Background: Prokaryotic Vs. Eukaryotic Cells

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B.4A: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic CellsCell Structure and Function How are prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells the same? How are they different? How do eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells compare in scale?Background: Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic CellsA cell is the smallest and most basic structural unit of all living things. The word cell comes from ascientist in 1665 named Robert Hooke who was examining a piece of cork under a microscope. The wordcell derives from the Latin cellula, meaning “a small room”. Hooke thought the cork cells resembled thesmall rooms in which monks often lived.Cells can be divided into two broad groups: those that contain membrane-bound organelles, suchas a nucleus, and those that do not. There are two basic cell types: eukaryotic and prokaryotic. Both havea cell membrane, cytoplasm, ribosomes, and DNA, but there also distinct differences.Prokaryotic cells are found in unicellular organisms such as bacteria. A prokaryotic cell lacks a truenucleus and membrane-bound organelles. Scientists believe that prokaryotic cells were the first livingorganisms on the planet due to their primitive structure.Eukaryotic cells are found in multicellular organismssuch as protists, fungi, plants, and animals. Someeukaryotes, however, such as amoebas, or somealgae and yeast, are unicellular organisms.A eukaryotic cell contains a true nucleus andmembrane-bound organelles. These organellesallow for eukaryotic cells to increase in size aseach are specialized to accomplish a specific task.As a result, eukaryotic cells are typically largerthan prokaryotic cells. Prokaryoticcell membranecytoplasmDNAEukaryoticMost eukaryotic cell membranes are capable offorming vesicles to take in particles, a processcalled endocytosis, and release particles throughexocytosis. Prokaryotic cells are not capableof performing these processes.cellmembraneDespite the differences, both cells perform similar lifefunctions such as energy production, or respiration,and reproduction. Although the process of accomplishingthese tasks is different, the end result is the same.cytoplasmDNAComplete the Background section of your Student Journal before continuing to the investigation.1

B.4A: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic CellsCell Structure and Function How are prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells the same? How are they different? How do eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells compare in scale?Part I: Plan Your InvestigationYour Mission: Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.In this descriptive investigation, you will examine a set of slides to identify, compare, andcontrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. In Part I of your Student Journal, create aQuestion of Inquiry that you will research.To plan your investigation, choose the equipment and any technology you need, note theimportant safety steps, and list the procedure steps you will follow.Part II: Implement your Investigation1.Use your knowledge of microscopes to focus on each slide in order to identify thespecimens. Take turns focusing the microscope for each slide, so that all groupmembers have observed the specimens with the microscope.2.Each slide is labeled a number, which corresponds to the data table in Part II of yourStudent Journal. For each specimen, sketch an image of your observations.3.Analyze each specimen and identify its cell type as either a prokaryotic oreukaryotic.4.When your teacher reveals the name of each organism, write it appropriately in yourdata table.Complete Part I and II in your Student Journal2

B.4A: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic CellsCell Structure and Function How are prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells the same? How are they different? How do eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells compare in scale?Eukaryotic CellsProkaryotic CellUse these images as a reference for your investigation3

B.4A: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic CellsCell Structure and Function How are prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells the same? How are they different? How do eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells compare in scale?OrganelleFunctionMembraneBound?Plant /AnimalSizePicture1cell wallprotectsnoplant30µmthick2cell roplastmakes foodyesplant5µm4golgi bodypackagesand sortsyesboth1µm5lysosomebreaks �m6mitochondrion7nucleuscontrolcenteryesUse this chart as a reference for your investigation4both10µm

B.4A: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic CellsCell Structure and Function How are prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells the same? How are they different? How do eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells compare in scale?8910Organelleribosomevacuole13make proteinsstorageendoplasmictransport Plant /Animalnobothyesanimal;smallplant; largeyesnononoUse this chart as a reference for your µm0.5µm12µm0.5µmthickn/a10-15µm40-50µm

How are prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells the same? How are they different? How do eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells compare in scale? B.4A: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells Cell Structure and Function Background: Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells A cell is the smal

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