TI DLP Technology For Aftermarket Head-up Display Applications

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TI DLP technology foraftermarket head-updisplay applications Juan AlvarezProduct Marketing ManagerDLP Pico ProductsTexas Instruments

IntroductionWith demand by users to augment their driving experience to react quickly to timesensitive events, manufacturers and brands seek to display relevant informationdirectly in the user’s field of view (FOV) without distracting them from performing a task.This functionality, called head-up display (HUD), is incorporated in some cars todayto provide important information to a driver; augmented-reality (AR) cruise control forexample (Figure 1).This paper is written for individuals involved in new product development, with theobjective of helping them make educated end-equipment decisions for aftermarketHUD design. The paper includes benefits, applications and display designconsiderations related to HUDs. The paper also covers DLP technology benefits andproduct selection for aftermarket HUDs. Refer to application note “TI DLP Pico Technology for Aftermarket HUDs” for an explanation how a DLP head-updisplay works.Figure 1. Example of an automotive DLP head-up displayTI DLP technology for aftermarket head-up display applications2November 2017

HUD benefitswithin the user’s FOV. The HUD could be usedto highlight obstacles ahead even with lowA head-up display offers unique benefits to bothvisibility given high fog coverage (Figure 3).end users and end-equipment manufacturers.The end user benefits by getting useful and timelyinformation: Information displayed within the user’sFOV; first and foremost, the objective of a HUDsystem is to present information within theuser’s line of sight while driving. The user cancontinue to see the real world while useful andtimely information is layered within their FOV,thus reducing distractions. In real-time; The display incorporates timesensitive information to the user when theFigure 3. Aftermarket head-up display used to help see road aheadinformation is available. For example, someoneusing a map application on their cell phone toThe manufacturer can benefit by delivering productget turn-by-turn directions in their car. In thisdifferentiation in the following areas:case, with the phone app communicating to Display performance; the main purpose ofthe HUD, the turn signal can be shown in frontthe HUD is to clearly present information toof the driver when it is time to turn and withouta user. The more real the perception that thedistracting from the user’s situational awarenessinformation is embedded in the real world, the(Figure 2).higher the value to the end user. Additionally,image quality, brightness and contrast areimportant factors in achieving a seamlessand high-performance display. Displayconsiderations for HUD will be covered indetail later in the white paper. Connectivity; the simplest source of HUDinformation is the vehicle computer system,plus dedicated, predefined storage. While thisapproach is simple, it has limited flexibility. Ahigher-value approach is for the HUD to displayFigure 2. Head-up display indicating a right turn during navigationinformation acquired from individual, realtime sources that are related to the specific Where needed; With an integrated camera,tasks, such has mobile-mapping applications,the HUD display could augment the informationmobile-search applications, etc. A few commonsuch that the information on the HUD could beconnectivity options that manufacturers use tospatially placed on/over real objects that aredifferentiate their products are USB, Bluetooth TI DLP technology for aftermarket head-up display applications3November 2017

technology, Wi-Fi and automotive on-boardtechnology and a combiner optical element todiagnostics (OBD) II.create a virtual image in front of the driver’s FOV.This HUD is fully integrated to all the systems User interface; Seamless integration of theand connectivity offered by the car.display and the real-world results in an excellentexperience for the user and is one of the key Aftermarket head-up display (AM-HUD);factors that can influence successful adoptionSimilar to an aftermarket car stereo that is soldof the HUD technology. Such integrationby a retailer, an AM-HUD is a portable deviceincludes (a) placement of the information in thethat is placed on a car dashboard or front visorright location (b) virtually instantaneous displayso that the driver can see the road and, withinof the information (low latency), (c) intuitivea portion of their FOV, enjoy timely informationhuman interaction with the HUD, (d) usefulnessdelivered by the AM-HUD (Figure 4).of the information presented to the user andcompelling form factor.Categories and applicationsThere are a variety of applications that benefit from aHUD. A few of them include:ApplicationUseOEM vehiclesSpeedNavigationCollision warningIndustrial, commercial,personal and recreationalland transportation equipmentincluding cars, boats, trucks,motorcycles and ATVsCell phone connectivity, includingnavigation, phone calls, texts and musicVehicle gauges, including speedometer,tachometer, fuel and compassCommercial, personal andsports helmetsCell phone connectivity, includingnavigation, phone calls, texts and musicVehicle gauges, including speedometer,tachometer, fuel and compassPersonal and recreational airtransportation equipmentFigure 4. Aftermarket head-up display In addition, an AM-HUD can also beincorporated into private aircrafts. HUDs canuse projection technology and a combinerto create a virtual image that the user willNavigationGauges including speedometer andaltimetersee when the image is within his/her FOV.Connectivity to a mobile device is very typical asmost of the times the HUD is packaged with aHUD designs can be organized into five differentmobile device application.categories. Each category has its unique set of Commercial helmet HUD; Helmets canrequirements and considerations.also incorporate HUDs by incorporating the Original end-equipment manufacturerHUD subsystem mounted inside the helmethead-up display (OEM-HUD); Similar to aconsole subsystem, an OEM-HUD is a caritself; helmets designed for private airplanes,HUD subsystem installed when the car ismotorcycles and all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) canmanufactured. All of its components need toalso use this approach. Augmented reality head-up displaycomply with automotive-grade specifications.(AR-HUD); Although the AM-HUD augmentsThis type of HUD can utilize projectionTI DLP technology for aftermarket head-up display applications4November 2017

the experience of the user, the AR-HUDreal-world inputs, obtained from sensors and/orfurther enhances the experience of the userconnected mobile applications. The applicationby incorporating a significantly larger FOV ofprocessor outputs video data to the displaythe user plus sensors and detailed informationelectronics. The display electronics process thesources. The end result is virtually portrayingvideo data as required for the micro-display.objects and information up to 12 meters inIllumination and projection optics then producefront of the user. This category requires a muchthe virtual image.higher field of view and extremely accuratesynchronization of the HUD display and thereal world. Augmented reality eyewear; Anotheropportunity to experience the right informationat the right time is to use augmented realityeyewear. Go to TI.com/DLPAR to learn moreabout this implementation; Figure 5.Figure 6. Head-up display subsystem block diagram Electronics; Power, size and cost are the mainelectrical considerations. Power is primarilyinfluenced by the optical efficiency of thedisplay. System size will depend on the size andselection of the components, thermal efficiencyFigure 5. Augmented reality monocular eyewearand number of PCB board layers. Cost is mainlydriven by the power of the LEDs that light upthe HUD and resolution of the display.Display design considerations foraftermarket HUDs Display performance; Image quality; This critical designDevelopers have the opportunity to differentiateconsideration includes color saturation,their products by the decisions they make duringcolor gamut, contrast ratio, and fill factor.the HUD design phase. This section will presentMore detailed information about thesea typical system block diagram, and highlightsome of the possible decisions that can be madeconsiderations can be referenced in the on-within the electrical design, optical design andline training called “Mobile Smart TV designsoftware design.considerations” FOV; This design consideration determines Block diagram; Figure 6 illustrates a typicalsystem block diagram for a HUD systemthe size of the viewing box available tobased upon DLP technology. The applicationuser; the size of the user box determinesprocessor controls the overall functions of thethe flexibility the user will have to move theirHUD, based upon both user inputs as well ashead and also determines how much ofTI DLP technology for aftermarket head-up display applications5November 2017

the real world will be augmented with the What is TI DLP technology? Texasdisplay information. A very small eye boxInstruments DLP technology consists of a(FOV) “confines” the displayed informationmicroelectro-mechanical systems (MEMS)to a small portion of the user’s overall field ofdevice that modulates light. This device isview. A very small eye box also limits the headcalled a digital micromirror device (DMD).movement of the user. A very large viewingEach micromirror on a DMD is independentlybox may require larger projection optics andactuated, in sync with color sequentiala longer distance between the projection lensillumination, to create stunning bright andand the virtual image.colorful displays. DLP technology powers thedisplays of products worldwide, from digital Connectivity; The purpose of the head-updisplay is to communicate information relevantcinema projectors (DLP Cinema products) toto the vehicle (for example: speed), informationprojectors inside of tablets and smartphonesrelevant to the driver’s situation (for example:(DLP Pico products). DLP Pico chipsetsobstacles ahead) and information relayed from ainclude a DMD, a display controller and asmart phone (voice call for example). With thatpower management integrated circuit (PMIC).purpose in mind, the head-up display needsThe projection subsystem consists of theseto acquire and transmit information in a timelycomponents combined along with optics andmanner by using a variety of wired and wirelessadditional electronics. Learn more about DLPinterfaces compatible with the vehicle computer,technology at ti.com/dlpvehicle sensors and smart phone. USB, Benefits; DLP technology benefits HUDsBluetooth technology, Wi-Fi and automotivethrough low latency, high image quality, lowon-board diagnostics (OBD) II are the mostpower consumption and the flexibility inherent incommon connectivity options.projection technology. Developers also benefitfrom the extensive DLP ecosystem, which User interface; Design considerations for userenables quick time to market.interface include appropriate presentation of The benefits of DLP technology can bethe information on the HUD and user inputssummarized as follows:(gestures and buttons for example). An excellentuser experience is a big area of differentiation,and is a result of the manufacturer’s abilityto seamlessly integrate this functionality intoBenefitDescriptionExcellent imagequalityThere are several image quality benefits that DLPtechnology offers: Vibrant images, enabled by wide color gamut andDMD technology spawned from DLP Digital Cinematechnology High frame rate, DLP technology can enableframe rates higher than 120 Hz depending on inputresolution, enabling fast-moving video and minimizingmotion blurLow latencyDLP Products offer low latency. For TRP products,single-frame rate allows a tiny frame lag of 8.3 ms at120 Hzthe HUD.Benefits of DLP Pico technology forAM HUDDLP Pico Products offer effective solutions forHUD projection display. This section includes abrief overview of DLP technology and the benefitsit offers.TI DLP technology for aftermarket head-up display applications6November 2017

the marketplace today, including OEM HUDs,BenefitDescriptionClear displayvirtually anytimeand anywhereThe high contrast capability of DLP technologyenables a high-transparent display. DLP technologyis polarization-agnostic, which allows end users toclearly see the displayed image even with polarized sunglasses.Low powerconsumptionQuick time tomarketare a wide variety of design considerations for thisend equipment, including display image quality,connectivity and user interface. DLP technologyDLP Pico technology has a high optical efficiencyarchitecture that results in high lumens per watt thatmaximizes the brightness output. Some of its productsfeature DLP IntelliBright algorithms that allowdisplays to increase brightness or power efficiency upto 50%.provides an excellent micro-display choice for thisHigh demand for DLP Pico technology has resulted ina wide range of optical module makers that provideproduction-ready optical engines for a wide varietyof DMD products, brightness levels and projectiondistances. These optical module makers are part ofthe robust and experienced ecosystem of companiesthat DLP Products has established to support optics,electronics and systems solutions. In addition, DLPProducts offer a wide variety of evaluation modules(EVMs) and reference designs that allow designers toprototype and design quickly and easily.Product designers can get started now with theDLP technology product selectionHUDs designs can vary by the desired FOV andresolution. The following table can help developersselect the right DLP solution for their target product.DMD partnumberDLP2000DLP2010DLP3010Field of view*10 14 21 640 360854 4801280 720Resolutionaftermarket HUDs and military pilot helmets. There*Field of view based on “TI DLP Pico Technology for AM-HUDs”end equipment. DLP Pico technology benefitsinclude low latency, excellent image quality, highcontrast, low power and quick time to market.following resources: “Getting started with DLP technology”application report “TI DLP Technology for aftermarket head-updisplays” application note DLP Pico evaluation modules DLP Products System trade-offs: “Brightness requirements and trade offs”application note “Optical Module Specifications” applicationnote “TI DLP IntelliBright algorithms for theDLPC343x controller” application note “Real-time color management forDLPC343x” application noteDLP Products has a specific offering for automotiveOEM HUDs; learn more at www.dlp.com.Summary and getting startedAftermarket head-up display is a product that canprovide extremely useful and timely informationto the end user without distracting them as Design guidelines: “DLP2010 DMD optical engine referencedesign” application note “PCB design requirements for TI DLPPico TRP digital micromirror devices”application notethey perform critical tasks. There are HUDs inImportant Notice: The products and services of Texas Instruments Incorporated and its subsidiaries described herein are sold subject to TI’s standardterms and conditions of sale. Customers are advised to obtain the most current and complete information about TI products and services before placingorders. TI assumes no l iability for applications assistance, customer’s applications or product designs, software performance, or infringement of patents.The publication of information regarding any other company’s products or services does not constitute TI’s approval, warranty or endorsement thereof.The platform bar, IntelliBright and Pico are trademarks and DLP and DLP Cinema are registered trademarks of Texas Instruments. Allother trademarks are the property of their respective owners. 2017 Texas Instruments IncorporatedDLPY002

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Aftermarket head-up display (AM-HUD); Similar to an aftermarket car stereo that is sold by a retailer, an AM-HUD is a portable device that is placed on a car dashboard or front visor so that the driver can see the road and, within a portion of their FOV, enjoy timely information delivered by the AM-HUD (Figure 4).

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