Social Studies 2201

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Social Studies 2201Curriculum Guide 2019

MISSION STATEMENTDepartment of Education and EarlyChildhood DevelopmentMission StatementThe Department of Education and Early Childhood Development willimprove provincial early childhood learning and the K-12 educationsystem to further opportunities for the people ofNewfoundland and Labrador.SOCIAL STUDIES 2201 CURRICULUM GUIDE 2019 i

iiSOCIAL STUDIES 2201 CURRICULUM GUIDE 2019

TABLE OF CONTENTSTable of ContentsAcknowledgements. vSection One: Newfoundland and Labrador CurriculumOutcomes Based Education.1Context for Teaching and Learning.4Inclusive Education.4Literacy.10Learning Skills for Generation Next.12Education for Sustainable Development.12Assessment and Evaluation.15Section Two: Curriculum DesignRationale.19Curriculum Outcomes Framework.20Course Overview.24Suggested Yearly Plan.24Table of Specifications.26How to use a Four Column Layout.28How to use the Outcomes Framework.30Section Three: Specific Curriculum OutcomesUnit 1: Integrated Concepts and Process Skills.33Unit 2: Innovations, Ideas, and Change.100Unit 3: Political Change.166Unit 4: Economic Change.224Unit 5: Conflict, Cooperation, and Change.280SOCIAL STUDIES 2201 CURRICULUM GUIDE 2019 iii

TABLE OF CONTENTSivSOCIAL STUDIES 2201 CURRICULUM GUIDE 2019

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSAcknowledgementsThe Department of Education and Early Childhood Development forNewfoundland and Labrador gratefully acknowledges the contribution ofthe following members of the Social Studies Working Group (High School),in the completion of this work:Dave ButtJill KennedyJohn CherwinskiDave KingMarcella CormierSuzie McIntoshJeff CrantSteven MooresDarrell EddyMichelle ParkJason ElliottTodd PhilpottDarryl FillierJacqueline RockettCraig GilbertStephen RoweJeff HowardTrevor RoweJamie HuntJohn VeitchRobert JohnstonDavid WelshmanBrad JonesSOCIAL STUDIES 2201 CURRICULUM GUIDE 2019v

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSviSOCIAL STUDIES 2201 CURRICULUM GUIDE 2019

SECTION ONE: NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR CURRICULUMSection One:Newfoundland and Labrador CurriculumIntroductionThere are multiple factors that impact education: technologicaldevelopments, increased emphasis on accountability, andglobalization. These factors point to the need to consider carefullythe education students receive.The Newfoundland and Labrador Department of Education andEarly Childhood Development believes that curriculum design withthe following characteristics will help teachers address the needs ofstudents served by the provincially prescribed curriculum: Curriculum guides must clearly articulate what students areexpected to know and be able to do by the time they graduatefrom high school. There must be purposeful assessment of students’ performancein relation to the curriculum outcomes.Outcomes BasedEducationThe K-12 curriculum in Newfoundland and Labrador is organizedby outcomes and is based on The Atlantic Canada Framework forEssential Graduation Learning in Schools (1997). This frameworkconsists of Essential Graduation Learnings (EGLs), GeneralCurriculum Outcomes (GCOs), Key Stage Curriculum Outcomes(KSCOs) and Specific Curriculum Outcomes (SCOs).Essential Graduation Learnings(common to all subject areas)General Curriculum Outcomes(unique to each subject area)Key Stage Learning Outcomes(met by end of grades 3,6,9 and 12)Specific Curriculum Outcomes(met within each grade level and subject area)EssentialGraduationLearningsEGLs provide vision for the development of a coherent and relevantcurriculum. They are statements that offer students clear goals anda powerful rationale for education. The EGLs are delineated bygeneral, key stage, and specific curriculum outcomes.SOCIAL STUDIES 2201 CURRICULUM GUIDE 20191

SECTION ONE: NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR CURRICULUMEGLs describe the knowledge, skills, and attitudes expected ofall students who graduate from high school. Achievement of theEGLs will prepare students to continue to learn throughout theirlives. EGLs describe expectations, not in terms of individual subjectareas, but in terms of knowledge, skills, and attitudes developedthroughout the K-12 curriculum. They confirm that students need tomake connections and develop abilities across subject areas if theyare to be ready to meet the shifting and ongoing demands of life,work, and study.Aesthetic Expression – Graduates will be able to respond withcritical awareness to various forms of the arts and be able toexpress themselves through the arts.Citizenship – Graduates will be able to assess social, cultural,economic, and environmental interdependence in a local and globalcontext.Communication – Graduates will be able to use the listening,viewing, speaking, reading and writing modes of language(s), andmathematical and scientific concepts and symbols, to think, learnand communicate effectively.Problem Solving – Graduates will be able to use the strategiesand processes needed to solve a wide variety of problems,including those requiring language, and mathematical and scientificconcepts.Personal Development – Graduates will be able to continue tolearn and to pursue an active, healthy lifestyle.Spiritual and Moral Development – Graduates will demonstrateunderstanding and appreciation for the place of belief systems inshaping the development of moral values and ethical conduct.Technological Competence – Graduates will be able to usea variety of technologies, demonstrate an understanding oftechnological applications, and apply appropriate technologies forsolving problems.2SOCIAL STUDIES 2201 CURRICULUM GUIDE 2019

SECTION ONE: NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR CURRICULUMCurriculum OutcomesCurriculum outcomes are statements that articulate what studentsare expected to know and be able to do in each program area interms of knowledge, skills, and attitudes.Curriculum outcomes may be subdivided into General CurriculumOutcomes, Key Stage Curriculum Outcomes, and SpecificCurriculum Outcomes.General Curriculum Outcomes (GCOs)Each program has a set of GCOs which describe what knowledge,skills, and attitudes students are expected to demonstrate as aresult of their cumulative learning experiences within a subject area.GCOs serve as conceptual organizers or frameworks which guidestudy within a program area. Often, GCOs are further delineatedinto KSCOs.Key Stage Curriculum Outcomes (KSCOs)Key Stage Curriculum Outcomes (KSCOs) summarize what isexpected of students at each of the four key stages of grades three,six, nine, and twelve.Specific Curriculum Outcomes (SCOs)SCOs set out what students are expected to know and be able todo as a result of their learning experiences in a course, at a specificgrade level. In some program areas, SCOs are further articulatedinto delineations. It is expected that all SCOs will be addressedduring the course of study covered by the curriculum guide.EGLs to CurriculumGuidesEGLGCOSubject AreaKSCOGrades 3, 6, 9& 12SCOCourse/Level4 Column SpreadsOutcomesSOCIAL STUDIES 2201 CURRICULUM GUIDE 2019Focus forLearningTeaching andAssessmentStrategiesResources andNotes3

SECTION ONE: NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR CURRICULUMContext for Teaching and LearningTeachers are responsible to help students achieve outcomes.This responsibility is a constant in a changing world. As programschange over time so does educational context. Several factorsmake up the educational context in Newfoundland and Labradortoday: inclusive education, support for gradual release ofresponsibility teaching model, focus on literacy and learningskills in all programs, and support for education for sustainabledevelopment.Inclusive EducationValuing Equity andDiversityEffective inclusive schools have thefollowing characteristics: supportiveenvironment, positive relationships,feelings of competence, andopportunities to participate. (TheCentre for Inclusive Education,2009)All students need to see their lives and experiences reflected intheir school community. It is important that the curriculum reflect theexperiences and values of all genders and that learning resourcesinclude and reflect the interests, achievements, and perspectives ofall students. An inclusive classroom values the varied experiencesand abilities as well as social and ethno-cultural backgrounds ofall students while creating opportunities for community building.Inclusive policies and practices promote mutual respect, positiveinterdependencies, and diverse perspectives. Learning resourcesshould include a range of materials that allow students to considermany viewpoints and to celebrate the diverse aspects of the schoolcommunity.InclusiveClassrooms4SOCIAL STUDIES 2201 CURRICULUM GUIDE 2019

SECTION ONE: NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR CURRICULUMDifferentiatedInstructionDifferentiated instruction is ateaching philosophy basedon the premise that teachersshould adapt instruction tostudent differences. Rather thanmarching students through thecurriculum lockstep, teachersshould modify their instruction tomeet students’ varying readinesslevels, learning preferences, andinterests. Therefore, the teacherproactively plans a variety ofways to ‘get it’ and expresslearning. (Carol Ann Tomlinson,2008)Curriculum is designed and implemented to provide learningopportunities for all students according to abilities, needs, andinterests. Teachers must be aware of and responsive to the diverserange of learners in their classes. Differentiated instruction is auseful tool in addressing this diversity.Differentiated instruction responds to different readiness levels,abilities, and learning profiles of students. It involves activelyplanning so that the process by which content is delivered, theway the resource is used, and the products students createare in response to the teacher’s knowledge of whom he or sheis interacting with. Learning environments should be flexibleto accommodate various learning preferences of the students.Teachers continually make decisions about selecting teachingstrategies and structuring learning activities that provide all studentswith a safe and supportive place to learn and succeed.Planning for DifferentiationCreate a dynamicclassroom:Respond to studentdifferences:Vary teachingstrategies:Differentiating theContent Manage routines and class organization. Present authentic and relevant communication situations. Provide realistic and motivating classroom experiences. Allow for multiple ways to demonstrate learning. Empower through a gradual release of responsibility. Provide opportunities to take ownership of learning goals. Enable students to collaboratively construct meaning in a positivelearning community. Provide students with opportunities to make essential links totexts.Differentiating content requires teachers to pre-assess students toidentify those who require prerequisite instruction, as well as thosewho have already mastered the concept and may therefore applystrategies learned to new situations. Another way to differentiatecontent is to permit students to adjust the pace at which theyprogress through the material. Some students may requireadditional time while others will move through at an increasedpace and thus create opportunities for enrichment or more indepthconsideration of a topic of particular interest.SOCIAL STUDIES 2201 CURRICULUM GUIDE 20195

SECTION ONE: NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR CURRICULUMTeachers should consider the following examples of differentiatingcontent: Meet with small groups to reteach an idea or skill or to extendthe thinking or skills. Present ideas through auditory, visual, and tactile means. Use reading materials such as novels, websites, and otherreference materials at varying reading levels.Differentiating theProcessDifferentiating the process involves varying learning activities orstrategies to provide appropriate methods for students to exploreand make sense of concepts. A teacher might assign all studentsthe same product (e.g., presenting to peers) but the processstudents use to create the presentation may differ. Some studentscould work in groups while others meet with the teacher individually.The same assessment criteria can be used for all students.Teachers should consider flexible grouping of students such aswhole class, small group, or individual instruction. Students can begrouped according to their learning styles, readiness levels, interestareas, and/or the requirements of the content or activity presented.Groups should be formed for specific purposes and be flexible incomposition and short-term in duration.Teachers should consider the following examples of differentiatingthe process: Offer hands-on activities for students. Provide activities and resources that encourage students tofurther explore a topic of particular interest. Use activities in which all learners work with the samelearning outcomes but proceed with different levels of support,challenge, or complexity.Differentiating theProductDifferentiating the product involves varying the complexity andtype of product that students create to demonstrate learningoutcomes. Teachers provide a variety of opportunities for studentsto demonstrate and show evidence of what they have learned.Teachers should give students options to demonstrate their learning(e.g., create an online presentation, write a letter, or develop amural). This will lead to an increase in student engagement.6SOCIAL STUDIES 2201 CURRICULUM GUIDE 2019

SECTION ONE: NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR CURRICULUMDifferentiating theLearning EnvironmentThe learning environment includes the physical and the affectivetone or atmosphere in which teaching and learning take place, andcan include the noise level in the room, whether student activitiesare static or mobile, or how the room is furnished and arranged.Classrooms may include tables of different shapes and sizes, spacefor quiet individual work, and areas for collaboration.Teachers can divide the classroom into sections, create learningcentres, or have students work both independently and in groups.The structure should allow students to move from whole group,to small group, pairs, and individual learning experiences andsupport a variety of ways to engage in learning. Teachers shouldbe sensitive and alert to ways in which the classroom environmentsupports their ability to interact with students.Teachers should consider the following examples of differentiatingthe learning environment: Develop routines that allow students to seek help whenteachers are with other students and cannot provide immediateattention. Ensure there are places in the room for students to work quietlyand without distraction, as well as places that invite studentcollaboration. Establish clear guidelines for independent work that matchindividual needs. Provide materials that reflect diversity of student background,interests, and abilities.The physical learning environment must be structured in such away that all students can gain access to information and developconfidence and competence.Meeting the Needsof Students withExceptionalitiesAll students have individual learning needs. Some students,however, have exceptionalities (defined by the Department ofEducation and Early Childhood Development) which impact theirlearning. The majority of students with exceptionalities access theprescribed curriculum. For details of these exceptionalities ceptionalities.htmlSupports for these students may include1.2.3.4.5.AccommodationsModified Prescribed CoursesAlternate CoursesAlternate ProgramsAlternate CurriculumFor further information, see Service Delivery Model for Studentswith Exceptionalities at www.cdli.ca/sdm/Classroom teachers should collaborate with instructional resourceteachers to select and develop strategies which target specificlearning needs.SOCIAL STUDIES 2201 CURRICULUM GUIDE 20197

SECTION ONE: NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR CURRICULUMMeeting the Needsof Students who areHighly Able(includes gifted andtalented)Some students begin a course or topic with a vast amount ofprior experience and knowledge. They may know a large portionof the material before it is presented to the class or be capableof processing it at a rate much faster than their classmates. Allstudents are expected to move forward from their starting point.Many elements of differentiated instruction are useful in addressingthe needs of students who are highly able.Teachers may assign independent study to increase depth of exploration in anarea of particular interest; compact curriculum to allow for an increased rate of contentcoverage commensurate with a student’s ability or degree ofprior knowledge; group students with similar abilities to provide the opportunityfor students to work with their intellectual peers and elevatediscussion and thinking, or delve deeper into a particular topic;and tier instruction to pursue a topic to a greater depth or to makeconnections between various spheres of knowledge.Highly able students require the opportunity for authenticinvestigation to become familiar with the tools and practices of thefield of study. Authentic audiences and tasks are vital for theselearners. Some highly able learners may be identified as gifted andtalented in a particular domain. These students may also requiresupports through the Service Delivery Model for Students withExceptionalities.8SOCIAL STUDIES 2201 CURRICULUM GUIDE 2019

SECTION ONE: NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR CURRICULUMGradual Release ofResponsibilityTeachers must determine when students can work independentlyand when they require assistance. In an effective learningenvironment, teachers choose their instructional activities to modeland scaffold composition, comprehension, and metacognition thatis just beyond the students’ independence level. In the gradualrelease of responsibility approach, students move from a high levelof teacher support to independent work. If necessary, the teacherincreases the level of support when students need assistance. Thegoal is to empower students with their own learning strategies,and to know how, when, and why to apply them to support theirindividual growth. Guided practice supports student independence.As a student demonstrates success, the teacher should graduallydecrease his or her support.Gradual Release of Responsibility ModelModelled“I do you watch”Shared“I do you help”MODELMENTOR(Modelled)(Shared and Guided)GradualRelease ofResponsibilityGuided“You do I help”MONITORIndependent“You do I watch”SOCIAL STUDIES 2201 CURRICULUM GUIDE 2019(Independent)9

SECTION ONE: NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR CURRICULUMLiteracy“Literacy is the ability to identify,understand, interpret, create,communicate and compute, usingprinted and written materialsassociated with varying contexts.Literacy involves a continuum oflearning in enabling individualsto achieve their goals, to developtheir knowledge and potential,and to participate fully in theircommunity and wider society”.To be successful, studentsrequire a set of interrelated skills,strategies and knowledge inmultiple literacies that facilitatetheir ability to participate fully ina variety of roles and contextsin their lives, in order to exploreand interpret the world andcommunicate meaning. (ThePlurality of Literacy and itsImplications for Policies andProgrammes, 2004, p.13)Reading in the ContentAreasLiteracy is a process of receiving information and making meaning from it;and the ability to identify, understand, interpret, communicate,compute, and create text, images, and sounds.Literacy development is a lifelong learning enterprise beginning atbirth that involves many complex concepts and understandings.It is not limited to the ability to read and write; no longer are weexposed only to printed text. It includes the capacity to learn tocommunicate, read, write, think, explore, and solve problems.Individuals use literacy skills in paper, digital, and live interactionsto engage in a variety of activities: Analyze critically and solve problems. Comprehend and communicate meaning. Create a variety of texts. Make connections both personally and inter-textually. Participate in the socio-cultural world of the community. Read and view for enjoyment. Respond personally.These expectations are identified in curriculum documents forspecific subject areas as well as in supporting documents, such asCross-Curricular Reading Tools (CAMET).With modelling, support, and practice, students’ thinking andunderstandings are deepened as they work with engaging contentand participate in focused conversations.The focus for reading in the content areas is on teaching strategiesfor understanding content. Teaching strategies for readingcomprehension benefits all students as they develop transferableskills that apply across curriculum areas.When interacting with different texts, students must read words,view and interpret text features, and navigate through informationpresented in a variety of ways including, but not limited toAdvertisementsMoviesPoemsBlogsMusic videosSongsBooksOnline databasesSpeechesDocumentariesPlaysVideo gamesMagazine articlesPodcastsWebsitesStudents should be able to interact with and comprehend differenttexts at different levels.10SOCIAL STUDIES 2201 CURRICULUM GUIDE 2019

SECTION ONE: NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR CURRICULUMThere are three levels of text comprehension: Independent level – Students are able to read, view, andunderstand texts without assistance. Instructional level – Students are able to read, view, andunderstand most texts but need assistance to fully comprehendsome texts. Frustration level – Students are not able to read or view withunderstanding (i.e., texts may be beyond their current readinglevel).Teachers will encounter students working at all reading levels intheir classrooms and will need to differentiate instruction to meettheir needs. For example, print texts may be presented in audioform, physical movement may be associated with synthesizing newinformation with prior knowledge, or graphic organizers may becreated to present large amounts of print text in a visual manner.When interacting with information that is unfamiliar to students, it isimportant for teachers to monitor how effectively students are usingstrategies to read and view texts: Analyze and think critically about information. Determine importance to prioritize information. Engage in questioning before, during, and after an activityrelated to a task, text, or problem. Make inferences about what is meant but not said. Make predictions. Synthesize information to create new meaning. Visualize ideas and concepts.SOCIAL STUDIES 2201 CURRICULUM GUIDE 201911

SECTION ONE: NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR CURRICULUMLearning Skills forGeneration NextGeneration Next is the groupof students who have notknown a world without personalcomputers, cell phones, and theInternet. They were born intothis technology. They are digitalnatives.Students need content and skills to be successful. Educationhelps students learn content and develop skills needed to besuccessful in school and in all learning contexts and situations.Effective learning environments and curricula challenge learners todevelop and apply key skills within the content areas and acrossinterdisciplinary themes.Learning Skills for Generation Next encompasses three broadareas: Learning and Innovation Skills enhance a person’s ability tolearn, create new ideas, problem solve, and collaborate. Life and Career Skills address leadership, and interpersonaland affective domains. Literacy Skills develop reading, writing, and numeracy, andenhance the use of information and communication technology.The diagram below illustrates the relationship between these areas.A 21st century curriculum employs methods that integrate innovativeand research-driven teaching strategies, modern learningtechnologies, and relevant resources and contexts.12SOCIAL STUDIES 2201 CURRICULUM GUIDE 2019

SECTION ONE: NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR CURRICULUMSupport for students to develop these abilities and skills is importantacross curriculum areas and should be integrated into teaching,learning, and assessment strategies. Opportunities for integrationof these skills and abilities should be planned with engagingand experiential activities that support the gradual release ofresponsibility model. For example, lessons in a variety of contentareas can be infused with learning skills for Generation Next byusing open-ended questioning, role plays, inquiry approaches,self-directed learning, student role rotation, and Internet-basedtechnologies.All programs have a shared responsibility in developing students’capabilities within all three skill areas.SOCIAL STUDIES 2201 CURRICULUM GUIDE 201913

SECTION ONE: NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR CURRICULUMEducation forSustainableDevelopmentSustainable development is comprised of three integrally connectedareas: economy, society, and environment.Sustainable development isdefined as “development thatmeets the needs of the presentwithout compromising the abilityof future generations to meettheir own needs”.(Our CommonFuture, 43)As conceived by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, andCultural Organization (UNESCO) the overall goal of Education forSustainable Development (ESD) is to integrate the knowledge,skills, values, and perspectives of sustainable developmentinto all aspects of education and learning. Changes in humanbehaviour should create a more sustainable future that supportsenvironmental integrity and economic viability, resulting in a justsociety for all generations.ESD involves teaching for rather than teaching about sustainabledevelopment. In this way students develop the skills, attitudes, andperspectives to meet their present needs without compromising theability of future generations to meet their needs.Within ESD, the knowledge component spans an understanding ofthe interconnectedness of our political, economic, environmental,and social worlds, to the role of science and technology in thedevelopment of societies and their impact on the environment.The skills necessary include being able to assess bias, analyzeconsequences of choices, ask questions, and solve problems.ESD values and perspectives include an appreciation for theinterdependence of all life forms, the importance of individualresponsibility and action, an understanding of global issues as wellas local issues in a global context. Students need to be aware thatevery issue has a history, and that many global issues are linked.14SOCIAL STUDIES 2201 CURRICULUM GUIDE 2019

SECTION ONE: NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR CURRICULUMAssessment and EvaluationAssessmentAssessment is the process of gathering information on studentlearning.How learning is assessed and evaluated and how results arecommunicated send clear messages to students and others aboutwhat is valued.Assessment instruments are used to gather information forevaluation. Information gathered through assessment helpsteachers determine students’ strengths and needs, and guidesfuture instruction.Teachers are encouraged to be flexible in assessing studentlearning and to seek diverse ways students might demonstratewhat they know and are able to do.Evaluation involves the weighing of the assessment informationagainst a standard in order to make a judgement about studentachievement.Assessment can be used for different purposes:1. Assessment for learning guides and informs instruction.2. Assessment as learning focuses on what students aredoing well, what they are struggling with, where the areas ofchallenge are, and what to do next.3. Assessment of learning makes judgements about studentperformance in relation to curriculum outcomes.1. Assessment for LearningAssessment for learning involves frequent, interactive assessmentsdesigned to make student learning visible. This enables teachersto identify learning needs and adjust teaching accordingly.Assessment for learning is not about a score or mark; it is anongoing process of teaching and learning: Pre-assessments provide teachers with information about whatstudents already know and can do. Self-assessments allow students to set goals for their ownlearning. Assessment for learning provides descriptive and specificfeedback to students and parents regarding the next stage oflearning. Data collected during the learning process from a range

SOCIAL STUDIES 2201 CURRICULUM GUIDE 2019 I. II SOCIAL STUDIES 2201 CURRICULUM GUIDE 2019. TABLE OF CONTENTS SOCIAL STUDIES 2201 CURRICULUM GUIDE 2019 III . all students who graduate from high school. Achievement of the EGLs will prepare students to continue to learn throughout the

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