.d. 950. In addition to these and other secular poems, the Exeter Book contains religious verse, nearly 100 riddles, and a heroic narrative. It is the largest collection of Old English poetry in existence. Neglected Treasure Originally, the Exeter

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