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Emotions, Aggression andStressChapter 151EmotionEmotion is a complicated psychological conceptthat includes wide range of observablebehaviors, expressed feelings and changes inbodily state.Due to the nature of its complexity theyhave been hard to study exceptnow we are having a better understanding of them.2Aspects of EmotionsThere are four different aspects of emotions:1. Feelings: In many cases emotions are feelings thatare very private and subjective.2. Actions: Emotions can consist of actions such asdefending or attacking in a threat related situation.3. Physiological arousal: Emotional state can beconstellations of bodily states.4. Motivational programs: Emotions can bemotivational programs that coordinate responses tosolve specific adaptive problems. Motivated to seekpleasure and avoid pain.31

Theories of EmotionCommon sense view suggests that when we areconfronted with a emotion arousing stimuluswe experience an emotion which leads to abodily response.RunFearBear4James-Lange TheoryJames-Lange theory of emotion suggests thatwhenever we see an emotion arousing stimuluswe experience a bodily reaction followed by anemotion.FearRunBear5Cannon-Bard TheoryCannon-Bard theory of emotion suggests thatwhenever we see an emotion arousing stimuluswe experience a bodily reaction and theemotion simultaneously.BearRunFear62

Schachter-Singer TheorySchachter-Singer theory of emotion suggeststhat we experience emotions based onautonomic arousal and they way we label theemotion.BearRunThreatFear7How many Emotions?Plutchik (1994)suggests that there areeight basic emotions.But other investigatordo not completelyagree as to how manybasic emotion arethere.8Facial Expression and EmotionsAccording to Keltner and Ekman (2000) thereare eight emotions based on facial expression.Where Keltner and Ekman (2000) suggestcontempt and embarrassment Plutchik (1994)included adoration and vigilance.93

Emotions Across CulturesSix facial expressions seem to be universallyrecognized across cultures. However there aresome differences; emotions like surprise anddisgust are not recognized by isolated groups.10Cultural Context in EmotionCulture plays a significant role in determiningemotional expression. Model below outlines theeffect of culture on emotions.11Production of Facial ExpressionSuperficial anddeep musclesattached to the skinact as sphincterschanging the shapeof the mouth, eyes,or nose. Frontaliswrinkles theforehead and raisesthe eyebrow.124

Bell’s PalsyViruses can affectfacial nerve affectingone half of the facewith paralysis, leadingto Bell’s Palsy.Emotional expressionsbecome meaninglessin such a condition.13Evolution and EmotionsEmotions have adaptive value. Emotion of fearcalls for shifts in perception, attention, cognitionand action that focuses on avoiding danger andseeking safety along with physiologicalpreparations for fighting or flight.14Development of EmotionsBirth3 monthsDistress and PleasureJoy, happiness (smiling), sadnessand disgust.4-6 monthsAnger, surprise.7-8 monthsFear8-9 monthsAll primary emotions present.18-24 months Embarrassment, empathy andenvy (self-awareness).2-3 yearsEvaluating emotional behavioragainst a standard.155

Individual Differences1. Individual differ in their responses toemotions. Even infants show this difference inemotional behavior.2. Research has shown that emotional behaviorduring early childhood continues intoadulthood.3. Children who were high reactives developedshyness and phobias as they grew older.16Autonomic ResponsesWhere facial expressions can be observed visceralresponses are concealed. An electronic device thatcan measure such responses is called the liedetector.17Brain and EmotionDecorticate dog (cerebral cortex removed)expressed sham rage. Snarling, barking, andgrowling without a well-directed attack.Conclusion: Cerebral cortex inhibited emotion.186

Papez’s CircuitPapez’s circuit a seriesof pathways acrossbrain nuclei that getdisconnected leading tobreakdown of emotionalprocesses. These nucleiare shown in the figure.19Klüver-Bucy SyndromeKlüver and Bucycarried out temporallobe surgery andremoved amygdalawhich lead tomonkeys becomingmore social friendly,decreased anxiety,and expressed nosigns of fear.20Electrical StimulationOlds and Milner (1954) placed electrodes in themedial forebrain bundle (rats) which lead them topress a lever indefinitely for pleasure delivered bythe electrode’s electrical shock. Came to be knownas the pleasure center.217

Amygdala and FearRemoval of amygdala leadsto reduction of fear. Inparticular, if centralnucleus is lesioned thesame effect is produced.Patients with bilateraldamage to amygdala showmarked impairment inrecognizing fear (photos)than other emotions.22Insula and DisgustfMRI studies show thatinsular cortex lights upwhen people experiencedisgust. Patients withinsular cortical damageresult in an impairment ofrecognizing disgust as anemotion than otheremotions.23Emotions and Other Brain Areas248

Hemispheres and EmotionsLeft and right hemispheres of the brain processemotions differently. If left hemisphere is putunder sedation by using barbiturates (sodiumamytal) it results in depression (sadness) and if theright brain is sedated it results in smiling and afeeling of euphoria.25Hemispheres and Emotions26Dichotic Listening TasksDichotic listening tasksreveal left-ear advantagefor identifying theemotional tone of themessage and right-earadvantage of identifyingmeaning of the message.Thus it is the right-brainover the left-brainmanaging emotionalcontent of the message.ShadowedearUnattendedear279

Emotional PicturesA right-brain advantage has been found foremotion for pictorial stimuli also in normal andsplit brain patients.28Right-Left Side of a FaceLeft side of the face expresses more emotion thanthe right side. When pictures were composed ofboth left sides subjects labeled them as moreemotional than right.29Brain Regions and EmotionsIn love insula and anterior cingulate gyrus arestimulated. Other studies in emotion suggest thatprefrontal cortex also plays an important role.3010

Brain Regions and Emotions31Brain Regions and Emotions32Hormones and AggressionAggression is an emotional state that consists offeelings of hate and a desire to inflict harm.Androgens affect aggressive behaviors.3311

Hormones and Aggression34StressA multidimensional concept that includes thestress stimuli, the processing system and stressresponses. The rate of wear and tear caused bylife (Selye, 1956). Negative emotions are oneimportant source of that wear and tear.35StressSelye (1956) talks about three stages of stress andcall stress as general adaptation syndrome.1. The alarm reaction: Initial response to stress2. The adaptation stage: successful activationof the appropriate response systems and thereestablishment of homeostasis3. The exhaustion phase: characterized byincreased susceptibility to disease.3612

Stress and HormonesDuring a parachute training Ursin et al., (1978)found that changes in hormones levels beforeand after paratroopers jumped.37Stress and HormonesHormone levels (epinephrine andnorepinephrine) change as a result of commutertrain crowding and thesis exams for doctoralprogram.38Individual DifferencesWhy do individuals differ in their response tostress? One hypothesis focuses on earlyexperience.Rat pup that were handled by humans early onhandled stress better than those that were leftalone. Later studies suggested that all those pupshandled by humans were licked longer by theirmother leading to stress immunization.3913

MedicinePsychosomatic medicine emphasizespsychological factors in physical disease.A broader field that has arisen from this is calledhealth psychology (behavioral medicine) thatencompass all factors like emotions, stress, andbodily conditions related to disease.40PsychoneuroimmunologyA new field (1980) that recognizes psychologicaland neurological factors in affecting the immunesystem.People with more positive emotions tend togenerate more antibodies (during cold) thanthose with negative emotions.41Immune System4214

Immune SystemBlood contains white cells that fight invaders likeviruses, bacteria etc. Phagocytes (microphages,and neutrophils) engulf and destroy suchinvading germs.43Immune SystemPhagocytes need help from other white bloodcells (lymphocytes) that tell them what to attack.B lymphocytes (bone marrow) produceantibodies (immunoglobins) tag them to invadersand then phagocytes kill them.44Immune SystemT lymphocytes (thymus glands) can act as killercells forming an attack on body’s foreignsubstances. Special T lymphocytes secretecytokines which regulate B lymphocytes andphagocytes.4515

Interactive SystemInteraction between a number of systems.46ImmunosuppressionCorticosteroid hormones released from adrenalcortex suppresses the immune response. Butwhy?Sapolsky in his book Why Zebras Don’t Get Ulcers(1994) suggests that suppression of immuneresponse to acute stress is evolutionary. Theanimals needs to flee before healing themselves.47Prolonged Stress4816

12 34 Hormones and Aggression 35 Stress A multidimensional concept that includes the stress stimuli, the processing system and stress responses. The rate of wear and tear caused by life (Selye, 1956). Negative emotions are one important source of that wear and tear. 36 Stress Selye (1956) talks about three stages of stress and

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