APUSH Geography - Ms. Wilden

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APUSH GeographyAtticus Rosen, Sebastian Reed, Jacob Begich, RobbySedwick

Period 1 (1491-1607)

Native American Culture Areas

Native American Culture Areas - Northwest Coast Located along the Pacific Coast from Yakutat Bay to Cape Mendocino.Temperate: Never Too hot and never below freezing/Their coastal environment shaped the way they subsisted. Mainlyfocused on fishing for food and whaling for heating oil and othernecessary goods.Mainly lived in small 20-100 person settlements near vital resourceslike forests or fishing areas.These small settlements traded with each other using water transport.

Native American Culture Areas - Great Plains Grassland between Mississippi River and Rocky Mountains.From Alberta to Texas.Low levels of agriculture, environment not that fertile. Thisled to a more nomadic, hunter-gatherer society in the region.This effected their housing style. Many native groups in theregion used built teepees because they were easily packed upand movable.The little agriculture they had was from corn cultivation.Most of their food came from the buffalo in the region.When horses were introduced by Europeans, it helped theirnomadic lifestyle.

Native American Culture Areas - Great Basin Climate: Hot and arid. Desert and flatlands.Natural Resources: Grasses, seeds, sagebrush, roots, and wildrice.Hunting-Gathering societies existed- Hunted sheep, squirrels,rabbits, deer, and antelope.Mountainous interior with desert planes on the exterior of thebasin.Routinely nomadic: Tribes traveled around their home areasbased on the season.

Native American Culture Areas - Southeast and Florida Very diverse geography, multiple climates. Florida: Coastal/Tropical, HumidNorth: Scrub and forrestMississippi River Area: Fertile and temperate.The fertile environment allowed for more permanent settlementand heavy reliance on maize (corn) production.Settlement: Most houses were called “Indian Mounds”Environment shaped their settlement design and patterns ofmovement.

Native American Culture Areas - California Colorado River Area: Agriculture based, cultivated maize, pumpkins,and beansSouthern Area: Complex societiesTowards Great Basin Area: Rabbits, nuts, acorns, and wild plants.Central Culture Area: Hunting for deer, rabbits, elk, and fish. Lived inwood houses covered with soilNorthwest: Abundant forests - redwood - . Woodworking was theirtrade: wood houses, canoes, and household goods.Northeast: Also abundant woodworkingAll of these regions traded with each other because their environmentsprovided specialized resources.

Native American Culture Areas - Southwest and Texas Hot and Dry climate.Fertile land, complex irrigation systems formed.Most permanent settlements arose in the area: over 400 miles ofroad constructed by the the Pueblo people.Stone or adobe was the main building material.Their fertile environment allowed them to build thesepermanent settlements with complex irrigation and roadnetworksPueblo peoples (Mogollon, Hohokam, and Anasazi) dominatedthe region.

Native American Culture Areas - Northwest Plateau Hunter-gatherer peoples: During winter, they stayed in permanentsettlement. Hunting season- moved to semi-permanent resourcecamps were they based their hunting and gathering out ofPermanent communities were more populous than other regionsseveral hundred to up to a thousand people lived in thesecommunities/Fishing was another main resources - salmon and eels mainresource from riversHunting: Deer, elk, caribou, and small game

Native American Culture Areas - Northeast Temperate forests, meadows, and other wetlandsDiverse food cultivation - hunting gathering as well as agricultureand subsistence fishing.Fished salmon frequently from the surrounding rivers.Western fringes mainly hunted bison“Three sister” crops: corn, bean, squash. All minorly cultivated inthe area.

The Columbian Exchange An exchange of livestock, disease, crops, peoples, culture,technology, and resources that happened primarily during thesixteenth century CE after Columbus brought news of the existenceof the Americas back to Spain in 1492Crops like corn and potatoes were brought to Europe, increasingagricultural yield, diseases were brought to the Americas, wiping outmillions of nativesReligion and cultural ideas were imposed on the natives, spreadingChristianity and creating new belief systems based on integration ofnative and European beliefsEuropeans and Africans moved, willingly or not, to the Americas bythe millions in the 1500sLarge domesticated animals were brought to the Americas, allowingfaster transportation and more varied food sourcesNew technologies like the firearm and metallurgy were brought tothe Americas from Europe

Period 2 (1607-1754)

Colonial Area Comparison The difference in the environment of the threedistinct colonial regions caused thedevelopment of differing social, economic, andpolitical structures.The two most starkly contrasting zones werethe Chesapeake and the Massachusetts Bayregions.

Colonial Area Comparison - Southern Colonies The Southern colonies had the prime environment for cashcrop farming. They focused primarily on cotton, tobacco,indigo, and rice.First colony was Jamestown, Virginia.Many of the colonies in the South were results ofjoint-stock companies or proprietorships.

Colonial Area Comparison - Southern - Virginia Jamestown (1607) was the first permanent settlement. The surroundingenvironment was swampy and home to devastating diseases. After the firstfew months, only 38 of the original 104 settlers still lived.Settlers went out in search for rumored gold that didn’t actually exist in thearea. The result was a loss of productivity because they essentially wastedtheir time.Starving Time (1609-1610): Lots of colonists died due to harsh winter anddisease, relied on surrounding natives for support.Environment was suited for tobacco cultivation. This gave rise to theplantation system in the area.To survive, colonists needed the vital agricultural tech that nativespossessed. They taught colonists the importance of growing beans andcorn.

Colonial Area Comparison - Southern - Carolinas Originally began as a joint venture between 8investors.Founded in 1663 with Charles Town (Charleston)as it's first settlement.Their environment was suitable for ricecultivation.The regional differences is size of plantation andsociety between the Northern area and theSouthern area caused the split between North andSouth Carolina.

Colonial Area Comparison - Southern - Maryland Founded by the 1st Lord of Baltimore,George Calvert. 1632.St. Mary’s was the first establishedsettlement. They relied on the surroundingnatives to survive at first.Tobacco was the main crop of the region.

Colonial Area Comparison - Southerns - Georgia Founded by James Oglethorpe in 1732.The rationale behind the colony was it was to be a bufferbetween the more economically important SouthCarolina and Spanish colonies.Because of this geographic importance, settlers at firstwere not given much freedom because everything had tobe to regulation.This caused discontent and eventually most of therestrictive laws were repealed.

Colonial Area Comparison - Middle Colonies Because of their environment, they were most suitedfor cattle, food crop, and refined goods production.

Colonial Area Comparison - Middle - Pennsylvania Founded in 1682 by William Penn as ahaven for Quakers.The climate was mild. Not to hot or cold.The soil was fertile, allowed agriculture.Originally reimbursed natives for lost land.

Colonial Area Comparison - Middle - New York Originally New Amsterdam under the Dutch WestIndia Company.Captured by British in 1664.Since it was originally a Dutch colony, thepopulation under the British was a diverse groupingof Western Europeans.New York City in particular became a commercialcenter because of it’s geographic placement at theopening of the Hudson River.

Colonial Area Comparison - Middle - New Jersey The environment provided natural resourcesfor the colony such as agricultural land,forrests, iron ore, coal, and furs.The iron ore natural resources allowed for astrong manufacturing industry to form.It’s geographical position made it an importantbattleground during the Revolutionary War.

Colonial Area Comparison - New England Colonies The basis behind most of these colonies was Puritanescape from persecution in England.

Colonial Area Comparison - New England - Connecticut The first settlers that spread fromMassachusetts Bay settled the ConnecticutRiver area in 1636.The Connecticut River provided excellentwater supplies and fertile lands for farmersto plant crops on. This further incentivizedsettlement of the area.Other than areas close to the ConnecticutRiver, the rest of the colony was rocky andunsuitable for farming.

Colonial Area Comparison - New England - Rhode Island Rhode Island was founded in 1636 by RogerWilliams.The climate in Rhode Island consisted of mildsummers and harsh winters. This led toespecially hard times during the winter for theearly colonists. At the same time, these coldwinters made it hard for diseases to surviveand resulted in less death diseases.The landscape of the colony contains rollinghills with a vast (400 mile long) coastline.

Colonial Area Comparison - New England - Massachusetts Founded by John Winthrop in 1629 when him, and fellowPuritan investors, received a royal charter for the colony.The town structure was very sparse. There were many smallcommunities that were centered around their congregationalchurch.The climate in Massachusetts was bitterly cold in the winter.This caused problems with survival in the winters. Thesummers were humid and home to devastating diseases.Forests were dense in Massachusetts which contributed to atimber industry.

Colonial Area Comparison - New England - New Hampshire The New Hampshire Colony received its charter in 1622.The main industries related to its geography were fishing,timber, and light agriculture. Most of the land was rockywhich made it unsuitable for intensive agriculture.The whale migrations came towards the New Hampshirecoasts which caused a significant whaling and whale oilindustry to form.Pumpkins, squash, beens, soy, and rice were the staplecrops of the region.

Period 3 (1754-1800)

Treaty of Paris 1763 This treaty ended the French and Indian War and resultedwith the territories that France held in North Americabeing given to AmericaThis marked a significant development in the balance ofpower in North America because Indians could no longerplay both the British and the French off of each other fortheir own gain.This led to the loss of influence many native tribes held.Especially French-aligned tribes.This also marked a rift between colonial subjects and theBritish government. England no longer wanted to keep amassive military force on the continent and sought an endto expansion and native alienation.

Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution brought many changes to theenvironment through the new vehicles and industries itintroducedSteamboats and canals expanded the use of river traveland trade and some even altered the environment of theGreat Lakes like the Erie Canal which ran over 363milesTextile Mills required a large increase in the amount ofcotton being picked and grown and caused a surge offarmers growing more of the cropThe beginnings of railroads and steam engines werebeing introduced at the time which would affect thegeography of the U.S. immensely

French & Indian War - Expansion into the Interior The French and Indian War was the portion of the Seven YearsWar that took place in North AmericaNatives and the French used guerilla warfare, taking advantageof the environmentIn the aftermath of the war, Britain acquired a huge mass ofland in French Canada and lower North America, allowingexpansion into the frontier by colonistsThe expansion of white colonists meant that land on the frontierwas enclosed, deforested, and turned into European style fieldsTrappers hunted beavers and other animals, depleting thenatural resources of the land and forcing the natives to retreat

Proclamation of 1763 An act that came at the end of the French and IndianWar which helped to prevent encroachment on NativeLand by the colonists in AmericaThe British used the Proclamation of 1763 to stopwestward expansion and take actions to take strictercontrol over their coloniesDue to a Native revolt all land west of the AppalachianDivide became off limits to the colonists on the orders ofKing George IIIColonists other than British merchants were unable tobuy land or make trade with Natives in the barredterritoryThe Proclamation of 1763 helped protect colonists fromNative raids and Natives from the expansion of whitesinto their lands

Northwest Ordinance of 1787 The Northwest Ordinance was asolution to the issue of the NorthwestTerritory situationCongress didn’t know what to do withthe land that was not being occupiedThe Northwest Ordinance admitted3-5 new states after they had reached apopulation of 5,000With their own governor andassembly after the states reached60,000 they were able to draft theirown constitutions

Pinckney’s Treaty 1795 A treaty that helped improve some trade andgeneral relations between the U.S. and SpainThe treaty helped establish the boundary linebetween the U.S. and Spain at the 31º N lineOpened the Mississippi River through Spanishterritory and New Orleans for American trade at atax-free depositImproved alliances as the treaty included anagreement to fend off Native attacks on the otherOrchestrated by the American, Thomas Pinckney,and the Spanish, Manuel de Godoy

Treaty of Greenville An agreement between the U.S.government and the Natives which gaveway to the ceding of lots of Native landCame after agressions and hostilitiesgrowing between the two entities overAmerican expansion into the NorthwestTreaty formed between Wayde Anthonyand Little Turtle to end violence and gaveU.S. plenty of new landGave strategic portions of land for forts andcities such as the Fort Wayne area

Period 4 (1800-1848)

1803 Louisiana Purchase The purchase of the Louisiana territory by ThomasJefferson was in agreement with Napoleon Bonaparte andgave America access to the mouth of the Mississippi RiverNew Orleans became a hotspot for trade and travel alongthe Mississippi and as a result river trade and technologywas stimulated during this timeThe Louisiana Purchase was a result of Napoleon’s failedattempts to make an empire in America and of pressure inEuropeJefferson did not believe that he had the power to make thepurchase but decided to anyways, making him look like ahypocrite to some

Monroe Doctrine 1823 The Monroe doctrine was proposed by President JamesMonroe in 1823The doctrine called for nonintervention in Latin America andan end to colonization by EuropeThe Monroe Doctrine was the basis for US foreign policy inLatin AmericaThe US did not have the military strength to prevent europeancolonization of Latin America

War of 1812 The War of 1812 was a warbetween The US and Great BritainThe war was caused by tensionresulting from the attack on theUSS Chesapeake and the britishpractice of ImpressmentDuring the War the White Housewas burned downThe war ended with the Treaty ofGhent

Treaty of Ghent 1814 The Treaty of Ghent was signed onDecember 24, 1814The Treaty of Ghent officially endedthe war of 1812, but because of slowcommunications there was still thebattle of new orleans after it’s signingThe Treaty did not have any majorchanges for either side, nobody reallygained or lost any land

Indian Removal Act 1830 The Indian Removal Act was signed by PresidentAndrew Jackson in 1830The Indian Removal Act called for forcing all of theAmerican Indians in the south east to be movedfurther west into Oklahoma100,000 American Indians were removed from theirhomes by 1835

Cherokee Nation v. Georgia 1831 This was a supreme court case,where Cherokee nation sued the stateof Georgia for their landThe court ruled that cherokee nationwas not a sovereign foreign nation,and thus had no right to sue for theirhomelands

Period 5 (1844-1877)

Sherman’s March to the Sea At the close of the Civil War (1864), general WilliamSherman took his Union army regiment from Atlanta toSavannah, destroying everything in his pathHis men burned fields, slaughtered livestock, anddestroyed villages as to kill the morale and any hopethe Confederates had leftHis march created a lasting stain across the South’senvironment that further destroyed the future Southerneconomy

Annexation of Texas The annexation of Texas was a controversial issueavoided by Martin Van Buren during his presidencyon the threat of war from MexicoThe war for independence in Mexico having beenwon, the residents and many living in the U.S.wished for Texas to be annexedJohn Tyler took the initiative to annex Texas in 1844with the help of James K. Polk and the U.S. gainedyet another slave state and a vast amount of land tobe settled inTexas also opened a large portion of land for cottonfarmers to grow on and for cattle to be herdedthrough

Mexican-American War The Mexican-American War occurred during James. KPolk’s presidency amidst a fervent expansionistmovementAmerican settlers in Texas fought for their independenceand requested that the U.S. support them by annexingTexasThe U.S. engaged in a grizzly war against the Mexicangovernment as they fought to obtain their landMexico agreed to the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgowhich Nicholas Trist orchestrated gaining the U.S. near525,000 square miles of landThe United States gained a significant portion of newterritory which they used to cultivate their growingnation

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848) The Treaty that ended the Mexican AmericanWar and established the border between USAand MexicoUS gained territory of Arizona, California,Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah andWyoming - 525,000 miles of new territoryBecause of military victory the United Statesdictated the treaty, forcing Mexico to cede thevast territoryGave American settlers opportunity to moveWest to farm and mine

California Gold Rush (1849) After deposits of silver and gold had beenfound in the Sierra Mountains of NevadaProspectors and hopeful people all aroundthe nation flooded to the West in hopes ofquick richesLarge mining communities built up aroundthe sites overnight and were left barrenshortly after their constructionBoom and bust way of finding gold causedfluctuation in the already rare chances ofobtaining wealth from the gold rush

Compromise of 1850 California was admitted as a free statewhile in Washington slave trade wasabolishedA stronger Fugitive Slave Act wascreated to help masters retrieve theirslaves from free statesIn Utah and New Mexico popularsovereignty was establishedTexas gave up its claims to New Mexicofor 10 million

Gadsden Purchase The Gadsden Purchase was the 10 million dollar dealbetween the United States and Mexico for nearly 30,000square miles of landThe land that the United States gained from the purchaseallowed them to build the transcontinental railroad in theSouthThe Gadsden Purchase underwent multiple changes fromthe original treaty between James Gadsden and SantaAnnaIt created the Southern border of the United States thatexists to this dayIt was also meant to mend some of the existing tensionswith Mexico from the Mexican-American War but hardlyhelped at all

Period 6 (1865-1898)

Mining Mining was a large part of the Western economyMining towns were constructed in the mountainswherever a strike was discovered, and they swelledin size quicklyMines were dangerous, prone to collapsing, had badair conditions, and little if any safety regulationsMining cycle: discovery, prospectors, bigcorporations take over, and then abandonmentHelped populate areas in the Far WestSilver, gold, and coal were primary resources beingmined

Alaska and Hawaii Alaska was purchased by Sec of State WilliamSeward in 1867 from Russia for 7.2 million,about 2 cents an acreHawaii was organized as a US territory duringthe Spanish American War due to the strategicimportance of port of Pearl harborThese territories eventually became states in1959, adding millions of square miles to theUnited States

Decimation of the Buffalo The expansion of railroads into the Great Plains exposedthe buffalo to the rapid hunting of white settlersDemand for buffalo pelts led to the overhunting of thegreat animal until they became nearly extinctNatives of the plains relied on Buffalo for many things: thehides were used for clothing/shelter, the meat was usedfor food, the tendons were used for bowstrings, the boneswere used for toolsDecline of the buffalo hit the natives very hard, it madethem unable to sustain themselves independently in thePlains and allowed the Army to suppress them easierDamaged the ecosystem of the Plains as the largestanimal in the region was rapidly eliminated

The Second Industrial Revolution The rapid industrialization that occured in the late 1800s in the UnitedStates had large environmental impactsCities were poorly sanitized and organized, rivers were polluted withwaste from factories, and layers of ash settled on some industrial areasbecause of how much coal burning was happeningSteel was made from burning coal, which polluted the airTrains let off steam which also polluted the airSteamboats and automobiles were improved and became morewidespreadSanitary systems and plumbing were improved upon because of howmuch diseases were being spread through the water (killed thousands)Farms were expanded and mechanized, bringing the Second IndustrialRevolution to the rural areas

Urbanization The 1800s brought a rise in the number of peopleliving in cities as many farmers moved to urbanareas in search of workCities expanded at recklessly fast rate, causingenvironmental degradationHigh concentration of human waste polluted streetsand rivers

Railroads The expansion of railroads opened the interior andFar West to settlementThey also helped expose the buffalo for huntingThey increased number of farmers in the regionwho enclosed the once-free land to grow cashcropsAfter the CW, wealthy families would go onrailroads to tour the West, marveling at thebeautiful landscape

Period 7 (1890-1945)

Spanish American War US acquired lots of new territory formerly part of theSpanish Empire including Puerto Rico, Philippines, Guam,and CubaColonies produced sugar and other cash crops and weredominated by American investors and subject to ups anddowns of the world marketNatives on the islands were not given significant say in thegovernment in the beginningNew Manifest Destiny motivated the US to expand poweroversees

National Parks Theodore Roosevelt set aside millions of acres offorest to be preserved, established 150 nationalforests. He did this to preserve the nation's naturalbeauty from development and eventual decimation forprofit.Roosevelt established 5 new national parks. Theseincluded Crater Lake, Wind Cave, Sullys Hill, MesaVerde, and Platt National ParksHe established 51 bird sanctuaries around the countryBecause of Roosevelt's ideals, many importantenvironmental landmarks were preserved

Conservation Movement Conflicting ideas on how the environmentshould be treated by humansSome believed that the preservation of theenvironment was most important and thatplaces like the national parks should be keptfrom human intrusionOthers wanted to use public and governmentland for careful developmentJohn Muir and Gifford Pinchot ferociouslyargued on the topic of Hetch Hetchy Valley

Dust Bowl The dust bowl was a series of prolongeddust storms in the American Midwest.The storms decimated the agricultural outputof the region.Over 100,000,000 acres of farmland wereaffected by the Dust Bowl. It caused thedisplacement of many farmers and theaverage crop loss was 19 million per day atits peak (equivalent to 450,000,000 in2018)

Period 8 (1945-1980)

The Three World OrderDuring the Cold War, the worldwas designated into three“worlds”. The 1st world was thecapitalist advancedcivilizations. The 2nd worldwas the communist bloc. The3rd world was the developingworld.

East and West Germany / The Berlin WallAfter WWII was over, the US, UK, USSR, andFrance partitioned Germany into 4 militaryoccupation zones. They all split Berlin. Berlinbecame a hotbed for USSR v US tensionsespecially with the construction of The BerlinWall which cut off East Berlin from West Berlin.

Environmental Acts of the 1970s Cuyahoga River in Cleveland caught fire because itwas so polluted in 1969, bringing public attention andconcern to the degrading environmentThe Clean Air Acts and Federal Water Pollution Actsigned by Richard Nixon established limits oncorporate emissionsEnvironmental Protection Agency was established in1970 to enforce and research laws protecting theenvironmentFirst Earth day was celebrated in 1970, showingchanging public views on the environment

Period 9 (1980-Present Day)

Three Mile Island accident 1979 The Three Mile Island accident wasa nuclear meltdown inPennsylvaniaThe accident resulted in largeamounts of radioactive gasesescaping into the environmentNobody died in the Three mileIsland accidentThree Mile Island led to the declineof nuclear power production in theUS

National Environmental Education Act of 1990 The National EnvironmentalEducation Act was an act ofcongressThe goal was to improveenvironmental educationMake people aware of the toxiccontaminants that could causeenvironmental problems-like globalwarming or ocean pollution

Hurricane Katrina 2005 Hurricane Katrina was a category 5hurricaneIt landed on Florida and LouisianaThe most damage happened on thecity of New OrleansEstimated deaths were between1,245-1,836Estimated damage was over 81billion

Deep Water Horizon Oil Spill 2010 Largest Marine Oil spill in historyIt was caused by an explosion onthe Deep water horizon oil rigIt was off the coast of Louisiana inthe Gulf of MexicoThe oil had terrible effects on theplants and animals that live in theocean or on the nearby coastalareas

Global Warming/Climate Change Global warming is the rise inaverage temperatures of the wholeworld over a long period of time.Between 1880 and 2012 theaverage global surface temperaturerose by 0.85 or 1.53 Global Warming has led to decadesof Arctic sea ice decline

APUSH Geography Atticus Rosen, Sebastian Reed, Jacob Begich, Robby Sedwick. Period 1 (1491-1607) Native American Culture Areas. Native American Culture Areas - Northwest Coast . Northwest Ordinance of 1787 The Northwest Ordinance was a solution to the issue of the Northwest

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