Pilots' Age Limits Study - ICAO

2m ago
4 Views
0 Downloads
1.47 MB
33 Pages
Last View : 5d ago
Last Download : n/a
Upload by : Tia Newell
Transcription

Pilots’ Age Limits Study07 May 2019

Disclosure Information90th Annual Scientific MeetingDr. med. Janis VegersMedical ExpertAircrew & Medical Standards & Implementation SectionEuropean Union Aviation Safety AgencyI have no financial relationships to disclose.5/27/2019ASMA - ICAO meeting2

ContentBackgroundStudyOutcomeNext5/27/2019ASMA - ICAO meeting3

BackgroundPilot age limits – history1919,International Commission for Air Navigation (ICAN) - 45 years age limit 1947,ICAO takes over from ICAN – no age limit in ICAO documentation 1963,ICAO introduced age limit 60 based on the statistical data regarding the risk ofsudden incapacitation 2006,ICAO increased the age limit to 65 for multi-crew operations subject to the secondmember of the flight crew to be below the age of 60 2013,ICAO proposed to abolish the ‘1 under, 1 over’ policy 5/27/2019ASMA - ICAO meeting4

BackgroundEurope – Pilot age limits – history1987,JAA - the age limit of 60 years old for pilots engaged in commercial air transport (CAT)operations except as a member of a multi-pilot crew, subject to the second member of theflight crew being below the age of 60.Furthermore, it imposed as hard limit for all pilots in CAT operations - age of 65. Some European States still maintained in their national requirements the hard limit atthe age of 60 for all pilots; However, some allowed single-pilot CAT operations with pilots over the age of 60 undercertain circumstances and subject to certain conditions. 2011,EASA - the Aircrew Regulation Part FCL initially took over the wording of JAR-FCL 1. 5/27/2019ASMA - ICAO meeting5

BackgroundEurope – Pilot age limitsThe Aircrew RegulationCommission Regulation (EU) No 1178/2011FCL.065 Curtailment of privileges of licence holders aged 60 years or more in commercialair transport(a) Age 60-64. Aeroplanes and helicopters. The holder of a pilot licence who hasattained the age of 60 years shall not act as a pilot of an aircraft engaged incommercial air transport except as a member of a multi-pilot crew.(b) Age 65. Except in the case of a holder of a balloon or sailplane pilot licence,the holder of a pilot licence who has attained the age of 65 years shall not act as a pilotof an aircraft engaged in commercial air transport.(c) Age 70. The holder of a balloon or sailplane pilot licence who has attained the age of70 years shall not act as a pilot of a balloon or a sailplane engaged in commercial airtransport.5/27/2019ASMA - ICAO meeting6

BackgroundEurope – Pilot age limitsThe Agency has received Article 71 (old 14.4) Exemption requests withindividually specified mitigating measures from Switzerland, Austria, CzechRepublic, Germany mainly related to allowing pilots in helicopter ops.(HEMS) to continue after the age of 60. This is mainly based on the fact that retirementage for male population is 65 in many of the MSs. 5/27/2019ASMA - ICAO meeting7

Retirement age The retirement age in theEU is currently around 65,with some exceptions.The retirement age willgrow in the next 10 years toreach 68 and above by2030.Current general retirementage (2019)EUAustria (AT)Belgium (BE)Bulgaria (BG)Men/ Women65 / 60 years65 years66 years and 4 monthsCroatia (HR)65 years / 62 yearsCyprus (CY)Slovakia (SK)Slovenia (SI)Spain (ES)65 years63 years and 6 months / 63 years and 2months67 years; 65 years and 6 months*63 years and 6-9 months63 years 3-6 months . 68 ; 65* years66 years and 2 months65 years and 7 months65 years67 years64 years66 years66 years and 7 months63 years and 6 months63 years and 10 months / 62 years and8 months65 years63 years66 years65 years / 60 years66 years and 5 months65 years / 61 years – 61 years and 2months62 years and 6 months65 years65 years and 6 monthsSweden (SE)61-67 years; 65 years*Czech (CZ)Denmark (DK)Estonia (EE)Finland (FI)France (FR)Germany (DE)Great Britain (GBR)Greece (EL)Hungary (HU)Ireland (IE)Italy (IT)Latvia (LV)Lithuania (LT)Luxembourg (LU)Malta (MT)Netherlands (NL)Poland (PL)Portugal (PT)Romania (RO)5/27/2019ASMA - ICAO meetingFuture retirement ageRetirement age or men/women65 years (2033)67 years (2030)67 years (2023)67 years (2038) / 65 years (2030); 67years (2038)65 years (2018)65 years (2036)67 years (2022); 68 years (2030)65 years (2026) 68 (2027)65 years (2027); 65 (2030)67 years (2023)67 (2031)67 (2028), 68 (2046)67 years (2021)65 years (2022)68 years (2028)67 years (2022)65 years (2025)65 years (2026)–65 years (2027)67 years (2022)–66 years (2016)-/63 years (2030)63 years and 2 months (2024)–67 years (2027)63-69 (GP; 2023), 63 (2026); 66(2023), 66 (2026)8

BackgroundLife expectancy in the EU has increased 5/27/2019Is there a link between increased lifeexpectancy and fitness?ASMA - ICAO meeting9

201220132014201520162017Comparison – Life expectancy and Age limit8580757065605550Life expectancy - European Union5/27/2019Life expectancy - WorldASMA - ICAO meetingAge limit (ICAO)10

Background - Summary The aviation industry is expanding The demand for properly trained pilots isincreasing To be pilot in not so attractiveRetirement age in the EU has been increasedto 65 years old or above Life expectancy in the EU has increased 5/27/2019ASMA - ICAO meeting11

International examplesThe Agency has requested information from ICAO, FAA, Transport Canada, NZ,Japan and China on how these regulatory bodies are dealing with the Age issue.The FAA has no known plans to amend their age 60 limitation. Transport Canada has abolished seemingly all age limitation whilst filing adifference to ICAO. Australia and New Zealand informed EASA that the state law forbids thelimitation of a persons right to work based on age, as it is considered ‘agediscrimination’. Japan has raised the mandatory retirement age to 68 in March 2015. 5/27/2019ASMA - ICAO meeting12

StudyThe Agency launched a Research study “Pilot age limits in CAT operations”Proposal contribution Assess the need for a regulatory pilot age limit in order to mitigate the risk to flight safetyresulting from the potential increasing cases of sudden incapacitation for pilots aged over 60.Considering the different types of CAT operations, determine whether the risk ofincapacitation can be mitigated by specific health screening or shortened screening intervalsrather than by an arbitrary age limit.In the case where the results will show:o the need to maintain a strict age limit, mention if the current age limit is relevant, oro the need to be adjusted and how that can be done, propose a battery of tests (medical,physiological, psychological, etc.) to support an aero-medical decision on the applicant’sfitness on an individual basis.5/27/2019ASMA - ICAO meeting13

Pilot Age Study – Project tasks Task 1. LITERATURE REVIEW AND GATHERING OF AVAILABLE DATA Task 2. RISK ASSESSMENT MODEL BASED ON OPERATIONS CONSIDERATIONS Task 3. AEROMEDICAL ASSESSMENT AND EVIDENCE-BASED AERO-MEDICALREQUIREMENTS TO DETERMINE APPLICANT’S FITNESS ON AN INDIVIDUAL BASISINITIAL SCREENING OF CARDIOVASCULAR RISKS IN ASYMPTOMATIC PILOTSENHANCED SCREENING OF CARDIOVASCULAR RISKS IN ASYMPTOMATIC PILOTS 5/27/2019Task 4. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR IMPLEMENTING RESEARCH RESULTS AND FORFURTHER INVESTIGATIONASMA - ICAO meeting14

Pilot Age Study – Project team5/27/2019ASMA - ICAO meeting15

T2: Risk AssessmentT1: Literature Review & Data CollectionNov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun2017WorkshopKick-offPilot Age Study – Project tasksJul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb MarT3: Screening of Cardiovascular Risks2019T4: Conclusions5/27/2019ASMA - ICAO meeting16

Analysis of the literature In-flight incapacitation as a consequence of medical problems is rare Majority of the incapacitation causes are age-independent Cardiovascular, neurological and psychological/psychiatric conditionsDisqualification rates increase with age 5/27/2019cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and neurological conditions.Most prevalent medical reasons for long-term grounding of pilots E.g gastro-intestinal conditions, laser strikes, headachesMost frequent age-dependent medical causes for total incapacitation up to 0.45 times per 106 flight hours or 0.25% per annumThe assessment of this risk is hindered by small numbers of pilots aged over 60ASMA - ICAO meeting17

Analysis of the collected data Six countries supplied medical data of good quality Number of pilots screened Number of pilots declared (temporarely) unfit Medical diagnosis Age CAT category (Class 1 and 2)5/27/2019ASMA - ICAO meeting18

Analysis of the collected dataPercentage (temp) unfit for each age category5,0%CLASS1UNFIT (%)50,1011,072 (2.1%)4,5%CLASS2UNFIT (%)4,0%32,334652 (2.0%)TOTALUNFIT (%)82,4351,724 (2.1%)370Percentage 1,8%1,5%ASMA - ICAO meeting51-604,4%1,7%61-653,0%2,9% 653,0%3,1%19

Analysis of the collected dataPercentage of total unfit per medical 0%total m19%2%Metabolic andendocrinesystems6%ASMA - ICAO meetingPsychiatryPsychologyNeurology11%9%10%20

Analysis of the collected dataPercentage of total unfit per age group and medical condition60%* p-value 1-5051-6061-65 %48%3%1%2%2%0%Metabolic A - ICAO meeting21

Incapacitation data from reported inflight incapacitation eventsType of incapacitationNumber of ic1Other illnesses16Unknown164ECCAIRS data 1970-2017 Commercial air transport5/27/2019ASMA - ICAO meeting22

The study recommendations Single pilot operations: Extend age limit of CAT pilots flying single pilot operations from 60 years to thepilot’s 65th birthday. Extension of the age limit for single pilot operations should be accompanied byadditional measures to reduce the likelihood of pilot incapacitation to meetcurrent operational accident acceptability values. Multi pilot operations: Keep the age limit at 65 years as it is currently set by EASA (FCL.065; EASA,2016). Use the same additional measures as for single pilots to reduce the likelihood ofpilot incapacitation.5/27/2019ASMA - ICAO meeting23

The study recommendations, additionalAccident and Incident Reporting System ECCAIRS data: Optimize registration of in-flight incapacitation occurrences: data concerning age; medical cause of incapacitation; level of incapacitation.5/27/2019ASMA - ICAO meeting24

Pilots’ Age Limits Workshop18-19 March 2019

Workshop More than 60 participantsMore than 25 nationalitiesOrganisations: European Commission, ICAO, IATAStakeholders representing: pilot associations, medical societies,HEMS, operators in both fixed and rotary wingNon EASA states – China, Japan, US, NZThe workshop - collecting data from stakeholders Review the study recommendations 5/27/2019ASMA - ICAO meeting26

Points from the WS discussion The study only looked at sudden incapacitation. Subtle incapacitationwas not considered;The study showed an increasing risk for pilots above the age of 60;All the neuropsychological abilities declined with age, with the exceptionof reasoning performances;In order to increase the age limits and maintain safety additionalmitigating measures on medical and operational level need to be inplace;Early cardiovascular risk factor management indifferent of theimplementation of a change in age limits;The need for pilot health data for future evaluation of the age limits.5/27/2019ASMA - ICAO meeting27

Outcome of studyThe research study as well as the presentations delivered during theworkshop are available on-line at the following researchprojects/easarepresea20171 and .5/27/2019ASMA - ICAO meeting28

5/27/2019ASMA - ICAO meeting29

Next stepsEASA is considering: an increase of the age limit for single pilot from the age of 60 to 65 withadditional mitigating measures as recommended by the research, includingthe early risk factors management and comprehensive ophthalmological,neurological and ENT examinations. an increase of the pilot age for multi pilot CAT operations, however, additionalrisk-mitigation measures such as specific tests to support aero-medicaldecision on the applicant’s fitness on an individual basis must be imposed. a reduction of the maximum monthly/ yearly FTL to 80% of the maximumallowed for pilots over 60 performing single pilot ops and for pilots over 65performing multi pilot ops.5/27/2019ASMA - ICAO meeting30

Next steps5/27/2019ASMA - ICAO meeting31

Next stepsDevelopment of options based on the feedback from the Workshopand MEG etc.; Working closely with ICAO and International Authorities on the futuresteps to coordinate actions; EASA high-level decision Impact assessment will be consulted with EASA Advisory BodiesFurther feedback from the advisory bodies on the way forward Final high-level decision following consultation Regulatory activities in congruence with the decision5/27/2019ASMA - ICAO meeting32

Thank you for your [email protected]

Retirement age 8 The retirement age in the EU is currently around 65, with some exceptions. The retirement age will grow in the next 10 years to reach 68 and above by 2030. 5/27/2019 ASMA - ICAO meeting Current general retirement age (2019) Future retirement age EU Men/ Women Retirement age or men/women Austria (AT) 65 / 60 years 65 years (2033)

Related Documents:

ICAO Doc 9184, Airport Planning Manual, Parts 1 to 3; ICAO Doc 9261, Heliport Manual; ICAO Doc 9332, Manual on the ICAO Bird Strike Information System (IBIS); ICAO Doc 9365, Manual of All-Weather Operations; ICAO Doc 9426, Air Traffic Services Planning Manual; ICAO Doc 9476, Manual of Surface Movement Guidance and Control Systems (SMGCS); ICAO .

ICAO Doc 9683, Human Factors Training Manual; ICAO Doc 9734, Establishment and Management of a State‘s Safety Oversight System; ICAO Doc 9760, Airworthiness Manual, Volumes I and II; ICAO Doc 9774, Manual on Certification of Aerodromes; ICAO Doc 9815, Manual on Laser Emitters and Flight Safety; ICAO

CHAPTER 2 - ICAO STATE LETTERS (ANNEX AMENDMENTS) 2.1 Notification of amendment to an ICAO Annex. 2.1.1 Proposals to amend an ICAO Annex are notified by an ICAO technical State letter. Amendment to regulations (involving rule/ Civil Aviation Requirements) is initiated as a re

(a) ICAO Doc 8168 Volumes I and II - Procedures for Air Navigation Services – Aircraft Operations (PANS-OPS) (b) ICAO Doc 9368 – IFP Construction Manual (c) ICAO Doc 9371 – Template Manual (d) ICAO Doc 9724 – CRM Manual (e) ICAO Doc 9365 – All Weather Operations Manual

The latest amendments to the ICAO SARPs considered in this RMT are: — ICAO Annex 16 Volume I, latest edition including Amendment 13, — ICAO Annex 16 Volume II, latest edition including Amendment 10, — ICAO Annex 16 Volume III, latest edition including Amendment 1, —

1.3 This BAR is based mainly on compliance with the following ICAO documents: (a) ICAO Annex 10 Volumes I to V – Aeronautical Telecommunications; (b) ICAO Annex 11 – Air Traffic Service; (c) ICAO Annex 19 – Safety Management; (d) ICAO Doc 8071 Volumes I to III – Testing of Ground-based and Satellite-

ICAO NACC Regional Office Page 8 . Annex 14 - Aerodromes, Volume I - Aerodrome Design and Operations . Wildlife strike reports shall be collected and forwarded to ICAO for inclusion in the ICAO Bird Strike Information System (IBIS) database. Information on the system is included in the . Manual on the ICAO Bird Strike Information System (IBIS)

(ICAO Doc 8168); (ee) Procedures for Air Navigation Services—Air Traffic Management (PANS-ATM) (ICAO Doc 4444). Formerly the Procedures for Air Navigation Services—Rules of the Air and Air Traffic Services (PANS-RAC); (ff) Heliport Manual (ICAO Doc 9261); (gg) Definitions (ICAO Doc 9569);

Unit II. Limits (11 days) [SC1] Lab: Computing limits graphically and numerically Informal concept of limit Language of limits, including notation and one-sided limits Calculating limits using algebra [SC7] Properties of limits Limits at infinity and asymptotes Estimating limits num

Doc 9261 ICAO Manualul pentru heliporturi Doc 9476 ICAO Manual pentru ghidarea si sistemele de control a miscarii pe suprafetele de miscare (SMGCS) Studiu de fundamentare in vederea concesionarii/PPP – AIBG 6 Doc 9501 ICAO Manualul tehnic pentru mediu Doc 9640 ICAO Manualul pentru operatiunile de degivrare/antigivrare .

FAA ICAO Flight Planning Interface Reference Guide 11/15/2012 DRAFT 8 FAA has resolved these issues by requiring an ICAO-format FPL to be filed, which accurately specifies PBN capability and is compatible with ICAO standards. In addition, the implemented solution improves the ability for the user to control the type of departure and arrival route

INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION 999 University Street, Montréal, Quebec, Canada H3C 5H7 For ordering information and for a complete listing of sales agents and booksellers, please go to the ICAO website at www.icao.int Doc 9835, Manual on the Implementation of ICAO Language Proficiency Requirements Order Number: 9835

ICAO’s Doc 9137-AN/898 Part 9, Airport Services Manual, Airport Maintenance Practices Annex 14, ICAO, Chapter 10, Aerodrome Maintenance ICAO, Manual on Certification of Aerodromes, Appendix 1, Doc 9774 AN/969, 1s

UPRT - AC References: ICAO Doc 10011- Manual on Aeroplane UPRT. ICAO Doc 9868 Pans Training - Chapter 7. ICAO Annex 1. ICAO Annex 6. FAA-AC 120-109 –Stall & Stick Pusher Training. FAA-AC120-111 –UPRT. EASA Annex II to ED Decision 2015/12/R. Teaching UPRT - International Committee for Aviation Training in Extended Envelopes (ICATEE).

May 14, 2021 · (a) CAR OPS 1 is amended to incorporate the ICAO Annex 6, Part I Amendment 44. (b) CAR OPS 2A is amended to incorporate the ICAO Annex 6, Part II Amendment 37. (c) CAR OPS 2H is amended to incorporate the ICAO Annex 6, Part III Amendment 23. (d) CAR OPS 3 is amended to incorporate the ICAO

The ICAO/EUROCONTROL ASBU Monitoring Report presents an overview of the deployment planning dates and implementation progress achieved for the ICAO ASBU Block 0 Modules (based on GANP 2016) within the ICAO EUR Region during the reporting year 2019. The Region covers 55 States and all of them provided monitoring information.

Aug 26, 2010 · Limits of functions o An intuitive understanding of the limiting process. Language of limits, including notation and one-sided limits. Calculating limits using algebra. Properties of limits. Estimating limits from graphs or tables of data. Estimating limits numerically and

resolved white, age 5* remember allerton, age 6* wrestling brewster, age 6* richard more, age 6, ward bartholomew allerton, age 7* jasper more, age 7, ward [boy unknown 1st name] turner, age 7* ellen more, age 8, ward love brewster, age 9* [boy unknown 1st name] tinker, age 10

2 15 ' 1 2 15 ' 2 15 ' notes: mainline 1 typ. lighting limits interchange 215' lighting limits interchange lighting limits interchange lighting limits interchange lighting limits interchange 3. 2. 1. interchange lighting limits n.t.s. reports indicates. of what that the lighting justification the mainline will be illuminated regardless

The most popular agile methodologies include: extreme programming (XP), Scrum, Crystal, Dynamic Sys-tems Development (DSDM), Lean Development, and Feature Driven Development (FDD). All Agile methods share a common vision and core values of the Agile Manifesto. Agile Methods: Some well-known agile software development methods include: Agile .