Top 10 Gardening Blunders, And How To Avoid Them Don .

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Top 10 Gardening Blunders, and How to Avoid ThemDon EngebretsonKeynote SpeakerTo make Don's "Top 10", a gardening blunder must be common, majors, and one thatDon himself has made at least three times in his 30 years of gardening.You will find out what's on the list‐ and how to benefit from his mistakes.About the SpeakerDon Engebretson, the Renegade Gardener, is rapidly becoming one of America's best‐known gardeningauthorities. Television appearances as gardening and landscape design expert on HGTV's "TIPical MaryEllen" andPBS‐TV's "HOMETIME" and appearances at home, garden and flower shows across America have placed Don infront of national audiences.His humorous, opinionated work as a garden writer for national publications such as Better Homes and Gardens,Midwest Living, Landscape Solutions, Garden, Deck and Landscape and The Northern Gardener have garnerednational attention; Don recently won his sixth national writing award from the GardenWriters Association ofAmerica.Don's popular Web site,, has been praised in newspapers across the country. He isthe author of five gardening books and the subject of numerous newspaper articles syndicated across thecountry. In the summer month Don operates Renegade Gardener Landscaping, specilizing in landscaperenovations and custom stonework.Notes:

Straw Bale Gardening BasicsWould you like to grow a vegetable garden, but you have poor soil or you are unable or unwilling to get downon the ground to plant and harvest, or do you simply hate pulling weeds? “Straw Bale Gardening” is just whatyou need!Easy access is one benefit of gardening in bales. Straw bales vary in dimension, but the 20-24” heightmakes planting and harvesting easier. For anyone with a bad back or other disability that makes getting downon the ground difficult, the straw bale’s raised height means everyone can enjoy gardening.Bales can sit on any surface because the plants root into the bales. Set up a row of bales end to end withthe strings on the sides. Pound a 7 ft. steel fence post into the soil at both ends of the row, and pull 14-gaugewire from post to post every 10” above the bales. The wire trellis gives the plants somewhere to climb andhelps stabilize other plants. Stretch a soaker hose down the center of the row and pin the hose with long wirestaples. Adding an auto timer to the soaker hose makes it easy to keep the garden watered throughout thegrowing season. Putting landscape fabric, cardboard or plywood down between rows keeps the grass andweeds from growing, and gives vines a place to spread.No weeding is one of the biggest advantages of straw bale gardening. Since clean straw has very few weedseeds in it, the bales will not sprout weeds.“Conditioning” the straw prior to planting is an important part of the process. Nitrogen fertilizer and waterare used to encourage the bacteria growth inside the bales; this begins to decompose the straw inside thebale and turns it into “soil” that allows the newly planted seedlings to thrive. The fertilizer can be synthetic ororganic, and only approximately 1/3 pound of active nitrogen per bale is needed to get the process started.Water in a little fertilizer every other day for about ten days and the bales will be ready to plant.Bales decompose after heating up early in spring when nitrogen is added. The heat generated inside thedecomposing bales acts like a heater in a greenhouse. The bales, once wet, can get up to 1500 inside, butafter 10-12 days they will cool down to less than 1050 and can then be planted. Each spring fresh bales arerecommended to take advantage of this heating and cooling process.Potted seedlings can be planted directly into the bales. Or, if planting with vegetable seeds, then a 1-2”coating of clean, weed seed free, potting mix spread over the surface of the bale is required to form a seedbed. Once planted, it is easy to cover the bale with 3 mil polyethylene plastic, tucking it under the bale stringson the sides, and feeding the poly over the first wire stretched 10” above the bale surface. This makes a little“straw bale greenhouse,” enabling the seeds to sprout and grow rapidly. Besides holding in heat from thedecomposing straw below, the poly tent also keeps heavy spring rains from washing away the tenderseedbed, and keeps rabbits or deer from eating the new seedlings. As the plants grow, raise the poly to thenext level of wire. Tie the poly behind the post to allow the wind and air to circulate around the plants keepingthem cool on hot days. The poly comes off completely when the weather breaks and the nights warm up, andseedlings are well established. The heat in the bales will last about 4-6 weeks after the bales are planted.Tomatoes, potatoes, pumpkins and cucumbers are just some of the hundreds of vegetable crops thatgrow extremely well in the straw bales. Don’t grow corn, it’s too unstable; rhubarb and asparagus are othercrops that need permanent soil placement as they come back from the same root year after year. The balesoften sprout mushrooms; however don’t eat them, just ignore them and they usually disappear quickly. Oncethe growing season is over, pull off the bale strings and toss the remaining straw/compost into a pile to finishcomposting over winter. Use the resulting compost the following spring to mulch perennials, enhance existinggarden soil, spread around trees and shrubs, or to fill containers for patio flowers.Mice aren’t an issue as they tend to find the wet, hot and decomposing straw very inhospitable for livingquarters, and straw has almost no food value. Hay bales can be used for gardening, but they are moreexpensive; heavier; smell a bit because they decompose slower; and, weedier because hay has more seedswhich sprout more weeds. Stick with straw unless it isn’t available, and opt for hay as a second option only.To learn more about Joel Karsten, the straw bale gardening pioneer, visit or askquestions and post your garden photos at

RENEGADE GARDENER www.renegadegardener.comREALLY COOL PLANTS FOR NORTHERN GARDENS!PerennialsLysimachia punctata ‘Alexander’Ht. 30-36”Angelica gigasPart ShadeHt. 3-5’Shade/Part ShadeCalamintha nepatoides ‘White Cloud’Ht. 18” Sun/Part SunPolemonium reptans ‘Stairway to Heaven’ ‘Snow and Saphires’Ht. 12” ‘Snow’ Ht. 24” Part ShadeAjuga reptans ‘Black Scallop’ ‘Burgundy Glow’ (Z3)Ht. 4-6” Part ShadeEuphorbia dulcis (Cushion Spurge) ‘Chameleon’ ‘Bonfire’Ht. 12-14” Full SunEupatorium rugosum ‘Chocolate’Ht. 24-36”Part ShadeHeuchera ‘Crème Brulee’ ‘Mocha Mint’ ‘Peach Melba’ ‘Amber Waves’ ‘Green Spice’Ht. 10-18” Full Sun/Part ShadeHeucherella ‘Alabama Sunrise’ ‘Sweet Tea’Ht. 8-10” Full Sun/Part ShadeActaea racemosa ‘James Compton’ ‘Black Negligee’ ‘Hillside Black Beauty’Ht. 4-7’ Part Shade/ShadeEchinacea (Coneflower) Big Sky Series; ‘Sunrise’ ‘Twilight’ ‘Pixie Meadowbright’Ht. 24-26” Full Sun‘Fatal Attraction’Astilbe ‘Color Flash’Ht. 18” Part SunHakonechloa macra ‘Aureola’Ht. 1-2’ Light ShadeTrees & ShrubsCercis Canadensis Northern StrainHt. 25’ x 20-25’ W. Full Sun/Part ShadePicea pungens ‘Globosa’ (Dwarf Globe Blue Spruce)Ht. 6-8’ x 7’ W. Full SunChamaecyparis pisifera ‘King’s Gold’ C. nootkatensis‘King’s Gold’ Ht. 3-4 Ft. x 4’ W. Nootkatensis to 30’ H.Weigela florida ‘My Monet’Full Sun

Ht. 2’-3’ x 2’ W. Full SunMicrobiota ‘Northern Pride’ (Russian Cypress)Ht. 8-14” x 5’ W. Part Shade/ShadeCornus sanguinea ‘Cato’ (Arctic Sun Dogwood)Ht. 3-4’ x 3-4’ Part Shade/ShadeThuja occidentalis ‘Yellow Ribbon’ (Arborvitae)Ht. 8’-10’ x 3-4’ W. Full Sun/Part ShadePhysocarpus (Ninebark}‘Dart’s Gold’ 5’ x 4’ ‘Diabolo’ 6-8’ x 6’ ‘Center Glow’ 6-8’ x 6’ Full/Part SunRhus typhina ‘Bailtiger’ (Sumac) Cutleaf Tiger EyesHt. 4-6’ x 4–6’ W. Full SunMagnolia ‘Ann’ 10’ x 6’ ‘Ricki’ 10’ x 6’ ‘Susan’ 10-15’ x 10’ 15Full/Part SunEuonymus fortunei ‘Canadale Gold’Ht. 24” x 30” W. Full Sun/Part ShadePinus strobus ‘Blue Shag’ (Dwarf White Pine)Ht. 4-6’ x 6-7’ W. Full SunPinus flexilis ‘Limber Extra Blue’ (Pine)Ht. 25-30’ x 15-20’ W. Full SunChamaecyparis ‘Baby Blue’Ht. 4’ x 30” W. Full SunFothergilla ‘Blue Shadow’ ‘Mt. Airy’Ht. 3-4’ x 3’ W. Full Sun to Part ShadePhysocarpus opulifolius ‘Donna May’ (Little Devil Ninebark)‘Little Devil’ Ht. 3-4’ x 3’ W. Full SunPicea mariana ‘Golden’ (Golden Black Spruce)Ht. 30’ x 15-20’ W. Full SunJuniperus communis ‘Gold Cone’Ht. 3-5’ x 2-3’ W. Full SunSambucus nigra ‘Black Lace’ (Elderberry)Ht. 6-8’ x 5’ W. Full SunPinus aristata ‘Formal Form’Ht. 6-8’ x 3-4’ W. Full SunTaxus cuspidata ‘Dwarf Bright Gold’Ht. 7-8’ x 6-7’ W Sun/Part Shade/ShadeTaxus cuspidata ‘Nana Aurescens’Ht. 3’ x 4’ W. Sun/Part Shade/Shade

Common Garden Myths & the Mayhem They CauseDon EngebretsonYou can't trust the claims made by the garden industry, old university research,what your grandma told you, or even what you read in garden magazines, for that matter.Don will debunk some of the most common myths.About the SpeakerDon Engebretson, the Renegade Gardener is rapidly becoming one of America's best‐known gardeningauthorities. His humorous, opinionated work as a garden writer for national publications including Better Homesand Gardens, Midwest Living, Landscape Solutions, Garden, Deck and Landscape and MHS, The Northern Gardenerhas given him national attention.Don's witty and insightful take on the state of gardening in America today appeal to viewers and gardeners of allages and degrees of experience.He is the author of five gardening books and the subject of numerous newspaper articles, syndicated across thecountry. During the summer months Don operates Renegade Garden Landscaping, specializing in landscaperenovations and custom stonework.Notes:

“SHADE PERENNIALS TO ENHANCE YOUR LANDSCAPE”Sherburne County Master Gardener ExpoApril 13, 2013Michael L. HegerAmbergate Gardens8730 County Road 43Chaska, MN Bergenia ‘Winterglod’/‘Winter Glow’ (Bergenia) Pulmonaria ‘Silver Bouquet’ - USPP 20059 (Lungwort) Pulmonaria ‘Raspberry Splash’ - USPP 12138 (Lungwort) Tiarella ‘Sugar and Spice’ - USPP 16738 (Foamflower) Phlox stolonifera ‘Blue Ridge’ (Creeping Phlox) Epimedium x warleyense (Barrenwort) Iris cristata (Crested Iris) Mitella diphylla (Bishop’s Cap) Brunnera macrophylla ‘Jack Frost’ - USPP 13859 (Variegated False Forget-Me-Not) Brunnera macrophylla ‘Looking Glass’ - USPP 17829 (Variegated False Forget-Me-Not) Brunnera macrophylla ‘King’s Ransom’ - USPPAF (Variegated False Forget-Me-Not) Viola ‘Etain’ (Violet-Cornuta Group), Hakonechloa macra ‘Aureola’ (Golden Variegated Hakone Grass) Polemonium reptans ‘Stairway to Heaven’ - USPP 15187 (Variegated Creeping Jacob’s Ladder) Polemonium yezoense ‘Polbress’ Bressingham Purple - USPP 15367 (Jacob’s Ladder) Hakonechloa macra ‘Aureola’ (Golden Variegated Hakone Grass), Polygonatum (Solomon’s Seal) Hakonechloa macra ‘Aureola’ (Golden Variegated Hakone Grass) Geranium maculatum (Wild Cranesbill) Geranium maculatum ‘Espresso’ (Wild Cranesbill) Dicentra spectabilis ‘Hordival’ Valentine - USPPAF (Common Bleeding Heart) Dicentra ‘Burning Hearts’ - USPP 20797 (Hybrid Bleeding Heart) Corydalis lutea (Yellow Fumewort) Aruncus aethusifolius (Dwarf Goatsbeard), Lamiastrum (Yellow Archangel) Aruncus ‘Misty Lace’ - USPP 15798 (Hybrid Goatsbeard) Thalictrum aquilegifolium ‘Black Stockings’ (Columbine Meadow Rue) Rodgersia pinnata ‘Rotlaub’ (Featherleaf Roger’s Flower) Carex laxiculmis ‘Hobb’ Bunny Blue (Spreading Sedge) Heuchera ‘Green Spice’ (Hybrid Coral Bell), Pulmonaria (Lungwort) Heuchera americana Marvelous Marble (American Alumroot) Heuchera ‘Georgia Peach’ - USPP 19375 (Hybrid Coral Bell), Pulmonaria (Lungwort)

Heuchera ‘Frosted Violet’ - USPP 15085 (Hybrid Coral Bell) Carex muskingumensis ‘Oehme’ (Variegated Palm Sedge) Astrantia ‘Hadspen Blood’ (Masterwort) Actaea simplex ‘Hillside Black Beauty’ - USPP 9988 (Branched Bugbane) Athyrium filix-femina ‘Lady in Red’ (Red Stemmed Lady Fern) Athyrium filix-femina ‘Dre’s Dagger’ (Victorian Lady Fern) Athyrium niponicum ‘Burgundy Lace’ - USPP 15072 (Japanese Painted Fern) x Heucherella ‘Sweet Tea’ - USPP 21296 (Foamy Bells) Carex siderosticha ‘Variegata’ (Variegated Broad-leaved Sedge), Athyrium niponicum var. pictum (JapanesePainted Fern) Carex siderosticha ‘Banana Boat’ (Golden Variegated Broad-leaved Sedge) Astilbe ‘Delft Lace’ - USPP 19839 (False Spirea) Astilbe ‘Fireberry’ - USPP 20658 (Short ‘n Sweet False Spirea) Lysimachia punctata ‘Alexander’ - USPP 10598 (Variegated Yellow Loosestrife) Hosta ‘Little Treasure’ - USPP 21210 (Hosta) Hosta ‘First Frost’ (Hosta) Hosta ‘Tropical Storm’ - USPPAF (Hosta) Ligularia ‘Bottle Rocket’ - USPPAF (Golden Ray) Eupatorium rugosum ‘Chocolate’ (White Snakeroot) Polygonatum odoratum ‘Variegatum’ (Variegated Solomon’s Seal) Actaea pachypoda ‘Misty Blue’ (White Baneberry) Aster cordifolius ‘Avondale’ (Blue Wood Aster) Mukdenia rossii ‘Karasuba’/’Crimson Fans’ (Red-leaved Mukdenia)Perennial plant lists for Deep Shade, Dry Shade, Wet Shade and Shade Tolerant Grassescan be found on the Ideas & Advice page of our web site,

CREATING OUTDOOR ROOMSPROFESSIONAL PLANNING CAN PAY BIG DIVIDENDS Educated professionals with experience Swing set, climbing structure Plot existing hardscape, trees, make use of surveymap Deck or patio Define spaces based on existing structures Garden shed, service area Garbage bin storage Plan for growth of shade trees, future family size Entertainment space to accommodate owner’slifestyle Hundreds of factors are considered by a Pro that afirst time DIY may never anticipate and later regret Vegetable --------------------------------CONSIDERATIONS Future home expansion Budget, stage a plan Kids will outgrow X quickly Do some or all labor Hardscape is expensive Color schemes Moving oil, cement General themes, styles, likes vs. dislikes Softscape is flexible, moveable, cheap Featured plants Outdoor kitchen Water, lighting, electrical, gas, pre‐sleeve pavers Fire pit, fireplace, water feature Existing trees, growth, shade, (what if) Drainage Frame or block views Containers, pots, planters Service areas ----------------------------------COMPONENTS OF AN “OUTDOOR ROOM” Walls, ceiling, floor Expand seasonal use Fire’s magical powers Fireplace Water’s sound sparkle Roof – shade/rain Feed your friends Bugs Don’t forget the tunes Draw people into the room Comfortable furniture Candles, lighting Perfume your room

WALLS ? Walls can be implied or real Plants Sense of separation Structure Physical separation -------------------------------------CEILINGS ? Defines the space Plants Humanize the scale Structure Climate protection Combination Can be implied or ------------------------------FLOORS ? Smooth, level, easy to navigate (clean, drainage) Stamped concrete Hundreds of material choices Recycled stone Pavers – many varieties Wood Stone Plants Fancy gravel Lighting is essential – steps or -------------------------------HOW MUCH SPACE DO WE NEED? What is your lifestyle? Fireplace vs. fire pit Closest group of friends Rumford style for outdoors Do not design to accommodate max capacity Accommodate conversion to gas Typically 10‐15 square feet per individual Intimacy is difficult in space without definition Seating ----------------------------------ORDER OF PROJECT PRIORITIES Start with your own plan Install hardscape, retaining walls, walkway, floors Get a professional for planning and guidance Ceiling, walls, softscape Remove hardscape, overgrown softscape Features, fireplace, statuary, water features, lighting

“EVOLVING ECHINACEA - A LOOK ATRECENT DEVELOPMENTS”Sherburne County Master Gardener ExpoApril 13, 2013Michael L. HegerAmbergate Gardens8730 County Road 43Chaska, MN rdens.comI.Long Term Industry StandardsA. Echinacea purpurea ‘Bravado’ - purple-pink blooms, 36” - 48” tallB. Echinacea purpurea ‘Kim’s Knee High’ (USPP 12242) - pink blooms with bronze-orange cones, 18” 24” tallC. Echinacea purpurea ‘Leuchstern’/‘Bright Star’ - rosy pink blooms, 36” - 42” tallD. Echinacea purpurea ‘Magnus’ - rose-pink blooms, 36” tall, 1998 PPA Plant of the YearE. Echinacea purpurea ‘Robert Bloom’ - carmine-purple blooms with orangish cones, 24” - 30” tallF. Echinacea purpurea ‘Springbrook Crimson Star’ - crimson-red, 24” - 30” tallG. Echinacea purpurea ‘The King’ - coral-crimson blooms with maroon-brown cones, 36” tallH. Echinacea purpurea ‘White Swan’ - white blooms with coppery brown cones, 24” - 36” tallII.Highly Recommended Recent Echinacea purpurea SelectionsA. ‘Elton Knight’ (USPP 18133) - vibrant pink blooms with orangish cones, 24” - 30” tallB. ‘Fatal Attraction’ (USPP 18429) - vivid purple-pink blooms with a double row of petals and copperorange cones, 30” - 36” tallC. ‘Fragrant Angel’ (USPP 16054) - large white blooms with yellow-orange cones, 30” tallD. ‘Hope’ (USPP 17194) - clear light pink blooms with reddish orange cones, 36” - 42” tallE. ‘Meringue’ (USPP 20537) - creamy white ray flowers surround apple green double flowers, 15” - 18” tallF. ‘Merlot’ (USPP 18814) - rose-pink blooms with orangish red cones, 30” - 36” tallG. ‘Milkshake’ (USPP 20594) - row of single white petals surround white double flowers, 24” - 36” tallH. ‘Pica Bella’ - deep pink blooms with rusty red cones, 24” tallI.‘Pink Double Delight’ (USPP 18803) - light pink ray flowers surround dark pink double flowers, 24” 30” tallJ.‘PowWow White’ - white blooms with golden yellow cones, 18” - 24” tallK. ‘PowWow Wild Berry’ - deep purple-pink blooms with rose-colored cones, 18” - 24” tallL. ‘Raspberry Truffle’ (USPP 22612) - salmon ray flowers surround darker pink double flowers, 28” - 32”tallM. ‘Rubinstern’/‘Ruby Star’ - carmine-red blooms with copper-orange cones, 36” tallN. ‘Ruby Giant’ - deep rose-pink blooms with copper-orange cones, 30” tall1

O. ‘Vintage Wine’ (USPP 13893) - intense reddish pink blooms with copper-orange cones, 24” - 30” tallP. ‘Virgin’ (USPP 18684) - white flowers with green cones, 20” - 24” tallIII. Other Highly Recommended Named Varieties And HybridsA. ‘Burgundy Fireworks’ (USPPAF) - deep burgundy-red quilled petals with rusty orange cones, 18” tallB. ‘Butterfly Kisses’ (USPPAF) - bright pink double blooms, 18” tallC. ‘Flame Thrower’ (USPP 21932) - orange ray petals darken toward central copper-orange cones, 30” - 42”tallD. ‘Guava Ice’ (USPPAF) - peachy orange-pink double blooms, 24” - 30” tallE. Harvest Moon ‘Matthew Saul’ (USPP 17652) - gold flowers with golden orange cones, 24” - 30” tallF. ‘Hot Papaya’ (USPP 21022) - papaya-orange ray flowers surround red-orange double flowers, 30” - 36”tallG. ‘Marmalade’ (USPP 22602) - tangerine to golden orange double blooms, 24” - 30” tallH. ‘Now Cheesier’ (USPP 22808) - deep orange-gold blooms with greenish cones, 30” - 36” tallI.Echinacea pallida (Pale Purple Coneflower) - drooping silvery pink ray petals with dark copper-orangecones, 24” - 40” tallJ.Pixie Meadowbrite ‘CBG Cone 2’ (USPP 18546) - magenta-pink blooms with amber cones, 18” - 24”tallK. ‘Southern Belle’ (USPPAF) - pink ray flowers surround deep magenta-pink double flowers, 30” - 36” tallL. ‘Sunrise’ (USPP 16235) - citron-yellow blooms with green-gold cones, 30” - 36” tallM. Echinacea tennesseensis (Tennessee Coneflower) - cupped pinkish purple ray petals with deep marooncones, 24” - 36” tallN. ‘Tiki Torch’ (USPP 18839) - pumpkin-orange flowers with dark orange cones, 36” tallO. ‘Tomato Soup’ (USPP 19427) - orange-red blooms with gold-brown cones, 30” - 36” tallP. ‘Twilight’ (USPP 17651) - deep magenta blooms with burgundy-red cones, 24” - 30” tallIV.A Few Other Varieties Deserving Serious ObservationA. ‘Cleopatra’ (USPPAF) - golden yellow blooms with orange cones, 16” - 18” tallB. ‘Coral Reef’ (USPP 21888) - peachy ray flowers surround coral-red double flowers, 24” - 30” tallC. ‘Julia’ (USPPAF) - tangerine-orange flowers with copper cones, 16” - 18” tallD. Echinacea purpurea ‘Avalanche’ (USPP 18597) - white blooms with yellow-green cones, 18” - 24” tallE. Echinacea purpurea ‘Green Jewel’ (USPP 18678) - greenish white blooms with lime-green cones, 18” 24” tallF. Echinacea purpurea Prairie Splendor - rose-pink flowers with copper-orange cones, 24” tallG. Echinacea purpurea ‘Purity’ (USPP 19441) - white blooms with bright orange cones, 18” - 24” tallH. ‘Quills and Thrills’ (USPP 23241) - light purple-pink, quilled ray petals surround orange cones, 24” - 36”tallI.‘Solar Flare’ (USPP 22133) - large deep magenta-red blooms, 24” - 36” tallJ.‘Tangerine Dream’ (USPP 21773) - clear orange blooms with brown cones, 24” - 30” tall2

Beyond Apples Other Fruit Tree options for MinnesotaTheresa Rooney, HCMG, 2013There are so many other fruit tree options beyond just apples. Here are just a few to consider:Sour Cherry, Prunus cerasus. These are small trees or large shrubs. They are self-compatible, meaning you need to onlyplant one variety to get fruit. Some options are, Mesabi, North Star and Meteor. As of yet there are not any sweet cherriesthat fruit reliably here in Minnesota. Zone 4Apricot, Prunus var. These are small trees, lovely white flowers before the leaves appear and then fruit. You do need 2varieties if planting: Moongold and Sungold pollinate each other. Harcort is self fertile, but does better with anotherpollinator, Manchurian needs another pollinator. Because they flower early, late frosts can prevent fruiting. From Zone 3(Manchurian) others Zone 4Plum, Prunus domestica. European Plum, these are self fertile. Zone 4, Hybrid Plums, Prunus salicina and Prunusamericana both require another variety for pollination.European options: Diaz, Mount Royal and Stanley. Hybrid options: Alderman, LaCrescent, Pipestone, Redglow, *SouthDakota, Superior, *Toka, Underwood. * Denotes pollinizer.Peaches, Prunus. Self -fertile. Similar to Apricots in that they flower early so you may lose fruit to a late frost. Consider:Reliance or Intrepid or Polar.Pears Pyrus, consider: Summercrisp, Ure, Patton, Luscious, Parker and Golden Spice. 2 varieties usually needed. Mostlisted are for zone 4. Ure and Golden Spice are okay in zone 3. (Some are pollen sterile, so 3 varieties may be needed.)Paw Paw, Asimina triloba. This is a great tree for our area, but little known or used. Plant 2 varieties for betterpollination. Best started in a protected shady area till established.In addition please consider, Service Berry- Amelanchier, Nanking Cherry- Prunus tomentosa, Pin Cherry- Prunuspensylvanica, Chokeberrry- Aronia, Elderberry- Sambucus Canadensis (Red berries are poisonous), ChokecherryPrunus virginiana.Grapes, Vitis are also another wonderful fruit we can grow in Minnesota. Varieties to consider:Beta, Bluebell, Eidelweiss, Swenson, Swenson Red, Kay Gray, LaCrosse or St Croix. Only one variety is needed forfruit.Of course you can also grow non- hardy fruit trees, consider:Figs, Oranges, Lemon, Lime, Banana, Pomegranate etc. All should be grown in pots, brought inside before frosts.Others: Consider all the fruiting shrubs, herbs, perennial vegetables and pollinator attracting plants to supplement yourfruit trees.Resources:Books:Fresh Food from Small Spaces R.J. RuppenthalLandscaping With FruitLee ReichEdible LandscapingRosalind CreasyThe Resilient Gardener Carol DeppeThe Edible Landscape Emily TepeMagazinesNorthern GardenerMother EarthBackyard PoultryOrganic GardeningUrban FarmWeb andscapes-3186210This one is great! Done at the University, by Emily Tepe.Actual garden at the U

Straw Bale Gardening Basics Would you like to grow a vegetable garden, but you have poor soil or you are unable or unwilling to get down on the ground to plant and harvest, or do you simply hate pulling weeds? “Straw Bale Gardening” is just what you need! Easy access is one benefit of gardening in bales

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