Pilots' Age Limits Study - ICAO

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Pilots’ Age Limits Study07 May 2019

Disclosure Information90th Annual Scientific MeetingDr. med. Janis VegersMedical ExpertAircrew & Medical Standards & Implementation SectionEuropean Union Aviation Safety AgencyI have no financial relationships to disclose.5/27/2019ASMA - ICAO meeting2

ContentBackgroundStudyOutcomeNext5/27/2019ASMA - ICAO meeting3

BackgroundPilot age limits – history1919,International Commission for Air Navigation (ICAN) - 45 years age limit 1947,ICAO takes over from ICAN – no age limit in ICAO documentation 1963,ICAO introduced age limit 60 based on the statistical data regarding the risk ofsudden incapacitation 2006,ICAO increased the age limit to 65 for multi-crew operations subject to the secondmember of the flight crew to be below the age of 60 2013,ICAO proposed to abolish the ‘1 under, 1 over’ policy 5/27/2019ASMA - ICAO meeting4

BackgroundEurope – Pilot age limits – history1987,JAA - the age limit of 60 years old for pilots engaged in commercial air transport (CAT)operations except as a member of a multi-pilot crew, subject to the second member of theflight crew being below the age of 60.Furthermore, it imposed as hard limit for all pilots in CAT operations - age of 65. Some European States still maintained in their national requirements the hard limit atthe age of 60 for all pilots; However, some allowed single-pilot CAT operations with pilots over the age of 60 undercertain circumstances and subject to certain conditions. 2011,EASA - the Aircrew Regulation Part FCL initially took over the wording of JAR-FCL 1. 5/27/2019ASMA - ICAO meeting5

BackgroundEurope – Pilot age limitsThe Aircrew RegulationCommission Regulation (EU) No 1178/2011FCL.065 Curtailment of privileges of licence holders aged 60 years or more in commercialair transport(a) Age 60-64. Aeroplanes and helicopters. The holder of a pilot licence who hasattained the age of 60 years shall not act as a pilot of an aircraft engaged incommercial air transport except as a member of a multi-pilot crew.(b) Age 65. Except in the case of a holder of a balloon or sailplane pilot licence,the holder of a pilot licence who has attained the age of 65 years shall not act as a pilotof an aircraft engaged in commercial air transport.(c) Age 70. The holder of a balloon or sailplane pilot licence who has attained the age of70 years shall not act as a pilot of a balloon or a sailplane engaged in commercial airtransport.5/27/2019ASMA - ICAO meeting6

BackgroundEurope – Pilot age limitsThe Agency has received Article 71 (old 14.4) Exemption requests withindividually specified mitigating measures from Switzerland, Austria, CzechRepublic, Germany mainly related to allowing pilots in helicopter ops.(HEMS) to continue after the age of 60. This is mainly based on the fact that retirementage for male population is 65 in many of the MSs. 5/27/2019ASMA - ICAO meeting7

Retirement age The retirement age in theEU is currently around 65,with some exceptions.The retirement age willgrow in the next 10 years toreach 68 and above by2030.Current general retirementage (2019)EUAustria (AT)Belgium (BE)Bulgaria (BG)Men/ Women65 / 60 years65 years66 years and 4 monthsCroatia (HR)65 years / 62 yearsCyprus (CY)Slovakia (SK)Slovenia (SI)Spain (ES)65 years63 years and 6 months / 63 years and 2months67 years; 65 years and 6 months*63 years and 6-9 months63 years 3-6 months . 68 ; 65* years66 years and 2 months65 years and 7 months65 years67 years64 years66 years66 years and 7 months63 years and 6 months63 years and 10 months / 62 years and8 months65 years63 years66 years65 years / 60 years66 years and 5 months65 years / 61 years – 61 years and 2months62 years and 6 months65 years65 years and 6 monthsSweden (SE)61-67 years; 65 years*Czech (CZ)Denmark (DK)Estonia (EE)Finland (FI)France (FR)Germany (DE)Great Britain (GBR)Greece (EL)Hungary (HU)Ireland (IE)Italy (IT)Latvia (LV)Lithuania (LT)Luxembourg (LU)Malta (MT)Netherlands (NL)Poland (PL)Portugal (PT)Romania (RO)5/27/2019ASMA - ICAO meetingFuture retirement ageRetirement age or men/women65 years (2033)67 years (2030)67 years (2023)67 years (2038) / 65 years (2030); 67years (2038)65 years (2018)65 years (2036)67 years (2022); 68 years (2030)65 years (2026) 68 (2027)65 years (2027); 65 (2030)67 years (2023)67 (2031)67 (2028), 68 (2046)67 years (2021)65 years (2022)68 years (2028)67 years (2022)65 years (2025)65 years (2026)–65 years (2027)67 years (2022)–66 years (2016)-/63 years (2030)63 years and 2 months (2024)–67 years (2027)63-69 (GP; 2023), 63 (2026); 66(2023), 66 (2026)8

BackgroundLife expectancy in the EU has increased 5/27/2019Is there a link between increased lifeexpectancy and fitness?ASMA - ICAO meeting9

201220132014201520162017Comparison – Life expectancy and Age limit8580757065605550Life expectancy - European Union5/27/2019Life expectancy - WorldASMA - ICAO meetingAge limit (ICAO)10

Background - Summary The aviation industry is expanding The demand for properly trained pilots isincreasing To be pilot in not so attractiveRetirement age in the EU has been increasedto 65 years old or above Life expectancy in the EU has increased 5/27/2019ASMA - ICAO meeting11

International examplesThe Agency has requested information from ICAO, FAA, Transport Canada, NZ,Japan and China on how these regulatory bodies are dealing with the Age issue.The FAA has no known plans to amend their age 60 limitation. Transport Canada has abolished seemingly all age limitation whilst filing adifference to ICAO. Australia and New Zealand informed EASA that the state law forbids thelimitation of a persons right to work based on age, as it is considered ‘agediscrimination’. Japan has raised the mandatory retirement age to 68 in March 2015. 5/27/2019ASMA - ICAO meeting12

StudyThe Agency launched a Research study “Pilot age limits in CAT operations”Proposal contribution Assess the need for a regulatory pilot age limit in order to mitigate the risk to flight safetyresulting from the potential increasing cases of sudden incapacitation for pilots aged over 60.Considering the different types of CAT operations, determine whether the risk ofincapacitation can be mitigated by specific health screening or shortened screening intervalsrather than by an arbitrary age limit.In the case where the results will show:o the need to maintain a strict age limit, mention if the current age limit is relevant, oro the need to be adjusted and how that can be done, propose a battery of tests (medical,physiological, psychological, etc.) to support an aero-medical decision on the applicant’sfitness on an individual basis.5/27/2019ASMA - ICAO meeting13


Pilot Age Study – Project team5/27/2019ASMA - ICAO meeting15

T2: Risk AssessmentT1: Literature Review & Data CollectionNov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun2017WorkshopKick-offPilot Age Study – Project tasksJul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb MarT3: Screening of Cardiovascular Risks2019T4: Conclusions5/27/2019ASMA - ICAO meeting16

Analysis of the literature In-flight incapacitation as a consequence of medical problems is rare Majority of the incapacitation causes are age-independent Cardiovascular, neurological and psychological/psychiatric conditionsDisqualification rates increase with age 5/27/2019cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and neurological conditions.Most prevalent medical reasons for long-term grounding of pilots E.g gastro-intestinal conditions, laser strikes, headachesMost frequent age-dependent medical causes for total incapacitation up to 0.45 times per 106 flight hours or 0.25% per annumThe assessment of this risk is hindered by small numbers of pilots aged over 60ASMA - ICAO meeting17

Analysis of the collected data Six countries supplied medical data of good quality Number of pilots screened Number of pilots declared (temporarely) unfit Medical diagnosis Age CAT category (Class 1 and 2)5/27/2019ASMA - ICAO meeting18

Analysis of the collected dataPercentage (temp) unfit for each age category5,0%CLASS1UNFIT (%)50,1011,072 (2.1%)4,5%CLASS2UNFIT (%)4,0%32,334652 (2.0%)TOTALUNFIT (%)82,4351,724 (2.1%)370Percentage 1,8%1,5%ASMA - ICAO meeting51-604,4%1,7%61-653,0%2,9% 653,0%3,1%19

Analysis of the collected dataPercentage of total unfit per medical 0%total m19%2%Metabolic andendocrinesystems6%ASMA - ICAO meetingPsychiatryPsychologyNeurology11%9%10%20

Analysis of the collected dataPercentage of total unfit per age group and medical condition60%* p-value 1-5051-6061-65 %48%3%1%2%2%0%Metabolic A - ICAO meeting21

Incapacitation data from reported inflight incapacitation eventsType of incapacitationNumber of ic1Other illnesses16Unknown164ECCAIRS data 1970-2017 Commercial air transport5/27/2019ASMA - ICAO meeting22

The study recommendations Single pilot operations: Extend age limit of CAT pilots flying single pilot operations from 60 years to thepilot’s 65th birthday. Extension of the age limit for single pilot operations should be accompanied byadditional measures to reduce the likelihood of pilot incapacitation to meetcurrent operational accident acceptability values. Multi pilot operations: Keep the age limit at 65 years as it is currently set by EASA (FCL.065; EASA,2016). Use the same additional measures as for single pilots to reduce the likelihood ofpilot incapacitation.5/27/2019ASMA - ICAO meeting23

The study recommendations, additionalAccident and Incident Reporting System ECCAIRS data: Optimize registration of in-flight incapacitation occurrences: data concerning age; medical cause of incapacitation; level of incapacitation.5/27/2019ASMA - ICAO meeting24

Pilots’ Age Limits Workshop18-19 March 2019

Workshop More than 60 participantsMore than 25 nationalitiesOrganisations: European Commission, ICAO, IATAStakeholders representing: pilot associations, medical societies,HEMS, operators in both fixed and rotary wingNon EASA states – China, Japan, US, NZThe workshop - collecting data from stakeholders Review the study recommendations 5/27/2019ASMA - ICAO meeting26

Points from the WS discussion The study only looked at sudden incapacitation. Subtle incapacitationwas not considered;The study showed an increasing risk for pilots above the age of 60;All the neuropsychological abilities declined with age, with the exceptionof reasoning performances;In order to increase the age limits and maintain safety additionalmitigating measures on medical and operational level need to be inplace;Early cardiovascular risk factor management indifferent of theimplementation of a change in age limits;The need for pilot health data for future evaluation of the age limits.5/27/2019ASMA - ICAO meeting27

Outcome of studyThe research study as well as the presentations delivered during theworkshop are available on-line at the following researchprojects/easarepresea20171 and .5/27/2019ASMA - ICAO meeting28

5/27/2019ASMA - ICAO meeting29

Next stepsEASA is considering: an increase of the age limit for single pilot from the age of 60 to 65 withadditional mitigating measures as recommended by the research, includingthe early risk factors management and comprehensive ophthalmological,neurological and ENT examinations. an increase of the pilot age for multi pilot CAT operations, however, additionalrisk-mitigation measures such as specific tests to support aero-medicaldecision on the applicant’s fitness on an individual basis must be imposed. a reduction of the maximum monthly/ yearly FTL to 80% of the maximumallowed for pilots over 60 performing single pilot ops and for pilots over 65performing multi pilot ops.5/27/2019ASMA - ICAO meeting30

Next steps5/27/2019ASMA - ICAO meeting31

Next stepsDevelopment of options based on the feedback from the Workshopand MEG etc.; Working closely with ICAO and International Authorities on the futuresteps to coordinate actions; EASA high-level decision Impact assessment will be consulted with EASA Advisory BodiesFurther feedback from the advisory bodies on the way forward Final high-level decision following consultation Regulatory activities in congruence with the decision5/27/2019ASMA - ICAO meeting32

Thank you for your [email protected]

Retirement age 8 The retirement age in the EU is currently around 65, with some exceptions. The retirement age will grow in the next 10 years to reach 68 and above by 2030. 5/27/2019 ASMA - ICAO meeting Current general retirement age (2019) Future retirement age EU Men/ Women Retirement age or men/women Austria (AT) 65 / 60 years 65 years (2033)

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