UA STARCommercial Refrigeration Technician ExamSTUDY GUIDE(With Practice Exams)United Association Training Department&The University Center for Extended LearningCorporate & Professional Development Services
FORWARDThis Study Guide is designed to assist you in locating information in UATextbooks and other sources that relate to the 9 categories and 32 tasksidentified during the DACUM (Develop A CUrriculuM) process administered byFerris State University. The DACUM is an in-depth job and task analysis thatserves as the base for the UA STAR exam.The 9 categories and 32 tasks identified during the DACUM are included in thisStudy Guide so that you can see first-hand the results of the study and the itemsthat you can expect to encounter on the UA STAR exam. Each category andtask is numbered, and each task is broken into a number of smaller jobs that atechnician would be expected to perform in order to complete the task.Below each task you will find an underlined paragraph that looks likethis and contains general reference to UA textbooks and othersources. In some cases, specific pages are cited. In others, chapters,but in most, only general reference is given.You will find that the UA STAR exam is a comprehensive exam. It is designed totest the knowledge of the experienced technician. As such, this Study Guide isintended to be a reference for the experienced technician to use in preparing forthe exam. It is expected that the inexperienced technician will not be able tosuccessfully complete the exam based on the Study Guide and the informationcontained in the reference materials alone – experience is also required.It is expected that the UA STAR test candidate is the technician who hascompleted the UA training and has gained several years of experience in thefield. Many of the tasks and jobs identified in the DACUM are those that can onlybe learned by doing. The test candidate that expects to achieve success on theUA STAR exam by merely using the Study Guide to locate information intextbooks will likely be disappointed.It is recognized that even the best technician does not work in all areas of theservice industry. Further, some knowledge can be forgotten through lack of use.As such, it is recommended that you study a number of UA textbooks and otherresources indicated in preparing for the UA STAR exam. A list is provided on thenext page. These texts were cited throughout the Study Guide. You may wish toreview the texts where you feel you need additional knowledge. In addition,there are many other excellent books on the market that can serve as referencefor you. They are far too numerous to list. You may know of some of them oreven own them. Feel free to use them in your studies.The UA and Delmar text books contain many, many good questions that provideexcellent practice material and act as a learning tool. If you spend time andanswer the questions at the back of the texts successfully, you will be successfulon the UA STAR exam.This Study Guide also contains nearly 200 practice questions. All questions aremultiple choice, with four possible answers. All questions contain explanationsfor each of the correct answers. The questions are designed to help you reviewPage 2 of 113Rev. 1.1 4/22/07
some of the material that you will need to know when taking the exam. Thepractice test will indicate to you whether or not you have areas of difficulty.With the areas of difficulty identified, you can look into references identified andupdate your knowledge before taking the certification test.The UA STAR exam is a tough test, but fair and recognized by your industry.With some hard work, you can be successful in passing it. Good luck!Page 3 of 113Rev. 1.1 4/22/07
UA Textbooks used as Reference in this Study GuideUAHTM United Association HVACR Training ManualUAEPAM United Association Environmental Protection Agency TrainingManualUARSM United Association Refrigeration Mechanical Equipment ServiceManualUARCM United Association Refrigeration Control ManualUABEM United Association Basic Electricity ManualUAECSM United Association Electrical Controls for MechanicalEquipment Service ManualUAECSMTSG United Association Electrical Controls for MechanicalEquipment Service Manual-Troubleshooting GuideUACSS United Association Customer Service ool.htmlPage 4 of 113Rev. 1.1 4/22/07
CONTENTSCommercial Refrigeration Technician Certification .1FORWARD .2UA Textbooks used as Reference in this Study Guide .4Category A:Refrigeration Fundamentals.7Task 1. Refrigeration principles .7Task 2. Refrigerants and oils .8Task 3. Refrigerant Safety .8Task 4. Refrigerant Handling and Transportation Regulations .9Category B:Refrigeration System Operation .9Task 5. Piping .9Task 6. Compressor .10Task 7. Condensers.11Task 8. Expansion Devices.11Task 9. Evaporators.12Task 10. Start-up and Commission Systems .12Category C:Basic Electricity.13Task 11. Electrical Theory .13Task 12. Measuring Instruments.13Task 13. Electrical Circuits (Series and Parallel) .13Task 14. Electric Service .14Category D:Controls .14Task 15. Electric Motors and Starting Components .14Page 5 of 113Rev. 1.1 4/22/07
Task 16. Automatic Controls and Devices .15Task 17. Electrical Troubleshooting .15Category E:Rack Systems .16Task 18. Demonstrate General Knowledge of Rack Systems .16Task 19. Install and Maintain Oil Control Systems.16Task 20. Add Liquid Subcooling.17Task 21. Perform Basic Service on “Rack” System .17Category F:Self-Contained Units .18Task 22. Metering Devices .18Task 23. Charging Procedures .18Task 24. Perform Maintenance on Self-contained Unit.18Category G:Ice Machines .19Task 25. Clean and Sanitize the Machine.19Task 26. Service Ice Machine .19Category H:Auxiliary Systems.20Task 27. Hot Water Heat Reclaim Systems.20Task 28. Defrost Systems.20Category I:Business and Customer Relations .21Task 29. Establish Customer Relations .21Task 31. Keep Records, Document Work Performed .21Task 32. Exhibit Professionalism .22Formulas.23Practice Questions.26Practice Questions with Explanations .58Page 6 of 113Rev. 1.1 4/22/07
Category A:Refrigeration FundamentalsTask 1. Refrigeration principlesAnalyze system conditions, using a Pressure/Temperature (P/T) chartIdentify refrigeration system componentsExplain the operation of a "simple" refrigeration systemCalibrate a ThermometerRead temperatures in a refrigeration systemDefine refrigeration cycle terminologyIdentify common abbreviationsExplain heat transfer, in terms of sensible and latent heat, that occurs inthe refrigeration cycleDefine "refrigeration"Identify the four major components of the vapor compression refrigerationcycleExplain the effects of: superheating the suction gas, increasing thecondensing pressure, subcooling the liquidExplain the importance of subcooling and superheatSeparate the components of the high side from the low side of therefrigeration systemExplain how fluids flowIdentify the state, pressure, temperature, and condition of the refrigerant atkey points in the refrigeration cycleGiven a saturation temperature, determine the refrigerant pressureGiven a pressure of a saturated refrigerant, determine its temperatureExplain "temperature glide"Explain the function of major components of the refrigeration systemPlot a P-H diagram for an operating refrigeration systemLocate superheat specification on datasheetExplain how 25,400 microns compares to one inch of vacuumExplain system pressures and temperatures in terms of "saturation point","sub-cooled liquid", and "superheated vapor"Describe the relationship of air flow to pressures, temperatures and coilperformanceDescribe the effect of non-condensable in the refrigeration systemIdentify requirements of product preservationHumidity requirementsAir quality (ambient)ReferenceUnited Association HVACR Training Manual, Sections 1, 3, 21 and 25Page 7 of 113Rev. 1.1 4/22/07
Task 2. Refrigerants and OilsExplain problems occurring from using the wrong oil typeExplain the pressure-temperature relationship of refrigerantsExplain why systems using blended refrigerants must be charged as aliquid:Identify type of refrigerant using pressure/temperature chartList common refrigerant typesMatch common refrigerant types with related color codesMatch refrigerant types with the correct compressor oil typeRecognize that refrigerant oil is heavier than refrigerant liquidRecognize that refrigerant oils are hygroscopic and take steps to avoid oilcontaminationRefrigerant types:--hydrocarbon refrigerants--hydrochloroflourocarbon refrigerants--chlorofluorocarbon refrigerants--hydro fluorocarbon refrigerantsBlended refrigerantsRefrigerant oils--alkyl benzene oils--glycols--estersSafety classifications and nomenclatureReferenceUnited Association HVACR Training Manual, Sections 3 and 9Task 3. Refrigerant SafetyDemonstrate an understanding of safety policies and practices by passingthe safety examinationDemonstrate appropriate fire prevention and responseDemonstrate use of safety tools, equipment and proceduresWeight of a refrigerant drum (tare weight)Disposable vs. reusable tanksDetermine the safe capacity of refrigerant in a cylinderIdentify conditions which cause refrigerants to become toxicReferenceUnited Association HVACR Training Manual, Sections 4, 7 and 8Page 8 of 113Rev. 1.1 4/22/07
Task 4. Refrigerant Handling and Transportation RegulationsOzone, ozone depletion, and global warmingList at least five safety procedures to be followed when handlingrefrigerant cylinders.410ARefrigerant recovery (passive and active recovery)Refrigerant recyclingRefrigerant reclaimingProcedures--recovering refrigerant from a system with an operative compressor--recovering refrigerant from a system with a self-contained recovery unitReferenceUnited Association HVACR Training Manual, Sections 3 and 9United Association Environmental Protection Agency Training Manual,Page 38Category B:Refrigeration System OperationTask 5. PipingFabricate and install hangers, struts, and supportsBraze (solder) copper pipe--Solder copper to copper pipe--Solder copper to steel--Solder copper to brassInstall pipe with proper pitchInsulate, glue, and cradle pipeRepair leaks on racks or single unit pipingExplain purpose of suction line trapsExplain when reduced risers are requiredIdentify pipe fittings by sightIdentify pipe size by sight (ID and OD)Identify size of insulation used on medium- or low-temperature linesExplain proper procedures for underground pipingIdentify types of copper tubingSelect the appropriate type of copper tubing for a given applicationIdentify types of brass fittingsSelect the appropriate type of brass fitting for a given applicationIdentify types of hand and shut-off valvesSelect the appropriate hand valve or shut-off valve for a given applicationDemonstrate proper methods of component heat protection when brazingDemonstrate knowledge of proper nitrogen purge while brazingExplain the effect of nitrogen purging during brazingExplain proper pressure testing procedures and required micron levelspecificationsPage 9 of 113Rev. 1.1 4/22/07
Use charts and tables to calculate pressure loss from fittings and piperunsExplain proper use of vibration eliminatorsDemonstrate knowledge of proper installation of vibration eliminatorsDemonstrate knowledge of proper sealing of threaded pipe connectionsDemonstrate knowledge of proper pipe flaring proceduresDemonstrate knowledge of proper pipe swedging proceduresRead refrigeration system legendRead store maps and diagramsDescribe piping layout schemesReferenceUnited Association HVACR Training Manual, Sections 7 and 25United Association Refrigeration Mechanical Equipment Service Manual,Pages245-254Task 6. CompressorExplain key factors relating to proper oil return to the compressorExplain the affect of reversed rotation on various compressor typesIdentify compressor componentsIdentify compressor typesCompare compressor suction pressure, discharge pressure, and powerconsumption to manufacturer’s performance curvesDemonstrate a fundamental understanding of a compound compressorExplain how to determine cause of compressor failureDetermine size, BTUs and applicationExplain the purpose of capacity control systemsExplain the relationship between discharge air temperature and liquid linedifferential settingsExplain the three factors that control compressor capacity (suctionpressure, compression ratio, and x)Explain the typical cause of grounded compressor windingsExplain why it may be permissible to install a resistor across a single openthermistor in a compressorIdentify devices used to protect against reverse rotation on some screwcompressorsList possible causes for broken compressor connecting rodsExplain impact of high compression ratioExplain liquid injection system operation (demand cooling)Explain oil level control valve operationExplain oil pressure safety switch operationDefine the term “de-superheat” as it applies to compound compressorsIdentify typical applications of a satellite compressorCalculate compressor compression ratioIdentify some factors that affect compressor capacityPage 10 of 113Rev. 1.1 4/22/07
ReferenceUnited Association HVACR Training Manual, Sections 3, 14, 23, 29, 36,38 and 48Task 7. CondensersExplain how to check for proper fan motor rotation and how to correct it, ifnecessaryExplain how to determine the presence of non-condensableIdentify condenser componentsDetermine heat transfer of condenserSelect appropriate condenser for applicationIdentify condenser types:--air cooled--water cooled--evaporativeRecognize failing condenser fan motorsExplain proper fan cycling and sequencingIdentify and explain the function of an air cooled condenserDescribe the effect of non-condensable in the refrigeration systemReplace motor on condenserClean condenserDetermine conditions that impact condenser capacityExplain split condenser operationIdentify different methods of head pressure control and temperatureReferenceUnited Association HVACR Training Manual, Sections 3, 22 and 33United Association Refrigeration Control Manual, Pages 107-115Task 8. Expansion DevicesIdentify TXV types:--balance port--conventional--electronic--pressure limiting--automaticAdjust superheat setting on TXVExplain the operation of various expansion valvesIdentify difference between internal and external equalizingDifferent types of TX valves for different refrigerantsDifferent types of temperature (C, Z, limiting, cross-charges)Identify different types of capillary tubesIdentify different types of low and high side floatsPage 11 of 113Rev. 1.1 4/22/07
Distributors and T'sReferenceUnited Association Refrigeration Control Manual, Pages 1-13, 15-21, 3135, and43-51United Association HVACR Training Manual, Section 24Task 9. EvaporatorsHow air flow effects transfer heat variableDetermine latent and sensible heatDifferent refrigerant configurationsAir flow (counter flow and draw-through) that effects air flow patternsUse of heat exchangersCondensatePlacement (low velocity vs. high velocity)Pressure dropPitch of the bladeFan blade applicationExplain pressure drop across a coilReferenceUnited Association Refrigeration Control Manual, Pages 37-51, 428-430United Association HVACR Training Manual, Sections 3 and 21Task 10. Start-up and Commission SystemsRefrigerant Leak Test (Check) with electronic leak detectorRefrigerant Leak Test (Check) with soap bubble solutionRefrigerant Leak Test (Check) with nitrogen and trace gas (R-22)Pressure Test a System with dry nitrogenEvacuate a system using three point evacuationCharge system with refrigerantLiquid charge systemVapor charge systemRepair LeaksAdjust EPR/SORIT valvesExamine environmental conditions of the storeCheck refrigerant level and moistureCheck oil level on all compressorsSet condenser fan and pressure controlsAdjust pressure regulating controlsAdjust differential Pressure Regulating controlsCheck superheat and adjust expansion valve as requiredPage 12 of 113Rev. 1.1 4/22/07
Set defrost schedule for cases and unitsProgram and Commission micro-controllerOptimize energy management featuresRecord initial system operating parameters (System Vital Signs)Check electricalExplain operation to ownerReferenceUnited Association HVACR Training Manual, Sections 4, 8, 10, 25, 28 and38Category C:Basic ElectricityTask 11. Electrical TheoryDirect currentAlternating currentOhms lawConductorsInsulatorsElectrical quantitiesReferenceUnited Association HVACR Training Manual, Sections 2 and 12United Association Basic Electricity Manual, Pages 26-27, 33-35 and 8387Task 12. Measuring InstrumentsVoltmetersAmmetersOhmmetersAnalog metersDigital metersMultimetersMegometerMicro amp meterReferenceUnited Association HVACR Training Manual, Unit 5United Association Basic Electricity Manual, Pages 43-55 and 67-128Task 13. Electrical Circuits (Series and Parallel)Page 13 of 113Rev. 1.1 4/22/07
Wiring diagramsWire sizeCircuit protection (fuses, circuit breakers, GFCI)ReferenceUnited Association HVACR Training Manual, Sections 12, 15 and 17United Association Basic Electricity Manual, Pages 43-60, 99-102 and123-128United Association Electrical Controls for Mechanical Equipment ServiceManual, Page 7Task 14. Electric Service120/240 V. single-phase serviceThree-phase serviceReferenceUnited Association HVACR Training Manual, Sections 12, 17, 18, 19, and39,Unit 5United Association Basic Electricity Manual, Pages 83-87, 99-102 and123-128United Association Refrigeration Mechanical EquipmentService Manual, V1,Pages 276-277, 291-292 and 311-321United Association Refrigeration Mechanical Equipment Service Manual,V2,Pages5115-516Category D:ControlsTask 15. Electric Motors and Starting ComponentsMotor usesMotor power and starting torqueMotor typesSingle-phase motorsThree-phase motorsVariable speed motorsProcedures--identifying the common, start, and run terminals on a split-phase motor--checking the coil and contacts--check capacitorsMotor starters and contactorsPage 14 of 113Rev. 1.1 4/22/07
Identify start circuit componentsPhase monitorsReferenceUnited Association HVACR Training Manual, Sections 17, 18, 19, 25 and39United Association Electrical Controls for Mechanical Equipment ServiceManual – Troubleshooting Guide, Page 29United Association Refrigeration Mechanical Equipment Service Manual,V1,Pages 276-277Task 16. Automatic Controls and DevicesOverloadsOverload on three-phase motorsLimit switchesFan switchesFan-limit switchesThermostats (line voltage and low voltage types and programmable)Magnetically operated devices (solenoids, control transformers andvariable-speed motor controls)Electromagnetic devices (relays, contactors, motor starters, defrost timers,flow switches, and float switches)Pressure switches and controls (high, low, dual, and oil safety)Electronic controls (solid-state relays, starting relays, timers, thermistors,transducers)ReferenceUnited Association HVACR Training Manual, Sections 14, 22, 24 and 25United Association Refrigeration Control Manual, Pages 1-13, 43-51 and88-92www.thermistor.comTask 17. Electrical TroubleshootingControl-circuit problems:--holding coils--thermostats--transformers--control fuses--pressure controls and safety devicesPage 15 of 113Rev. 1.1 4/22/07
--lock out circuitsPower-circuit problems:--contactors and relay contacts--circuit breakers and fuses--fan motors and compressor motors--capacitors--utility supply problems (under and over voltage problems)Service call 1: Blown line voltage fuseService call 2: defective transformerService call 3: defective contactorService call 4: burned motor windingsService call 5: grounded compressorReferenceUnited Association HVACR Training Manual, Section 25United Association Refrigeration Mechanical Equipment Service Manual,Page 373Category E:Rack SystemsTask 18. Demonstrate General Knowledge of Rack SystemsMultiple compressors with parallel racks (common piping)Capacity controlEfficiency in electrical usePressure controlTransducersLoad distribution and balance loadMultiplex systemsReferenceUnited Association HVACR Training Manual, Sections 19, 25 and 26Task 19. Install and Maintain Oil Control SystemsImportance of oil returnInstall oil separatorCooling oil with refrigerantPage 16 of 113Rev. 1.1 4/22/07
Adjust oil regulators to generate proper oil levelAdjust oil differential regulator to set pressureInstall differential pressure check valveRecognize that refrigerant oils are "hygroscopic" and take steps to s/HT-TT6.pdfUnited Association HVACR Training Manual, Sections 25 and 26United Association Refrigeration Mechanical Equipment Service Manual,Page 393Task 20. Add Liquid SubcoolingTypes--mechanical and ambientUsed to cool the oil and reduce temperature of liquid ol.htmlUnited Association HVACR Training Manual, Sections 3 and 48Task 21. Perform Basic Service on “Rack” SystemInstall and remove refrigeration manifold gaugesRecover refrigerant from a systemPerform evacuation and dehydration techniquesLiquid and vapor charge a refrigeration systemDetermine system chargeDetermine and adjust superheatDetermine subcoolingUse a sling/ electronic psychomotor to check environmental conditionsExplain the need to replace vacuum pump oil on a routine basis and afterevacuation of a wet or contaminated systemIdentify when system evacuation is requiredRecognize a "wet" systemExplain "Critical Charged System"Locate and use technical referencesWeigh in refrigerantAdjust head pressureCheck pressure drop across componentsCheck electrical componentsDetermine capabilities of the rackReferenceUnited Association HVACR Training Manual, Sections 3 and 29Page 17 of 113Rev. 1.1 4/22/07
Category F:Self-Contained UnitsTask 22. Metering DevicesCritical charge for the capillary tubeCritical charge for the automatic expansion valveSizing of the thermostatic expansion valveReferenceUnited Association HVACR Training Manual, Sections 3, 24, 25 and 45Task 23. Charging ProceduresVapor chargingLiquid chargingChecking refrigerant chargeCheck superheat at compressor and subcoolingWeigh in the charge for critically charged systemsControl applicationsDetermine temperature control per applicationReferenceUnited Association HVACR Training Manual, Sections 3, 9, 10, 24, 25 and45Task 24. Perform Maintenance on Self-contained UnitCheck for abnormal noise or vibrationsCheck condenser air flow for restrictionsCheck refrigerant levelCheck for refrigerant, oil and water leaks (Visual)Check condensate pan / pump operationClean condenser coil (wash or blow out)Clean condensate panCheck and record system vital signsReferencePage 18 of 113Rev. 1.1 4/22/07
United Association HVACR Training Manual, Sections 14 and 25Category G:Ice MachinesTask 25. Clean and Sanitize the MachineRemove ice from binUse special cleaner to remove mineral deposits from evaporator andwater-related componentsChange filtersFlush system thoroughlyVerify or adjust proper water levelPurpose of cleaning and sanitizing - eliminate bacteriaReferenceUnited Association HVACR Training Manual, Section 27Task 26. Service Ice MachineStart-up and check ice productionRemove first two batches of iceRecord initial system operating parameters (System Vital Signs):--ambient temperature--current draw--operating conditionsCheck operating pressuresCheck water flowTake water temperatureCalculate batch or cycle time for production or clock productionClean condenser on air- and water-cooled systemsComply with manufacturer's recommendationsAdjust float assembly, if necessaryCheck inlet water filter and check water qualityCheck water regulating valve on water-cooled systemsWinterize ice machines:--Drain and blow out all lines--Disconnect powerReferenceUnited Association HVACR Training Manual, Section 27www.thermistor.comPage 19 of 113Rev. 1.1 4/22/07
Category H:Auxiliary SystemsTask 27. Hot Water Heat Reclaim SystemsOperation and piping is criticalOperation of heat-reclaim and solenoid valvesWater flowRecoveryPressure regulated valve operation and problems with loss of headpressureImportance of proper charge with change in ambient temperature, exceptfor properly designed systemsMost popular--subcooling liquidFunction:--Improves system efficiency--Can be used to reduce flash gas for entering metering deviceIdentify two types of subcooling use--ambient and mechanicalCheck for proper operation; replace unit, if requiredReferenceUnited Association HVACR Training Manual, Sections 22 and 26Task 28. Defrost SystemsExplain the need for defrostingDifferentiate between defrost types and methods (hot gas, cool gas,electric, off-time, reverse air)Explain store operations and effects on operation and settings ofrefrigeration systemExplain the role of defrost in case operationList common defrost termination system typesExplain the terms "drip cycle", and "drain cycle"ReferenceUnited Association HVACR Training Manual, Sections 2 and 25United Association Refrigeration Mechanical Equipment Service Manual,Pages 430-435United Association Refrigeration Mechanical Equipment Service Manual,Pages 428-430 and 432-435Page 20 of 113Rev. 1.1 4/22/07
Category I:Business and Customer RelationsTask 29. Establish Customer RelationsAcknowledge customer needsResolve complaintsExplain value of services to customerClean work siteDemonstrate customer telephone etiquetteExplain service performed in layman’s termsPerceive customer’s preferred level of detail in explanationsCommunicate effectively with an angry customer.Deal with technician delays and scheduling realitiesExplain contract termsAcknowledge customer needsAvoid escalation of emotionCommunicates effectivelyDocument product condition upon arrivalFollow-up with customerPrioritize jobsResolve complaintsSell yourself and the company to the customerClarify customer complaintsExplain unit operation to the customerDescribe unit problem to the customerEstimate repair costsReferenceUnited Association Customer Service Skills, Pages 13, 40 47 and 49Task 31. Keep Records, Document Work PerformedTrack/maintain inventoryDocument refrigerant handling/usageSubmit required paperworkComplete startup/commissioning formPrepare customer invoice/statementMaintain vehicle recordsMaintain MSDS sheetsComplete service reportComplete warranty paperwork requirementsComplete operating logComplete PM checklistComplete required business operations reportsUse computer to order and track replacement parts, if availablePage 21 of 113Rev. 1.1 4/22/07
Warranty: Date parts to determine warranty coverageReferenceUnited Association Customer Service Skills, Page 47Task 32. Exhibit ProfessionalismParticipate in safety trainingParticipate in technical trainingObtain professional certificationsParticipate in continuing education and trainingPart
Category A: Refrigeration Fundamentals Task 1. Refrigeration principles Analyze system conditions, using a Pressure/Temperature (P/T) chart Identify refrigeration system components Explain the operation of a "simple" refrigeration system Calibrate a Thermometer Read temperatures in a refrigeration system Define refrigeration cycle terminology
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Inc. Refrigeration Manual. Although each separate part covers a specific area of refrigera-tion theory and practice, each successive publication presumes a basic understanding of the material presented in the previous sections. Part 1 Fundamentals of Refrigeration Part 2 Refrigeration System Components Part 3 The Refrigeration Load Part 4 .
Refrigeration Basics. 7 What is Refrigeration? In vapor-compression refrigeration, a refrigerant is used to move . Commonly used in low and multi-temperature refrigeration systems Can be designed with or without recirculation pumps Ammonia refrigerant. 19 B A C F H IGH P RESSURE V APOR H IGH P RESSURE L IQUID M ED P
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