Practical Application Of Antenna Loading Techniques - BVARC

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Practical Application ofAntenna Loading TechniquesDesigning and building shortenedantennas for home and fieldCopyright by W5RH 2004

Presentation Conventions Antenna Drawings– Element in Red– Feedpoint in Red– Standing Wavesand in BlackF

Standing Waves on a resonantwire Current ‘node’ (minimum) and aVoltage ‘loop’ (maximum) occur at theelement endsEI

Standing Wave Relationshipdefines feed point impedance R E/Iwhere R Feed Impedance– ‘Current Fed’ (I max)– ‘Voltage Fed’ (E max)EE min / I maxE max / I minI

General Loading Principles Why use loading?– Make antennas smaller– Enable matching to the feedline– Make antennas larger to obtainhigher performance

Relative ½ wl antenna size 10 meters 17.5 feet20 meters 35 feet30 meters 50 feet40 meters 65 feet80 meters 135 feet160 meters 270 feet

Loading Defined Reduction of an antenna’s physical ‘linear’ length bysubstituting ‘lump’ components and therefore .“maintaining resonance” Loading changes the current profile and therefore thecharacteristics of– Radiation Pattern Gain Angle of Radiation– Feed Impedance– Operational Bandwidth Can be made to be fairly efficient No reduction in the requirement for height aboveearth or ground/radial systems

Various methods of loadingCoilsLinearStubTop / EndHelical

Orientations Horizontal – center, mid point, end Vertical – base, center, topTop Loaded

Maintaining resonance As an antenna is shortened from resonance,capacitive reactance develops across the feed point Antenna Radiation Resistance /Feed Z– R /- jX– For example: 56 – j324 The –j324 capacitive reactance may be cancelledby utilizing a reactance of the opposite sign 324(inductive reactance) Inductive reactance is, typically, generated byinductors/coils

Feed Impedance VersusLength of the AntennaCenter fed wire 35 feet above ground – 14 MHz1/2wl180 degrees35’68 ohms (resonant)3/8 wl135 degrees25.635 – j3321/4 wl90 degrees17.5’13 – j8751/8 wl45 degrees8.7’3 – j1911

Feed Impedance VersusLength of the AntennaShortening Monopole fed against ground(assumes lossless ground) 14 MHz 1/4wl90 degrees17’36 ohms (resonant) 3/16 wl 67.5 degrees 12.8’17.2 – j173 1/8 wl8.5’6.6 - j4424.2’1.6 – j96845 degrees 1/16 wl 22.5 degrees

Maximizing the Current ProfileAll systems are resonant

Loading Efficiency 83 / 63 Rule– 83 % of the radiating current is distributed overonly 63% (2/3’s) of the antenna length8.5%83 %Current8.5%63%Length

Chart of the changingR Rad / feed Z of a monopoleCourtesy: Low Band DX’ing

Lumped Inductance Loading Applied at the higher current portions of theantenna element Mechanically easier implemented than endloading Antenna Radiation Resistance diminishesquite rapidly with the addition of XlEI

Inductive loadingOff-Center-Loaded Dipole Antennas – Hall, K1LPL, QST Sept 1974

Sample of inductive loading50% dipoleBA A % of Full Size Dipole B % of A

Inductive loadingXl 950

Sample of inductive loading50% dipoleBA A % of Full Size DipoleB % of A/250% Dipole 50% positionXl 950 ohms2II FL Xl 21.16uH Coil

Inductive Reactance Generation Use coils / torroids– Xl 2II F LXXXXFormula for wire L– Homebrew Your Own Inductors – Johns, W3JIP – QST Aug. 1997 Use shorted open wire stubsUse shorted coaxial stubs 90 degrees long– Xl Z0 x tan length (in degrees)

Inductive Loading Bibliography Off-Center-Loaded Dipole Antennas –– Hall, K1LPL, QST September 1974 Designing A Shortened Antenna –– Lopes, CT1EOJ QST October 2003 Homebrew Your Own Inductors –– Johns, W3JIP – QST August 1997 Optimum Design of Short Coil-LoadedHigh Frequency Mobile Antennas –– Brown, W6TWW Compendium Vol. 2

Be Careful .It’s loaded !

End Loading Providing structure at the element end to maintainresonance. Symmetrical structure eliminates radiation Keeps the radiation resistance close to that of afull size antenna Maintains a high current profile Note: end loading takes the antenna into the 3rddimension .not a straight line anymore

Structure Types“Umbrella”“Top Hat”

End loading the F3( forty four footer at forty five feet)4440 meter 6.25 dBi 47 degrees 34 –j42930 meter 7.53 dBi 31 degrees 63 –j7420 meter 8.67 dBi 22 degrees 155 j35412 meter 10.75dBi 12 degrees 704 –j1167

End loading the F3446 feet ends33Angle of radiation remained identical40 meter 6.25 dBi 34 –j429vs 6.2328 – j42130 meter 7.53 dBi 63 –j74vs7.4251 – j8620 meter 8.67 dBi 155 j354 vs8.48118 j31612 meter 10.75dBi 704 –j1167 vs 10.022268 – j1565

End Loading Bibliography www.cebik.com– Modeling and Understanding Small Beams Pt.8– Where Do I Hang My Hat– Coils, Linear Loads, and Capacity Hats: AnOverview of Small Loaded Beams Low Band DX-ing – ON4UN

Combining loading types Utilized when one type of loading gets toolarge or inconvenient to do the job– The Ground-Mounted Short Vertical Sevick -- QST March 1973 Used where loading is also used as part ofthe feed matching– Yagi with hairpin matching

Helical LoadingConstructing Efficient Helical AntennasW2EEY – John SchultzCQ May 1968Helical 3 Software – Reg Edwards G4FGQ

Helical Loading Efficient to about 50% reduction in size Operational bandwidth remains good to about50% reduction Wire use can be more than a linear element due tothe loading effect of the helical design – DeMaw References– Low Band DX’ing handbook– Constructing Efficient Helical Antennas Schultz, W2EEY CQ 1968 -- PDF available

Helically Loaded Antennas Reduced size to Full Size Ratio R/F .5Diameter of winding D 2”Length of winding L 192”Wire Diameter d .1 #4 wired/D ratio .2 typicalPitch -- turns per unit P .6 Total Wire length – R/P P2 (II D) 2 Helical3.exe – Edwards G4FGQ

Helical Article Chart

Summary Loading changes antenna characteristics– Feed Impedance, Gain and Angle of Radiation– No reduction in the requirements for– height above earth– ground/radial systems With expedient application of the loading the efficiencyof the system can be kept high– Apply ‘end’ loading first– Apply inductive loading in the order of -- accommodating performance (location of coil) mechanical requirement (ease of construction)

Practical Application ofAntenna Loading TechniquesThe EndW5RH

Summary Loading changes antenna characteristics - Feed Impedance, Gain and Angle of Radiation No reduction in the requirements for - height above earth - ground/radial systems With expedient application of the loading the efficiency of the system can be kept high - Apply 'end' loading first - Apply inductive loading in the order of ---

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