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DG 452AStructural Design GuidelinesSubway and Underground StructuresIssue No. 3November 24, 2015Approved By:Frank Mondello, P.E., Chief Civil/Structural EngineerIssue RecordNo.DateDescription of ChangePrepared ByFormalReviewIntermediateReview0July 31, 2002Original IssueS. Senguptax1Dec. 29, 2004General RevisionS. Senguptax2Dec. 29, 20063Nov. 24, 2015 Complete ReviewChapter 12 - addedChapter 9 - Substantially revisedOther Chapters - minor revisionsS. SenguptaxH. LakhanixDivision of Engineering ServicesAlok Saha, P.E.Vice President and Deputy Chief Engineer

Structural Design GuidelinesTable of ContentSubway and Underground StructuresDG 452AIssue 3STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDELINESSUBWAY AND UNDERGROUND STRUCTURESDG 452APage ii

Structural Design GuidelinesSubway and Underground StructuresDG 452ATable of ContentsPage 1Issue 3Acknowledgements:Contributions of the following Engineers from CPM are recognized. Madan Naik, P.E., Chief Civil/Structural Engineer.Dr. Ajit Kumar Shah, Senior GeologistAlso acknowledged are the contributions of Subal Sarkar, PhD and Arman Farajollahi of PBAmericas, Inc. for reviewing and commenting on the Chapter 9 - Tunneling StructuresSanjay Sengupta, P.E.Preparer

Structural Design GuidelinesTable of ContentSubway and Underground StructuresDG 452APage 2Issue 3TABLE OF CONTENTSChapterTopicPage1Introduction32Loads63Load Cover Structures377Foundations868Construction Induced Movements andSettlements – Cut-and-Cover889Tunnel Structures9810Construction Induced Movements andSettlements – Tunneling13411Underpinning14512Appendix9A, 9BSeismic Design Requirement for Architectural,Electrical and Mechanical components148Evaluation of Liner Capacity9A-19B-1

Structural Design GuidelinesChapter 1DG 452ASubway and Underground StructuresIntroductionIssue 3Page 3Chapter 1IntroductionTable of ContentsSectionItemPage1.0Scope41.1Design Life41.2Guiding Documents4

Structural Design GuidelinesChapter 1DG 452ASubway and Underground StructuresIntroductionIssue 3Page 4CHAPTER 1IntroductionGeneral1.0 ScopeThe scope of this document is to provide Structural Design Guidelines on the following newstructures and facilities:1.2.3.4.5.6.Cut and Cover Structures.Mined Tunnel in Rock and Mixed Soil.Bored Tunnels in Rock.Cavern Structures in Rock.Station Structures.Other Underground Structures such as: Ventilation Fan Plants Pump Rooms SubstationsThis document also provides design guidelines on evaluations of ground movements andsettlements due to excavations and tunneling and the means to mitigate them.1.1 Design LifeThe structures shall be designed for 100 years. Assurance of this criterion shall be primarilythrough: Crack Width and Crack ControlConcrete CompositionWaterproofingCorrosion Control of Rebars and Structural Steel1.2 Guiding DocumentsCodes, Standard, Manuals, and Guidelines shall be the most current ones.1.2.1 Codes and Standards1. American Concrete Institute (ACI). ACI 318 Building Code Requirements for StructuralConcrete.2. American National Standards Institute (ANSI)3. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM).4. American Welding Society (AWS). Structural Welding Code (AWS D1.1).5. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). Standards and Guidelines NFPA 130.6. National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP). NEHRP Requirements, Latestversion.

Structural Design GuidelinesChapter 1DG 452ASubway and Underground StructuresIntroductionIssue 3Page 57. New York City. New York City Building Code (NYCBC).8. New York City. Department of Buildings. Rules of the City of New York Title 1.9. New York City. Department of Transportation (NYCDOT).10. New York City Transit. NYCT DG 453 Field Design Standards.11. New York City Transit. NYCT DG 452 Structural Design Guidelines.12. New York State. Building Code of New York State (NYSBC).13. New York State. Codes, Rules and Regulations of the State of New York (NYCRR)14. New York State. Department of Transportation (NYSDOT)1.2.2 Manuals and GuidelinesThe pertinent manuals and guidelines are listed in the relevant chapter.

Structural Design GuidelinesChapter 2DG 452ASubway and Underground StructuresLoadsIssue 3Page 6Chapter 2LoadsTable of ContentsSectionItemPage2.0Guiding Documents72.1Dead Loads72.2Train Axle Loads72.3Impact112.4Centrifugal Force112.5Wind Loads122.6Thermal Loads122.7Live Loads132.8Platform Loads132.9Sidewalk and Roadway Loads142.10Existing Buildings and New Construction152.11Lateral Pressure152.12Seismic Loads162.13Miscellaneous Loads17

Structural Design GuidelinesChapter 2DG 452ASubway and Underground StructuresLoadsIssue 3Page 7CHAPTER 2Loads2.0 Guiding Documents2.0.1Codes and StandardsRefer to Chapter 1, Section 1.2.1.2.0.2Manuals and Guidelines1. American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). Minimum Design Loads for Buildings andOther Structures. ASCE 7.2. American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE).Construction. ASCE 37Design Loads on Structures During2.1 Dead LoadsDead Loads (D) consist of the actual weight of the structure plus superimposed dead loads, suchas earth, water, permanently installed track work, partitions, finishes, service walks, pipes,conduits, utilities, services, and all other permanent construction and fixtures. Since dead loadstresses are always present, the structure shall be designed to support all dead loads at all timeswithout reduction.The weight of materials shall be estimated as follows:MATERIALWEIGHT (PCF)Steel.490Cast Iron .450Reinforced Concrete(Normal Weight) .150Stone Or Asphalt Concrete (Plain) .144Earth, Dry .100Earth, Saturated .125Brick Masonry .120Stone Masonry .150Crushed Stone, Gravel .110Water .62.4Other design unit weights shall be based on the Geotechnical Engineer’s recommendation.2.2 Train Axle Loadsa. The train load on subway tracks shall be taken as a continuous train of cars with axle loadsof the amounts and spacing given in Figures 2.1A to 2.1C. For maximum values of shear,moment and floor beam reaction, see Table 2.1A for “A” Division (IRT) loading and Table2.1B for “B” Division (IND/BMT) loading.

Structural Design GuidelinesChapter 2DG 452ASubway and Underground StructuresLoadsIssue 3Page 8b. In designing structural members, the effect of dead load and impact shall be added to thevalues given in Tables 2.1A and 2.1B.c. The train axle loads shown in Figures 2.1A, 2.1B, and 2.1C were utilized as the standarddesign loading for New York City Transit Structures. The cars for which these loadings weredeveloped are in most cases no longer in service. However, current and all future nonrevenue and passenger car designs must be restrained in the magnitude and spacing ofmaximum axle loads so that the shears, moments and floor beam reactions produced by theseloads in subway structures do not exceed the values produced by the standard design loading.d. Where the structure supports other railroad trains, the design shall be in accordance with therequirements of the railroad company concerned, provided those of New York City Transitare not more severe.e. Intermediate track floors in subways with beams placed transversely shall be designed for alive load of 1100 psf static equivalent, applied over a width of 10 feet symmetrical to thecenterline of track, in addition to the dead load, as shown in Figure 2.2. The directcompression due to side pressure shall be considered in designing track floor and otherintermediate beams. Special track floor construction at crossings, with rail supports placedlongitudinally, shall be designed in accordance with Tables 2.1 and 2.2.

Structural Design GuidelinesChapter 2DG 452ASubway and Underground StructuresLoadsIssue 3Page 9TABLE 2.1A“A” DIVISION (IRT) CAR LOADINGShears, Bending Moments And Floor Beam Reactions (FBR)For Stringers On Straight Track Due To Train Load On One Rail(Impact Not 4244SHEAR 56586062646668707580859095100FT.SHEAR 5186.2591.2795.6999.89104.19108.83* For two adjacent spans of equal P30 and 3530 and 4030 and 4530 and 5030 and 5530 and 6030 and 6530 and 7030 and 7530 and 8030 and 8530 and 9030 and 9530 and .3070.5072.7074.6777.0435 and 3535 and 4035 and 4535 and 5035 and 5535 and 6035 and 6535 and 7035 and 7535 and 8035 and 8535 and 9035 and 9535 and .0371.9873.9776.2978.77

Structural Design GuidelinesChapter 2DG 452ASubway and Underground StructuresLoadsIssue 3Page 10TABLE 2.1B“B” DIVISION (IND/BMT) CAR LOADINGShears, Bending Moments And Floor Beam Reactions (FBR)For Stringers On Straight Track Due To Train Load On One Rail(Impact Not 4244SHEAR 525456586062646668707580859095100SHEAR .301177.051304.721436.331568.22* For two adjacent spans of equal P30 and 3530 and 4030 and 4530 and 5030 and 5530 and 6030 and 6530 and 7030 and 7530 and 8030 and 8530 and 9030 and 9530 and .8073.0676.0078.6381.0035 and 3535 and 4035 and 4535 and 5035 and 5535 and 6035 and 6535 and 7035 and 7535 and 8035 and 8535 and 9035 and 9535 and 91.7896.21101.53106.29111.49

Structural Design GuidelinesChapter 2DG 452ASubway and Underground StructuresLoadsIssue 32.3Page 11Impacta. Impact shall be considered for trains only. For subways, the train loads specified in Section2.2 shall be increased by a percentage I, as given by the following formula:I [150 (L / 6)] 100(450 L)(1)Where: I increase in percent of the live load on a single track.L length of span in feet.b. For members supporting several tracks, such as cross girders and columns,L length of adjacent spans for one track only. See Table 2.2 for values of I.c. Where a member supports more than one track, the number of tracks assumed loaded shall besuch as will produce the maximum stress in the member, but the impact increase shall beapplied only to that track which, when loaded, contributes most to the live load stress.TABLE 2.2Impact Increases (%) For Train LoadsAs Determined from Formula 8272625L100150200250300350I242118161412Centrifugal ForceWhere proper super elevation is provided, the centrifugal force shall be considered as stressingcolumns (in bending only), bracing and steel column bases, and shall be assumed to act at thelevel of the base of rail in the direction outward and radial to the curve. In this case, only itshorizontal effects need be considered.Where no super elevation is provided, the centrifugal force shall be assumed to act 5 feet abovethe base of rail and the resulting vertical forces shall be taken into account in designing stringersand columns.

Structural Design GuidelinesChapter 2DG 452ASubway and Underground StructuresLoadsIssue 3Page 12In computing stresses, assume trains on all tracks and use the following formula:F CW(2)where:F centrifugal force (kips)C coefficient depending on degree of curvature, as per Table 2.3W weight of train, assumed as 2 klf of each track measured betweencenterlines of spans.TABLE 2.3DEGREE 120.1200.1260.130DEGREE 20.1020.0900.0760.060Centrifugal force shall be neglected for curves of less than 1 degree, while for curves exceeding20 degrees, the value of C shall be taken as 0.060.2.5Wind LoadsWind loading, where applicable, shall be as per the BCNYS, which in turn references ASCE 7.The basic wind speed, per Section 1609, with V3s 110 mph (3 second gust speed). In no caseshall the wind load be less than 15 psf.2.6a.Thermal LoadsCoefficient of thermal expansion:In the design and analysis of structures, provision shall be made for the stresses ormovements resulting from a variation in temperature from –10 to 110 degrees Fahrenheit.The coefficients of linear expansion for common materials are provided in Table 2.4.TABLE 2.4MaterialSteel, Mild (Structural)Steel, StainlessIron, Cast, GrayConcrete, Normal WeightCoefficient Of Linear ExpansionPer Unit Of Length, Per Degree F6.5 x 10-69.6 x 10-66.0 x 10-65.5 to 7.0 x 10-6

Structural Design GuidelinesChapter 2DG 452ASubway and Underground StructuresLoadsIssue 32.7Page 13Live LoadsStructural floor and roof members shall be designed to resist the distributed and/or concentratedloads given in Table 2.5.All equipment loads shall be verified from the vendor’s information during the final design.Table 2.5: Design Live 6272829U Uniform Load in psf and C Concentrated Load in kipsDescriptionUService Walk150Stairs, on horizontal projection150Platforms & Mezzanines150Chiller Room150Air Cooling Unit Room150Fan Area150Control Room150Elevator Machine Room150Elevator Pit150Escalator Machine Room150Escalator Pit150Ejector Room150Pump Room250SumpsCircuit Breaker House200Electrical Distribution Room250Electrical Panel Room150Relay Room150Central Instrument Room150Signal Tower Control Room150Communication Room150Telephone Compartment Room150Compressor Room150SubstationTransformer Area300Circuit Breaker Platform300Track Lubrication Room150Various Quarters150Subway Storage Spaces400Maintenance Service Rooms & Duct Manholes150Passageways150C NOTE0101011511151, 2013321, 40411215215101111111010101156000001116117

Structural Design GuidelinesChapter 2DG 452ASubway and Underground StructuresLoadsIssue 3Page 14Notes on table 2.5:1a. In designing floor slabs (one-way or two-way) or floor beams, use the uniformly distributedlive load over the entire floor area plus the concentrated live load located so as to produce:(1) maximum shear, and (2) maximum moment. For one-way slabs, apply the distributedlive load plus the concentrated live load to a slab with a width that is twice the effectivedepth.1b. In the design of columns, use only the uniformly distributed live load.2. This loading is to be used for under platform exhaust fan rooms, fan chambers, fan workareas, and any other areas supporting similar size fans.3. A minimum uniformly distributed live load of 150 psf shall be used on all floors.4. Design live loads given are for escalators with a maximum rise of 33 feet. For longerescalators, note 3 applies.5. Design live loads must be determined on the basis of maximum hydrostatic pressure (andexternal earth pressure, where applicable).6. This design live load applies to quarters of the following personnel, including tool rooms,workshops and "light" storage en3rd RailmenTrackmen7. Passageways and other areas on which equipment is to be temporarily supported must bedesigned for the design live loads of the appropriate rooms.2.8Platform LoadsDesign live load for platforms shall be 150 psf.An additional allowance of 40 psf minimum shall be assumed for 3” finishes (either initial orfuture), and a minimum of 70 psf for 5½” finishes.Additional loads such as continuous cement masonry unit (CMU) walls over the platform shallbe considered in conjunction with appropriate replacement of the prescribed uniform liveloading.Escalator point loads shall be included.2.9Sidewalk and Roadway LoadsVehicle loading shall be per AASHTO HS-25 loading and 15 cu yd concrete truck. See Figure2.3.Impact need not be considered for structures having 3 or more feet of cover. Follow AASHTOSection 3 where impact is required to be considered.

Structural Design GuidelinesChapter 2DG 452ASubway and Underground StructuresLoadsIssue 3Page 15Loads shall be assumed to transmit through fill per AASHTO Distribution of Wheel LoadsThrough Earth Fills.Sidewalk loading shall be designed to support a minimum, uniformly distributed load of 600 psffor areas inaccessible to trucks. However, sidewalk gratings and hatch covers shall be designedfor AASHTO HS 25.Table 2.6Sidewalk and Roadway Live Load Over Subways (ksf)2.10LIVE 0.600.600.600.600.500.400.300.200.200.20Existing Buildings and New ConstructionWhen existing private property falls within the zone of influence of new undergroundconstruction, a thorough evaluation of construction-induced settlement/deformations and theirimpact on the existing structures shall be made. See Chapters 8 and 10.2.11Lateral Pressurea. Lateral pressure is due to one or more of the following conditions: Earth abutting against a vertical plane, flush with back of wall.Water producing hydrostatic pressure.Pressures produced by loads within the influence line of the structure.b. In establishing lateral pressure, the following general rules are utilized: The lateral pressure shall at no point be taken at less than 200 psf.

Structural Design GuidelinesChapter 2DG 452ASubway and Underground StructuresLoadsIssue 3 Page 16Rock Pressure shall be as per Geotechnical Engineer’s recommendation.c. For purposes of including lateral pressures due to surcharge loads within the influence line ofthe structure: 2.12Lateral pressures due to live loads shall be considered as part of the Live Load L.Lateral pressures due to adjacent buildings or facilities, both existing and newconstruction, shall be considered as part of the permanent surcharge loading in H.Seismic Loads2.12.1 Basic Seismic Loadsa. Two levels of Earthquake shall be considered:1. Maximum Design Earthquake (MDE) - 2% probability of exceedance within a 50-yearperiod - return period 2500 years.2. Operating Design Earthquake (ODE) - 10% probability of exceedance within a 50-yearperiod – return period 500 years.b. The Design Response Spectra as well as two sets of hard rock time history motions or eachdesign earthquake hazard level (as a minimum) as specified in the report to the NYCDOT,Seismic Design Criteria Guidelines, dated December 30,1998 shall be used unless otherwisespecified. These design spectra and ground motion time histories are based on the 84%hazard curves derived in 1998 NYCDOT study.c. Effects of liquefaction and foundation settlement shall be evaluated.d. Effects of faults, if any shall be taken into consideration.

Structural Design GuidelinesChapter 2DG 452ASubway and Underground StructuresLoadsIssue 3Page 172.12.2 Performance Requirements for Design Earthquake Loadsa. Performance Requirements under Maximum Design Earthquake (MDE) : Since it is of highintensity and low probability of occurrence , the following criteria of design shall be met: No catastrophic collapse failureStructure shall be designed with adequate strength and ductility to survive loads anddeformations imposed on the structure thereby preventing collapse and maintaining lifesafety.Any structural damage shall be controlled and limited to elements that are accessible andcan be repaired. Local yielding of steel and cracking of concrete may be permitted aslong as it is detectable and repairable. .Interruption of the rail service and operation resulting from damage is permitted providedthat life safety of passengers is maintained.The structure may not remain elastic during the earthquake.b. Performance Requirements under Operating Design Earthquake (ODE) : Since it is of lowintensity and high probability of occurrence , the following criteria of design shall be met: Structure is expected to sustain little or minimal damage and be able to continue to serveits function with minimal interruption.Higher than the usual stress level will be permitted.2.12.3 Seismic Design Loads to Be ConsideredThe following loads shall be considered in seismic design: Effects of soil overburden and/or weathered rock (i.e. site effects) on ground motionsEffects of soil-structure and/or soil-foundation interactions shall be considered.2.13Miscellaneous Loads2.13.1 Collision ForcesStructures, such as columns, walls and other supports, situated less than 10 feet from the edge ofplatforms shall be designed to withstand a horizontal static force of 225 kips applied at the mostcritical height, unless protected with suitable barriers. This force is applied on the supportelement at an angle of 10 degrees from the direction of the rail traffic. This condition occurswith the dead load of the structure, but need not be applied concurrently with other loadings.The collision force shall be multiplied by a load factor of 1.6 for strength design.2.13.2 Construction LoadsThe loads on structures during construction shall be as per ASCE Standard SEI/ASCE 37.

Structural Design GuidelinesChapter 2DG 452ASubway and Underground StructuresLoadsIssue 32.IA2.IB2.ICFigure 2.1Page 18

Structural Design GuidelinesChapter 2DG 452ASubway and Underground StructuresLoadsIssue 3Figure 2.2Page 19

Structural Design GuidelinesChapter 2DG 452ASubway and Underground StructuresLoadsIssue 320 kips20 kips5 kips6'-0"5 kips20 kips20 kipsvaries 14'-0" to 30'-0"14'-0"HS 25 Truck6 wheels Total 90 kips10 kips20 kips20 kips6'-0"20 kips10 kips14'-0"20 kips4'-6"Concrete Truck6 wheels total 100 kipsFigure 2.3Page 20

Structural Design GuidelinesChapter 3DG 452ASubway and Underground StructuresLoad CombinationsIssue 3Page 21Chapter 3Load CombinationsTable of ContentsSectionItemPage3.0Scope223.1Guiding Documents223.2Load Combination Tables – Notes andDefinitions223.3Reinforced Concrete Design233.4Structural Steel Design243.5Seismic Loading Combinations253.6Flow Chart for Seismic Analysis253.7Construction Loading Combinations263.8Criteria to be Satisfied26

Structural Design GuidelinesChapter 3DG 452ASubway and Underground StructuresLoad CombinationsIssue 3Page 22Chapter 3Load Combinations3.0 ScopeAll Subway and Underground Structures shall be designed with the following load combinationsalong with the criteria specified in Section 3.8 and sections detailing acceptance criteria forseismic design in Sections 6.12 and 9.9.3.1 Guiding Documents3.1.1 Codes and StandardsRefer to Chapter 1, Section 1.2.1.3.1.2 Manuals and Guidelines1. American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC), Manual of Steel Construction – 9th Edition– Allowable Stress Design2. American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). Minimum Design Loads for Buildings andOther Structures. ASCE 7.3.2 Load Combinations – Notes and DefinitionsSymbol DefinitionsD Dead LoadE Combined effect of horizontal and vertical earthquake-induced forcesF Load due to fluids with well defined pressures and maximum heightsFa Flood loadH Load due to lateral earth pressure, groundwater pressure, or pressure of bulk materialL Live loadLr Roof live loadR Rain loadS Snow loadT Self straining forceW Wind loadNotes for Reinforced Concrete and Steel Load Combination Tables:1. Per NYSBC, where a particular loading or combination is not defined, its load andcombination shall be derived from ASCE 7.2. The applicable loading is the loading to be used in the design.3. f1 and f2 shall be as defined in NYSBC.

Structural Design GuidelinesChapter 3DG 452ASubway and Underground StructuresLoad CombinationsIssue 3Page 233.3 Reinforced Concrete DesignApplicable CodesNYSBCI1.4DApplicable LoadingASCE 7Load Combination(16-1)1.4DII1.1.4 (D F)III2.1.2(D F T) 1.6(L H) 0.5(Lr or S or R)IV1.2D 1.6L 0.5(Lr or S or R)1.4(D F)1.2(D F T) 1.6(L H) 0.5(Lr or S or R)1.2D 1.6L 0.5(Lr or S or R)(16-2)V1.2D 1.6(Lr or S or R) (f1L or 0.8W )(16-3)3.1.2D 1.6 (Lr or S or R) (L or 0.8W)note (1)1.2D 1.6(Lr or S or R) (L or 0.8W)VI1.2D 1.6W f1L 0.5(Lr or S or R)4.1.2D 1.6W 1.0L 0.5(Lr or S or R) note (1)1.2D 1.6W 1.0L 0.5 (Lr or S or R)(16-4)VIIVIII4a. 1.2D (1.6W 2.0Fa) 1.2D (1.6W 2.0Fa) 1.0L 1.0L 0.5 (Lr or S or R ) 0.5 (Lr or S or R )note (1) and note (3)1.2D 1.0E f1L f2S(16-5)IX5. 1.2D 1.0E 1.0L 0.2Snote (1)6. 0.9D 1.6W 1.6Hnote (2)1.2D 1.0E f1L f2S0.9D 1.6W 1.6HX6a. 0.9D (1.6W 2.0Fa) 1.6H 0.9D (1.6W 2.0Fa) 1.6Hnote (2) and note (3)XI7.0.9D 1.0E 1.6H0.9D 1.0E 1.6Hnote (2)XII0.9D (1.0E or 1.6W) (16-6)0.9D (1.0E or 1.6W)Notes for Reinforced Concrete Design Load Table:1. For the ASCE-7 Load Combination Numbers (3), (4), and (5), the load factor on L ispermitted to equal 0.5 for all occupancies in which the live load is less than or equal to 100psf, with the exception of garages or areas occupied as places of public assembly.2. For the ASCE-7 Load Combination Numbers (6) and (7), the load factor on H shall be setequal to zero if the structural action due to H counteracts that due to W or E. Where lateralearth pressure provides resistance to structural actions from other forces, it shall not beincluded in H but shall be included in the design resistance.3. Load Factor for Fa may be modified for specific projects with NYCT approval.4. Load Factor for Groundwater Pressure may be modified for specific projects with NYCTapproval.5. Surcharges due to roadway and sidewalk live loads, including horizontal effects, shall beconsidered as part of Live Load L.

Structural Design GuidelinesChapter 3DG 452ASubway and Underground StructuresLoad CombinationsIssue 3Page 243.4 Structural Steel DesignApplicable CodesNYSBCApplicable LoadingLoad CombinationASCE 7ID(16-7)DIID L(16-8)D LIII1. D FD FIV2. D H F L TD H F L TV3. D H F (Lr or S or R)D H F (Lr or S or R)VID L (Lr or S or R) (16-9)VIIVIIIIXD L (Lr or S or R)4. D H F 0.75(L T) 0.75(Lr or S or R)D H F 0.75(L T) 0.75(Lr or S or R)D (W or 0.7E) L (Lr or S or R)(16-10)D (W or 0.7E) L (Lr or S or R)0.6D W(16-11)0.6D WX5. D H F (W or 0.7E)D H F (W or 0.7E)XI5a. D H F W 1.5FaD H F W 1.5FaXII6. D H F 0.75(W or 0.7E) 0.75L 0.75( Lr or S or R)D H F 0.75(W or 0.7E) 0.75L 0.75(Lr or S or R)XIII6a. D H F 0.75W 0.75L 0.75(Lr or S or R) 1.5FaD H F 0.75W 0.75L 0.75(Lr or S or R) 1.5FaXIV7.0.6D W HXV7a. 0.6D W H 1.5FaXVIXVII0.6D 0.7E0.6D W H(16-12)0.6D W H 1.5Fa0.6D 0.7E8.0.6D 0.7E H0.6D 0.7E HNotes for Structural Steel Design Load Table:1. Load Factor for Fa may be modified for specific projects with NYCT approval.2. Surcharges due to roadway and sidewalk live loads, including horizontal effects, shall beconsidered as part of Live Load L.

Structural Design GuidelinesChapter 3DG 452ASubway and Underground StructuresLoad CombinationsIssue 3Page 253.5 Seismic Load CombinationsSeismic Loading Combinations depend on the type of structure being designed. The LoadCombinations for Cut-and-Cover, Cavern, and Tunnel Structures are covered in the relevantchapters.3.6 Flow Chart for Seismic AnalysisPerform Static Analysis: Derive Earth Pressure (static) and hydrostatic pressurePerform Preliminary analysis and member sizingCreate 3-D model for computer analysis and perform static analysisComplete the evaluation of the members and connections for all loading except seismic Perform PROSHAKE to get shear stress, strain and free field displacement/deformation ofthe soil Determine the flexibility ratio of the structure Determine displacement of the structure from the flexibility ratio Ensure that the soil is stiffer than the structure If the soil is found to be softer than the structure, perform soil structure interaction evaluationusing a finite difference or finite element program and determine the structure’s displacement Apply the calculated transverse and longitudinal displacements and the force in the verticaldirection to the structure Add the seismic loads with proper response modification factor to the pertinent loadcombinations The earthquake elastic loads (EQ) calculated from the 3-dimensional analysis in the threeperpendicular directions, shall be co

Aug 13, 2020 · FT. FBR KIP ADJACENT SPANS FT. FBR KIP 30 and 35 46.78 35 and 35 47.26 30 and 40 48.07 35 and 40 48.59 30 and 45 49.08 35 and 45 50.76 30 and 50 51.25 35 and 50 52.97 30 and 55 54.06 35 and 55 55.79 30 and 60 57.25 35 and 60 58.98 30 and

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