gGE AviationGE Aircraft EnginesThe Aircraft Engine Design ProjectFundamentals of Engine CyclesSpring 20091Ken GouldPhil Weed
gGE Aviation Technical HistoryGE Aircraft EnginesU.S. jet engineU.S. turboprop engineV i bl statorVariablet t engineiMach 2 fighter engineMach 3 bomber engineHigh bypass engineI-A - First U.S. jet engine(Developed in Lynn, MA, 1941)GE90 on testVariable cycle turbofan engineUnducted fan engine30:1 pressure ratio engineDemonstration of 100k engine thrustCertified double annular combustor engineFirst U.S. turboprop powered aircraft, Dec. 19452TLI KFOP
gFlowdown of RequirementsGE Aircraft EnginesThe Customer: Overall system requirementsMTOW, Range, Cost per seat per mileThe Airframer: Sub-system requirementsTechnical: Wing (lift/drag),Engines(Thrust/SFC)Program: CostC and ScheduleSFAA/JAASafety/reliabilityEngines Systems: Module requirementsTechnical: Pressure ratio, efficiency,ffweight, lifefProgram: NRE, part cost, schedule, validation plan3Design &ValidationNoise/emissionsQualified Product
gGE Aircraft EnginesThe Aircraft Engine Design ProjectFundamentals of Engine CyclesCombustorHPTCompressorExhaustairflowInlet4T b j t EngineTurbojetE i
gTurbojet StationsGE Aircraft EnginesEngine Modules and ComponentsCompressorHPTCombustorInletExitHP Spool20345Turbojetj EnginegCross-SectionMulti-stage compressor modulepowered by a single stage turbine59
gIdeal Brayton Cycle: T-S RepresentationGE Aircraft EnginesHP Turbine Inlet4ExpansionTurbine Exit Pressure5T5CombustorInletΔ pressure available forexpansion across Exhaust NozzleAmbient Pressure3CompressionLines of Constant Pressure2Compressor InletS6P Δ21 h0WNote: 1) Flight Mach 02) Pt2 Pamb3) P power4) W mass flow rate5) h0 total enthalpy
gReal Brayton Cycle: T-S RepresentationGE Aircraft EnginesHP Turbine Inlet4ExpansionTurbine Exit Pressure5Δ pressure available forexpansion across Exhaust NozzleTCombustorInletAmbient Pressure3Impact of Real Efficiencies:Decreased Thrust @ if T4 is maintainedCompressionLines of Constant Pressure2OrIncrease Temp (fuel flow) to maintainthrust!Compressor InletS7P Δ21 h0W
gJet Engine Cycle AnalysisGE Aircraft EnginesEngine Inlet Flow capacity (flow function relationship)Startingg with the conservation of mass and substitutingg the total tostatic relations for Pressure and Temperature, can derive:W Density * Area* VelocityW*(sqrt(Tt)) M *sqrt(gc*γ/R)Pt* Ae[1 ((γ-1)/2)*M2] (γ 1)/[2*(γ-1)]where M is Mach numberTt is total temperature (deg R)Pt is total pressure (psia)W is airflowf(lbm/sec)(/)Ae is effective area (in2)gc is gravitational constant 32.17 lbm ft/(sec2 lbf)γ is ratio of specific heatsR is gas constant(ft-lbf)/(lbm-deg R)8TurbojetCompressorExitInlet0Combustor HPTHP Spool23459
gJet Engine Cycle AnalysisGE Aircraft EnginesCompressor From adiabatic efficiency relationshipηcompressor Ideal Work/ Actual Work Cp*(Texit’ – Tinlet)Cp*(Texit – Tinlet) (Pexit/Pinlet)(γ-1)/γ - 1Texit/Tinlet - 1wherePexit is compressor exit total pressure (psia)Pinlet is compressor exit total pressure (psia)Tinlet is compressor inlet total temperature (deg R)Texit is compressor exit total temperature (deg R)Texit’ is ideal compressor exit temperature (deg R)TurbojetCompressorExitInlet90Combustor HPTHP Spool23459
gJet Engine Cycle AnalysisGE Aircraft EnginesCombustor From Energy balance/ Combustor efficiency relationship:ηcombustor Actual Enthalpy Rise/ Ideal Enthalpy Rise (WF W)*CpcombustorTexit – W*CpcombustorTinletWF * FHVwhere W is airflow (lbm/sec)WF is fuel flow (lbm/sec)FHV is fuel heating value (BTU/lbm)Tinlet is combustor inlet total temperature (deg R)Texit is combustor exit total temperature (deg R)Cp is combustor specific heatBTU/(lbm-degBTU/(lbmdeg R)Can express WF/W asfuel to air ratio (FAR)0CompressorCombustor HPTExitInlet10TurbojetHP Spool23459
gJet Engine Cycle AnalysisGE Aircraft EnginesTurbine From efficiency relationshipηturbine Actual Work/Ideal Work Cp*(TinletCp (Tinlet – Texit)Cp*(Tinlet – Texit’) 1 - (Texit/Tinlet)( 1)/1 - (Pexit/Pinlet)(P it/Pi l t)(γ-1)/γ Work Balance: From conservation of energyTurbine Work Compressor Work Losses(W WF)* CpC turb* (Ti(Tinletl t - Texit) T it) turb W * CpC compressor* (T(Texitit - Tinlet) Ti l t) compTurbojetwherePexit is turbine exit total ppressure (p(psia))Pinlet is turbine exit total pressure (psia)Tinlet is inlet total temperature (deg R)Texit is exit total temperature (deg R)Texit’ is ideal exit total temperature (deg R)Cp is specific heat for turbine or compressorBTU/(lbm-deg R)11CompressorExitInlet0Combustor HPTHP Spool23459
gJet Engine Cycle AnalysisGE Aircraft EnginesNozzle Isentropicp relationship,p can determine exhaust ppropertiespTt/Ts (Pt/Ps)(γ-1)/γ 1 ((γ -1)/2) * M2 From Mach number relationship can determine exhaust velocityv M*awhere a, speed of sound sqrt(γ*gc*R*Ts)whereTt is total temperature (deg R)Pt is total pressure (psia)Ps is static pressure (psia)Ts is static temp (deg R)gc is gravitational constant 32.17 lbm ft/(sec2 lbf)γ is ratio of specific heatsR is gas constant (ft-lbf)/(lbm-deg R)v is flow velocityy ((ft/sec))a is speed of sound (ft/sec)M is Mach number12TurbojetCompressorExitInlet0Combustor HPTHP Spool23459
gJet Engine Cycle AnalysisGE Aircraft EnginesE i PerformanceEngineP f Thrust relationship: from conservation of momentumFnet W9 V9/ gc - W0 V0/ gc (Ps9-Ps0) A9If flight Mach number is 0, v0 0pto ambient,, PS9 Ps0 andand if nozzle expandsFnet W9 V9/ gcwhere gc is gravitational constant Specific Fuel Consumption (SFC)TurbojetSFC Wf/ Fnet (lbm/hr/ lbf)(l(lowerSFC isi better)b tt )CompressorExitInlet130Combustor HPTHP Spool23459
gModern Afterburning Turbofan EngineSingle-stage HPT moduleGE Aircraft EnginesA/B w// VVariablei bl ExhaustE ht NozzleNl3-stageg fan moduleSingle Stage LPT moduleAnnular Combustormulti-stage compressor module14Terms:bladevanestagePLArotating airfoilstatic airfoilrotor/stator pairpilot’s throttleTypical Operating Parameters:OPR25 125:1BPR0.34ITT2520oFAirflow142 lbm/secThrust Class16K-22K lbf
gThermodynamic Station RepresentationWf ABWf ABWf comb7GE Aircraft Engines8954.5FN432.52NozzleExpansionA/B Temp RiseLP TurbineexpansionW2Fan Pr(P25/P2)15HPC Pr(P25/P2)Overall Pressure Ratio (P3/P2)CombTempRiseHP TurbineexpansionA8 (nozzlearea)
gGE Aircraft EnginesFanCompressorBypass FlowInletAir FlowHPT LPTCombustorAfterburnerExitHP SpoolLP SpoolAugmented Turbofan Engine Cross-Section16General Electric Aircraft Engines
gGE Aircraft EnginesDesign ConsiderationsConsiderations- Process Centering and VariationOff-TargetVariationXXXX XX XXX XX uceSpreadSix SigmagMethodologygy AppliesppStatistical Analysesyto CenterProcesses and Minimize Variation17General Electric Aircraft Engines
General Electric Aircraft EnginesgGE Aircraft EnginesProbabilistic Designg TechniquesqAccount for Process VariationForecast: Margin-: Average Off Target2,000 TrialsDForecast: Margin: High VariationMFrequencyO ChartT0 Outliers.0542,000 Trials108LSL.041041TDMFrequency ChartHV49 .25.0000000.000000-2.000.002.004.00Certainty is 92.50% from 0.00 to InfinityD6.0033.750-1.00M1.003.005.00Certainty is 95.05% from 0.00 to InfinityD7.00MForecast: Margin:On Target-Low Variation2,000 TrialsCenterProcessO TL V 2.000.002.00D18104TLSL.0391 Outlier4.00LSL LS6.00MUnderstanding and Accounting for Process Variation AssuresCompliance with Design LimitsL
The Aircraft Engine Design Project Fundamentals of Engine Cycles Ken Gould Spring 2009 Phil Weed 1. g GE Aviation Technical History GE Aircraft Engines U.S. jet engine U.S. turboprop engine Vibl tt iVariable stator engine Mach 2 fighter engine Mach 3 bomber engine High bypass engine
May 02, 2018 · D. Program Evaluation ͟The organization has provided a description of the framework for how each program will be evaluated. The framework should include all the elements below: ͟The evaluation methods are cost-effective for the organization ͟Quantitative and qualitative data is being collected (at Basics tier, data collection must have begun)
On an exceptional basis, Member States may request UNESCO to provide thé candidates with access to thé platform so they can complète thé form by themselves. Thèse requests must be addressed to esd rize unesco. or by 15 A ril 2021 UNESCO will provide thé nomineewith accessto thé platform via their émail address.
̶The leading indicator of employee engagement is based on the quality of the relationship between employee and supervisor Empower your managers! ̶Help them understand the impact on the organization ̶Share important changes, plan options, tasks, and deadlines ̶Provide key messages and talking points ̶Prepare them to answer employee questions
1.Engine Oil SABA 13 1.Engine Oil 8000 14 1.Engine Oil 6000 15 1.Engine Oil 3000 16 1.Engine Oil Alvand 17 1.Engine Oil Motor Cycle Engine Oil M-150 18 1.Engine Oil M-100 19 1.Engine Oil Gas Engine Oil CNG-BUS 20 1.Engine Oil G.I.C.X.LA 21 1.Engine Oil G.I.C.X. 22 1.Engine Oil Diesel Engine Oil Power 23 1.Engine Oil Top Engine 24
Chính Văn.- Còn đức Thế tôn thì tuệ giác cực kỳ trong sạch 8: hiện hành bất nhị 9, đạt đến vô tướng 10, đứng vào chỗ đứng của các đức Thế tôn 11, thể hiện tính bình đẳng của các Ngài, đến chỗ không còn chướng ngại 12, giáo pháp không thể khuynh đảo, tâm thức không bị cản trở, cái được
- B734 aircraft model added - B735 aircraft model added - E145 aircraft model added - B737 aircraft model added - AT45 aircraft model added - B762 aircraft model added - B743 aircraft model added - Removal of several existing OPF and APF files due to the change of ICAO aircraft designators according to RD3: A330, A340, BA46, DC9, MD80
Le genou de Lucy. Odile Jacob. 1999. Coppens Y. Pré-textes. L’homme préhistorique en morceaux. Eds Odile Jacob. 2011. Costentin J., Delaveau P. Café, thé, chocolat, les bons effets sur le cerveau et pour le corps. Editions Odile Jacob. 2010. Crawford M., Marsh D. The driving force : food in human evolution and the future.
Le genou de Lucy. Odile Jacob. 1999. Coppens Y. Pré-textes. L’homme préhistorique en morceaux. Eds Odile Jacob. 2011. Costentin J., Delaveau P. Café, thé, chocolat, les bons effets sur le cerveau et pour le corps. Editions Odile Jacob. 2010. 3 Crawford M., Marsh D. The driving force : food in human evolution and the future.
MARCH 1973/FIFTY CENTS o 1 u ar CC,, tonics INCLUDING Electronics World UNDERSTANDING NEW FM TUNER SPECS CRYSTALS FOR CB BUILD: 1;: .Á Low Cóst Digital Clock ','Thé Light.Probé *Stage Lighting for thé Amateur s. Po ROCK\ MUSIC AND NOISE POLLUTION HOW WE HEAR THE WAY WE DO TEST REPORTS: - Dynacó FM -51 . ti Whárfedale W60E Speaker System' .
Glossary of Social Security Terms (Vietnamese) Term. Thuật ngữ. Giải thích. Application for a Social Security Card. Đơn xin cấp Thẻ Social Security. Mẫu đơn quý vị cần điền để xin số Social Security hoặc thẻ thay thế. Baptismal Certificate. Giấy chứng nhận rửa tội
More than words-extreme You send me flying -amy winehouse Weather with you -crowded house Moving on and getting over- john mayer Something got me started . Uptown funk-bruno mars Here comes thé sun-the beatles The long And winding road .
Phần II: Văn học phục hưng- Văn học Tây Âu thế kỷ 14- 15-16 Chương I: Khái quát Thời đại phục hưng và phong trào văn hoá phục hưng Trong hai thế kỉ XV và XVI, châu Âu dấy lên cuộc vận động tư tưởng và văn hoá mới rấ
Food outlets which focused on food quality, Service quality, environment and price factors, are thè valuable factors for food outlets to increase thè satisfaction level of customers and it will create a positive impact through word ofmouth. Keyword : Customer satisfaction, food quality, Service quality, physical environment off ood outlets .
F/A-18E/F Super Hornet Fighter 1,253.1 million (14 aircraft) 1,996.4 million (24 aircraft) V-22 Osprey Tiltrotor Aircraft 961.8 million (6 aircraft) 1,280.1 million (7 aircraft) C-130J Hercules Military Transport Aircraft 886.1 million (9 aircraft) 1,571.9 millio
A holding pattern is a shift by T This is the set in which we want to schedule aircraft. We seek one arrival time for each aircraft in each of the colored sets. aircraft 1 aircraft 2 aircraft 3 feasible arrival times aircraft aircraft 4 a1 b1 a2 b2 a3 b3 a4 b4 A holding pattern can be expressed as a MILP
A forecast of based aircraft was used to assess the demand for facilities used by general aviation aircraft. This includes items such as hangars and aircraft ramp. The TAF estimates that future based aircraft will grow to 430 by 2036. The majority of general aviation aircraft are small, single-engine aircraft with smaller percentages of multi-
relevant engine parameters, for estimating the effective perceived noise level (EPNL) for given aircraft trajectories, and for proposing clean-sheet engine design solutions to reduce its noise footprint. Project Overview A number of new civil supersonic aircraft designs are currently being pursued by industry in different Mach regimes and for
Aircraft Design Handbook, Aircraft Design Aid and Layout Guide. slide 2 9/14/06 Aerospace and Ocean Engineering . for project to get started A Poor Three-View Drawing and Inboard Profile . Engine pylon attach if fuselage engine podded design Engine nozzle/fuselage interface Cargo entry (nose/side/aft) .
ADS-36 ROTARY WING AIRCRAFT CRASH RESISTANCE AERONAUTICAL DESIGN STANDARD USAAVSCOM 89-22 A THROUGH-22E AIRCRAFT CRASH SURVIVAL DESIGN GUIDE VOL. I: Design Criteria and Checklists VOL. II: Aircraft Design Crash Impact Conditions and Human Tolerance VOL. III: Aircraft Structural Crash Resistance VOL. IV: Aircraft Seats,