ESP32 Series - Digital Electronics Projects

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ESP32 32-D2WDESP32-S0WDVersion 2.6Espressif SystemsCopyright 2018www.espressif.com

About This GuideThis document provides the specifications of ESP32 family of chips.Revision HistoryFor any changes to this document over time, please refer to the last page.Documentation Change NotificationEspressif provides email notifications to keep customers updated on changes to technical documentation. Pleasesubscribe at ad certificates for Espressif products from www.espressif.com/en/certificates.Disclaimer and Copyright NoticeInformation in this document, including URL references, is subject to change without notice. THIS DOCUMENT ISPROVIDED AS IS WITH NO WARRANTIES WHATSOEVER, INCLUDING ANY WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY, NON-INFRINGEMENT, FITNESS FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE, OR ANY WARRANTY OTHERWISEARISING OUT OF ANY PROPOSAL, SPECIFICATION OR SAMPLE.All liability, including liability for infringement of any proprietary rights, relating to use of information in this document is disclaimed. No licenses express or implied, by estoppel or otherwise, to any intellectual property rightsare granted herein. The Wi-Fi Alliance Member logo is a trademark of the Wi-Fi Alliance. The Bluetooth logo is aregistered trademark of Bluetooth SIG.All trade names, trademarks and registered trademarks mentioned in this document are property of their respectiveowners, and are hereby acknowledged.Copyright 2018 Espressif Inc. All rights reserved.

Contents1 Overview11.11Featured Solutions1.1.1 Ultra-Low-Power Solution11.1.2 Complete Integration Solution11.2Wi-Fi Key Features11.3BT Key Features21.4MCU and Advanced Features21.4.1 CPU and Memory21.4.2 Clocks and Timers31.4.3 Advanced Peripheral Interfaces31.4.4 Security31.5Applications41.6Block Diagram52 Pin Definitions62.1Pin Layout62.2Pin Description72.3Power Scheme92.4Strapping Pins113 Functional Description123.1123.23.33.43.53.6CPU and Memory3.1.1 CPU123.1.2 Internal Memory123.1.3 External Flash and SRAM133.1.4 Memory Map13Timers and Watchdogs153.2.1 64-bit Timers153.2.2 Watchdog Timers15System Clocks163.3.1 CPU Clock163.3.2 RTC Clock163.3.3 Audio PLL Clock16Radio163.4.1 2.4 GHz Receiver173.4.2 2.4 GHz Transmitter173.4.3 Clock Generator17Wi-Fi173.5.1 Wi-Fi Radio and Baseband173.5.2 Wi-Fi MAC18Bluetooth183.6.1 Bluetooth Radio and Baseband183.6.2 Bluetooth Interface193.6.3 Bluetooth Stack19

3.6.4 Bluetooth Link Controller3.7RTC and Low-Power Management19204 Peripherals and Sensors224.1224.2Descriptions of Peripherals and Sensors4.1.1 General Purpose Input / Output Interface (GPIO)224.1.2 Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC)224.1.3 Hall Sensor234.1.4 Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC)234.1.5 Touch Sensor234.1.6 Ultra-Lower-Power Co-processor234.1.7 Ethernet MAC Interface234.1.8 SD/SDIO/MMC Host Controller244.1.9 SDIO/SPI Slave Controller244.1.10 Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (UART)254.1.11 I²C Interface254.1.12 I²S Interface254.1.13 Infrared Remote Controller254.1.14 Pulse Counter254.1.15 Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)254.1.16 LED PWM264.1.17 Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI)264.1.18 Accelerator26Peripheral Pin Configurations275 Electrical Characteristics325.1Absolute Maximum Ratings325.2Recommended Operating Conditions325.3DC Characteristics (3.3 V, 25 C)335.4Reliability Qualifications335.5RF Power-Consumption Specifications345.6Wi-Fi Radio345.7Bluetooth Radio355.85.7.1 Receiver – Basic Data Rate355.7.2 Transmitter – Basic Data Rate355.7.3 Receiver – Enhanced Data Rate365.7.4 Transmitter – Enhanced Data Rate36Bluetooth LE Radio375.8.1 Receiver375.8.2 Transmitter376 Package Information387 Part Number and Ordering Information398 Learning Resources408.140Must-Read Documents

8.2Must-Have Resources40Appendix A – ESP32 Pin Lists41A.1. Notes on ESP32 Pin Lists41A.2. GPIO Matrix43A.3. Ethernet MAC48A.4. IO MUX48Revision History50

List of Tables1Pin Description72Description of ESP32 Power-up and Reset Timing Parameters103Strapping Pins114Memory and Peripheral Mapping145Power Consumption by Power Modes206ADC Characteristics227ADC Calibration Results228Capacitive-Sensing GPIOs Available on ESP32239Peripheral Pin Configurations2710Absolute Maximum Ratings3211Recommended Operating Conditions3212DC Characteristics (3.3 V, 25 C)3313Reliability Qualifications3314RF Power-Consumption Specifications3415Wi-Fi Radio Characteristics3416Receiver Characteristics – Basic Data Rate3517Transmitter Characteristics – Basic Data Rate3518Receiver Characteristics – Enhanced Data Rate3619Transmitter Characteristics – Enhanced Data Rate3620Receiver Characteristics – BLE3721Transmitter Characteristics – BLE3722ESP32 Ordering Information3923Notes on ESP32 Pin Lists4124GPIO Matrix4325Ethernet MAC48

List of Figures1Functional Block Diagram52ESP32 Pin Layout (QFN 6*6, Top View)63ESP32 Pin Layout (QFN 5*5, Top View)74ESP32 Power Scheme95ESP32 Power-up and Reset Timing106Address Mapping Structure137QFN48 (6x6 mm) Package388QFN48 (5x5 mm) Package389ESP32 Part Number39

1. Overview1. OverviewESP32 is a single 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi-and-Bluetooth combo chip designed with the TSMC ultra-low-power 40 nmtechnology. It is designed to achieve the best power and RF performance, showing robustness, versatility andreliability in a wide variety of applications and power scenarios.The ESP32 series of chips includes ESP32-D0WDQ6, ESP32-D0WD, ESP32-D2WD, and ESP32-S0WD. Fordetails on part numbers and ordering information, please refer to Part Number and Ordering Information.1.1 Featured Solutions1.1.1 Ultra-Low-Power SolutionESP32 is designed for mobile, wearable electronics, and Internet-of-Things (IoT) applications. It features all thestate-of-the-art characteristics of low-power chips, including fine-grained clock gating, multiple power modes, anddynamic power scaling. For instance, in a low-power IoT sensor hub application scenario, ESP32 is woken upperiodically and only when a specified condition is detected. Low-duty cycle is used to minimize the amount ofenergy that the chip expends. The output of the power amplifier is also adjustable, thus contributing to an optimaltrade-off between communication range, data rate and power consumption.Note:For more information, refer to Section 3.7 RTC and Low-Power Management.1.1.2 Complete Integration SolutionESP32 is a highly-integrated solution for Wi-Fi-and-Bluetooth IoT applications, with around 20 external components. ESP32 integrates an antenna switch, RF balun, power amplifier, low-noise receive amplifier, filters,and power management modules. As such, the entire solution occupies minimal Printed Circuit Board (PCB)area.ESP32 uses CMOS for single-chip fully-integrated radio and baseband, while also integrating advanced calibrationcircuitries that allow the solution to remove external circuit imperfections or adjust to changes in external conditions. As such, the mass production of ESP32 solutions does not require expensive and specialized Wi-Fi testingequipment.1.2 Wi-Fi Key Features 802.11 b/g/n 802.11 n (2.4 GHz), up to 150 Mbps WMM TX/RX A-MPDU, RX A-MSDU Immediate Block ACK Defragmentation Automatic Beacon monitoring (hardware TSF) 4 virtual Wi-Fi interfacesEspressif Systems1ESP32 Datasheet V2.6

1. Overview Simultaneous support for Infrastructure Station, SoftAP, and Promiscuous modesNote that when ESP32 is in Station mode, performing a scan, the SoftAP channel will be changed. Antenna diversityNote:For more information, please refer to Section 3.5 Wi-Fi.1.3 BT Key Features Compliant with Bluetooth v4.2 BR/EDR and BLE specifications Class-1, class-2 and class-3 transmitter without external power amplifier Enhanced Power Control 12 dBm transmitting power NZIF receiver with –97 dBm BLE sensitivity Adaptive Frequency Hopping (AFH) Standard HCI based on SDIO/SPI/UART High-speed UART HCI, up to 4 Mbps Bluetooth 4.2 BR/EDR BLE dual mode controller Synchronous Connection-Oriented/Extended (SCO/eSCO) CVSD and SBC for audio codec Bluetooth Piconet and Scatternet Multi-connections in Classic BT and BLE Simultaneous advertising and scanning1.4 MCU and Advanced Features1.4.1 CPU and Memory Xtensa single-/dual-core 32-bit LX6 microprocessor(s), up to 600 MIPS (200 MIPS for ESP32-S0WD, 400MIPS for ESP32-D2WD) 448 KB ROM 520 KB SRAM 16 KB SRAM in RTC QSPI supports multiple flash/SRAM chipsEspressif Systems2ESP32 Datasheet V2.6

1. Overview1.4.2 Clocks and Timers Internal 8 MHz oscillator with calibration Internal RC oscillator with calibration External 2 MHz 60 MHz crystal oscillator (40 MHz only for Wi-Fi/BT functionality) External 32 kHz crystal oscillator for RTC with calibration Two timer groups, including 2 x 64-bit timers and 1 x main watchdog in each group One RTC timer RTC watchdog1.4.3 Advanced Peripheral Interfaces 34 programmable GPIOs 12-bit SAR ADC up to 18 channels 2 8-bit DAC 10 touch sensors 4 SPI 2 I²S 2 I²C 3 UART 1 host (SD/eMMC/SDIO) 1 slave (SDIO/SPI) Ethernet MAC interface with dedicated DMA and IEEE 1588 support CAN 2.0 IR (TX/RX) Motor PWM LED PWM up to 16 channels Hall sensor1.4.4 Security Secure boot Flash encryption 1024-bit OTP, up to 768-bit for customers Cryptographic hardware acceleration:– AES– Hash (SHA-2)– RSA– ECCEspressif Systems3ESP32 Datasheet V2.6

1. Overview– Random Number Generator (RNG)1.5 Applications Generic low-power IoT sensor hub Generic low-power IoT loggers Cameras for video streaming Over The Top (OTT) devices Music players– Internet music players– Audio streaming devices Wi-Fi-enabled toys– Loggers– Proximity sensing toys Wi-Fi-enabled speech recognition devices Audio headsets Smart power plugs Home automation Mesh network Industrial wireless control Baby monitors Wearable electronics Wi-Fi-enabled location-tracking devices Security ID tags Healthcare– Proximity- and movement-monitoring devices– Temperature data loggersEspressif Systems4ESP32 Datasheet V2.6

1. Overview1.6 Block andWi-Fi tchEmbedded FlashRFtransmitSDIOUARTCANETHCore and memory2 or 1 x Xtensa 32bit LX6 MicroprocessorsROMCryptographic hardwareaccelerationSRAMIRPWMSHARSAAESRNGRTCTouch sensorDACULPco-processorPMURecoverymemoryADCFigure 1: Functional Block DiagramNote:Products in the ESP32 series differ from each other in terms of their support for embedded flash and the number of CPUsthey have. For details, please refer to Part Number and Ordering Information.Espressif Systems5ESP32 Datasheet V2.6

2. Pin Definitions2. Pin DefinitionsCAP1CAP2VDDAXTAL PXTAL NVDDAGPIO21U0TXDU0RXDGPIO22GPIO19VDD3P3 CPU4847464544434241403938372.1 Pin LayoutVDDA136GPIO23LNA IN235GPIO18VDD3P3334GPIO5VDD3P3433SD DATA 1SENSOR VP532SD DATA 0SENSOR CAPP631SD CLKSENSOR CAPN730SD CMDSENSOR VN829SD DATA 3CHIP PU928SD DATA 2VDET 11027GPIO17VDET 21126VDD SDIO32K S2016GPIO27MTCK15GPIO261914GPIO25VDD3P3 RTC1332K XNESP3249 GNDFigure 2: ESP32 Pin Layout (QFN 6*6, Top View)Espressif Systems6ESP32 Datasheet V2.6

CAP1CAP2VDDAXTAL PXTAL NVDDAGPIO21U0TXDU0RXDGPIO22484746454443424140392. Pin DefinitionsVDDA138GPIO19LNA IN237VDD3P3 CPUVDD3P3336GPIO23VDD3P3435GPIO18SENSOR VP534GPIO5SENSOR CAPP633SD DATA 1SENSOR CAPN732SD DATA 0SENSOR VN831SD CLKCHIP PU930SD CMDVDET 11029SD DATA 3VDET 21128SD DATA 232K XP1227GPIO1732K XN1326VDD 8MTDI1917MTMSMTCK16GPIO27VDD3P3 RTC15GPIO26ESP3249 GNDFigure 3: ESP32 Pin Layout (QFN 5*5, Top View)Note:For details on ESP32’s part numbers and the corresponding packaging, please refer to Part Number and Ordering Information.2.2 Pin DescriptionTable 1: Pin DescriptionNameNo.TypeFunctionAnalogVDDA1PAnalog power supply (2.3 V 3.6 V)LNA IN2I/ORF input and outputVDD3P33PAnalog power supply (2.3 V 3.6 V)VDD3P34PAnalog power supply (2.3 V 3.6 V)VDD3P3 RTCSENSOR VP5IGPIO36, ADC1 CH0, RTC GPIO0SENSOR CAPP6IGPIO37, ADC1 CH1, RTC GPIO1SENSOR CAPN7IGPIO38, ADC1 CH2, RTC GPIO2SENSOR VN8IGPIO39, ADC1 CH3, RTC GPIO3Espressif Systems7ESP32 Datasheet V2.6

2. Pin DefinitionsNameNo.TypeFunctionHigh: On; enables the chipCHIP PU9ILow: Off; resets the chipNote: Do not leave the CHIP PU pin floating.VDET 110IGPIO34, ADC1 CH6, RTC GPIO4VDET 211IGPIO35, ADC1 CH7, RTC GPIO532K XP12I/O32K XN13I/OGPIO2514I/OGPIO25, DAC 1, ADC2 CH8, RTC GPIO6, EMAC RXD0GPIO2615I/OGPIO26, DAC 2, ADC2 CH9, RTC GPIO7, EMAC RXD1GPIO2716I/OGPIO27, ADC2 CH7, TOUCH7, RTC GPIO17, EMAC RX DVMTMS17I/OMTDI18I/OVDD3P3 4I/OGPIO32, 32K XP (32.768 kHz crystal oscillator input), ADC1 CH4,TOUCH9, RTC GPIO9GPIO33, 32K XN (32.768 kHz crystal oscillator output), ADC1 CH5,TOUCH8, RTC GPIO8GPIO14, ADC2 CH6, TOUCH6, RTC GPIO16, MTMS, HSPICLK,HS2 CLK, SD CLK, EMAC TXD2GPIO12, ADC2 CH5, TOUCH5, RTC GPIO15, MTDI, HSPIQ,HS2 DATA2, SD DATA2, EMAC TXD3Input power supply for RTC IO (2.3 V 3.6 V)GPIO13, ADC2 CH4, TOUCH4, RTC GPIO14, MTCK, HSPID,HS2 DATA3, SD DATA3, EMAC RX ERGPIO15, ADC2 CH3, TOUCH3, RTC GPIO13, MTDO, HSPICS0,HS2 CMD, SD CMD, EMAC RXD3GPIO2, ADC2 CH2, TOUCH2, RTC GPIO12, HSPIWP, HS2 DATA0,SD DATA0GPIO0,ADC2 CH1,TOUCH1,RTC GPIO11,CLK OUT1,EMAC TX CLKGPIO4, ADC2 CH0, TOUCH0, RTC GPIO10, HSPIHD, HS2 DATA1,SD DATA1, EMAC TX ERVDD SDIOGPIO1625I/OGPIO16, HS1 DATA4, U2RXD, EMAC CLK OUTVDD SDIO26POutput power supply: 1.8 V or the same voltage as VDD3P3 RTCGPIO1727I/OGPIO17, HS1 DATA5, U2TXD, EMAC CLK OUT 180SD DATA 228I/OGPIO9, SD DATA2, SPIHD, HS1 DATA2, U1RXDSD DATA 329I/OGPIO10, SD DATA3, SPIWP, HS1 DATA3, U1TXDSD CMD30I/OGPIO11, SD CMD, SPICS0, HS1 CMD, U1RTSSD CLK31I/OGPIO6, SD CLK, SPICLK, HS1 CLK, U1CTSSD DATA 032I/OGPIO7, SD DATA0, SPIQ, HS1 DATA0, U2RTSSD DATA 133I/OGPIO8, SD DATA1, SPID, HS1 DATA1, U2CTSVDD3P3 CPUGPIO534I/OGPIO5, VSPICS0, HS1 DATA6, EMAC RX CLKGPIO1835I/OGPIO18, VSPICLK, HS1 DATA7GPIO2336I/OGPIO23, VSPID, HS1 STROBEVDD3P3 CPU37PInput power supply for CPU IO (1.8 V 3.6 V)GPIO1938I/OGPIO19, VSPIQ, U0CTS, EMAC TXD0GPIO2239I/OGPIO22, VSPIWP, U0RTS, EMAC TXD1Espressif Systems8ESP32 Datasheet V2.6

2. Pin DefinitionsNameNo.TypeFunctionU0RXD40I/OGPIO3, U0RXD, CLK OUT2U0TXD41I/OGPIO1, U0TXD, CLK OUT3, EMAC RXD2GPIO2142I/OGPIO21, VSPIHD, EMAC TX ENAnalogVDDA43PAnalog power supply (2.3 V 3.6 V)XTAL N44OExternal crystal outputXTAL P45IExternal crystal inputVDDA46PAnalog power supply (2.3 V 3.6 V)CAP247IConnects to a 3 nF capacitor and 20 kΩ resistor in parallel to CAP1CAP148IConnects to a 10 nF series capacitor to groundGND49PGroundNote: ESP32-D2WD’s pins GPIO16, GPIO17, SD CMD, SD CLK, SD DATA 0 and SD DATA 1 are used for connectingthe embedded flash, and are not recommended for other uses. For a quick reference guide to using the IO MUX, Ethernet MAC, and GIPO Matrix pins of ESP32, please refer toAppendix ESP32 Pin Lists. In most cases, the data port connection between the ESP32 and external flash is as follows: SD DATA0/SPIQ IO1/DO, SD DATA1/SPID IO0/DI, SD DATA2/SPIHD IO3/HOLD#, SD DATA3/SPIWP IO2/WP#.2.3 Power SchemeESP32’s digital pins are divided into three different power domains: VDD3P3 RTC VDD3P3 CPU VDD SDIOVDD3P3 RTC is also the input power supply for RTC and CPU.VDD3P3 CPU is also the input power supply for CPU.VDD SDIO connects to the output of an internal LDO whose input is VDD3P3 RTC. When VDD SDIO is connectedto the same PCB net together with VDD3P3 RTC, the internal LDO is disabled automatically. The power schemediagram is shown below:VDD3P3 RTC1.8 VLDOLDO1.1 VVDD3P3 CPULDO1.1 VVDD SDIO3.3 V/1.8 VSDIORTCCPUDomainDomainDomainFigure 4: ESP32 Power SchemeEspressif Systems9ESP32 Datasheet V2.6

2. Pin DefinitionsThe internal LDO can be configured as having 1.8 V, or the same voltage as VDD3P3 RTC. It can be powered offvia software to minimize the current of flash/SRAM during the Deep-sleep mode.Notes on CHIP PU: The illustration below shows the ESP32 power-up and reset timing. Details about the parameters are listedin Table 2.t0t1VDDVIL nRSTCHIP PUFigure 5: ESP32 Power-up and Reset TimingTable 2: Description of ESP32 Power-up and Reset Timing ParametersParameterst0t1DescriptionTime between the 3.3 V rails being brought up and CHIP PU beingactivatedDuration of CHIP PU signal level VIL nRST (refer to its value inTable 12 DC Characteristics) to reset the chipMin.Unit50µs50µs In scenarios where ESP32 is powered on and off repeatedly by switching the power rails, while there is alarge capacitor on the VDD33 rail and CHIP PU and VDD33 are connected, simply switching off the CHIP PUpower rail and immediately switching it back on may cause an incomplete power discharge cycle and failureto reset the chip adequately.An additional discharge circuit may be required to accelerate the discharge of the large capacitor on railVDD33, which will ensure proper power-on-reset when the ESP32 is powered up again. Please find thedischarge circuit in Figure ESP32-WROOM-32 Peripheral Schematics, in ESP32-WROOM-32 Datasheet. When a battery is used as the power supply for the ESP32 series of chips and modules, a supply voltagesupervisor is recommended, so that a boot failure due to low voltage is avoided. Users are recommendedto pull CHIP PU low if the power supply for ESP32 is below 2.3 V. For the reset circuit, please refer to FigureESP32-WROOM-32 Peripheral Schematics, in ESP32-WROOM-32 Datasheet.Notes on power supply: The operating voltage of ESP32 ranges from 2.3 V to 3.6 V. When using a single-power supply, the recommended voltage of the power supply is 3.3 V, and its recommended output current is 500 mA or more. When VDD SDIO 1.8 V is used as the power supply for external flash/PSRAM, a 2-kohm grounding resistorshould be added to VDD SDIO. For the circuit design, please refer to Figure ESP32-WROVER Schematics,in ESP32-WROVER Datasheet. When the three digital power supplies are used to drive peripherals, e.g., 3.3 V flash, they should complywith the peripherals’ specifications.Espressif Systems10ESP32 Datasheet V2.6

2. Pin Definitions2.4 Strapping PinsESP32 has five strapping pins: MTDI GPIO0 GPIO2 MTDO GPIO5Software can read the values of these five bits from register ”GPIO STRAPPING”.During the chip’s system reset (power-on-reset, RTC watchdog reset and brownout reset), the latches of thestrapping pins sample the voltage level as strapping bits of ”0” or ”1”, and hold these bits until the chip is powereddown or shut down. The strapping bits configure the device’s boot mode, the operating voltage of VDD SDIO andother initial system settings.Each strapping pin is connected to its internal pull-up/pull-down during the chip reset. Consequently, if a strappingpin is unconnected or the connected external circuit is high-impedance, the internal weak pull-up/pull-down willdetermine the default input level of the strapping pins.To change the strapping bit values, users can apply the external pull-down/pull-up resistances, or use the hostMCU’s GPIOs to control the voltage level of these pins when powering on ESP32.After reset, the strapping pins work as normal-function pins.Refer to Table 3 for a detailed boot-mode configuration by strapping pins.Table 3: Strapping PinsVoltage of Internal LDO (VDD SDIO)PinDefaultMTDIPull-down3.3 V1.8 V01Booting ModePinDefaultSPI BootDownload ing/Disabling Debugging Log Print over U0TXD During BootingPinDefaultU0TXD TogglingU0TXD SilentMTDOPull-up10Timing of SDIO ge OutputRising-edge OutputFalling-edge OutputRising-edge OutputPull-up0011Pull-up0101Note: Firmware can configure register bits to change the settings of ”Voltage of Internal LDO (VDD SDIO)” and ”Timingof SDIO Slave”, after booting. For ESP32 chips that contain an embedded flash, users need to

The ESP32 strong series /strong of chips includes ESP32-D0WDQ6, ESP32-D0WD, ESP32-D2WD, and ESP32-S0WD. For details on part numbers and ordering information, please refer to Part Number and Ordering Information. 1.1 Featured Solutions 1.1.1 Ultra-Low-Power Solution ESP32 is designed for mobile, wearable electronics, and Internet-of-Things (IoT) applications.

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