Approaches Emotions In Language: Linguistic And Computational Contents

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Emotions in language: Linguistic and computationalapproachesDiana Santos & Belinda MaiaILOSd.s.m.santos@ilos.uio.noLREC, 24 May 2016ContentsThis tutorial focuses on the relation of emotions with language.1Contributions to emotion studies from philosophy, psychology, cultureand linguistics2Conceptual models of the emotions3Connection between emotion and cognition4Expression of emotion across languages and cultures5Computational resources for studying emotion in humancommunication6Verbal and non-verbal expression of emotion in multimediaDiana Santos & Belinda Maia (UiO)TutorialMay 20162/3

Behind the scenesIt is a reduced, streamlined version of a one-week PhD course in OsloIt is the result of a long collaboration between the two presenters, atLinguateca, in many other computational linguistic projectsEmotions in language were the theme of Belinda’s PhD thesis a whileagoFor 4 years now Diana has been trying to catch up, inspired byBelinda’s work, and wishing to apply emotional annotation to muchlarger corpora.Diana Santos & Belinda Maia (UiO)TutorialMay 20163/3

5/30/2016Belinda MaiaUniversidade do Porto, A bird’s eye view of Western philosophy over the centuriesThe historical and social study of emotions insocietyUniversality v. relativity of emotions – acenturies old discussionObjective - to show how these perspectiveshave become embedded in our languages24/05/1621

5/30/2016 Has had a ‘bad press’ for centuries! Constant competition with ‘Reason’ Master-slave metaphor Also discussed as – passions, appetites, desires,feelings, sentiments, moods, temperament,attitudes, confused perception, distortedjudgement Meanings of these expressions?24/05/16324/05/164EN sentiment PT sentimentoEN feeling PT sensaçãoEN mood?PT estar mal/bem disposto PT disposição / feitio2

5/30/2016 Plato (The Republic) Tripartite soul - reason, spirit, appetite (in English!) Our notion of emotion usually ‘spirit’ ‘appetite’But also reason at times – e.g. whendiscussing ‘love of the Good’ (TheSymposium)24/05/16 5In Rhetoric: ‘that which leads one’s condition to become sotransformed that his judgement is affected, andwhich is accompanied by pleasure and pain’. ‘Examples of emotion include anger, fear, pity andthe like, as well as the opposites of these’. Discusses anger in a way that showsawareness of cognitive element andcontribution of physical and psychologicalcircumstances24/05/1663

5/30/2016Believed emotions were ‘conceptual errors,conducive to misery’ Emotions are judgements of the world andour place in it emotions are essentially cognitive Stoics lived in difficult times, therefore: Anger presumptuousness of moral judgement Love vulnerability Fear self-absorption of security Ideal - Apathy or ‘psychic indifference’24/05/16 7Study of emotions essentially tied to ethicsEmotional temperament associated tophysical manifestations – or ‘humours’Emotions self-interested, self-absorbeddesires – i.e. sins greed, gluttony, lust,anger, envy, pride and slothLove, hope and faith virtues and ‘equatedwith reason’24/05/1684

5/30/2016 ‘Father of modern philosophy’ – and bridgebetween Middle Ages and modernityEssentially a scientist, he was fascinated bythe human ‘mind’ – seated in the brain Dualism of Brain and mindAttempted to explain the way the physicalmanifestations of emotion informed the‘mind’ through a connection to the brain inthe ‘pineal gland’24/05/16 9Spinoza (1632-1677) Saw emotions as ‘thoughts’ that cause us tomisunderstand the world misery and frustration. We should avoid them and aim for ‘bliss’ Hume (1711-1776) Kant (1724-1804) Gave more cognitive importance and complexity tothe emotions Related emotions to ethics – ‘good’ and ‘bad’emotions Separated reason and ‘inclinations’ but ambiguouson details24/05/16105

5/30/2016 Hegel (1770-1831) Called into question an overstated distinctionbetween reason and passion Nietzsche (1844-1900) Romantic influence Celebrated passion, suspected reason Provoked reaction in favour of reason after the 1stWorld War and perceived chaos of the early 20thcentury24/05/16 11James and others – concentrated on physiologicaldimensions of emotions‘Logical positivism’ dismissed emotions – andassociated ‘ethics’ - as ‘unscientific’‘Early’ and ‘Late’ Wittgenstein on languageRyle (1949) myth of ‘ghost in the machine’ MonismBunge (1977) - “Any notion of Mindunexplainable by science”.24/05/16126

5/30/2016 ‘Moral sentiment’ theories – ethics based onemotionPhenomenology (Husserl, Heidegger, Ricoeur)emotions central to human existenceSartre – existentialism and emotions as‘magical transformations of the worldAnd more 24/05/16 13Idea of brain as ‘black box’ – storing memories?Psychology, psychiatry, neurology – what canthey tell us?Neuroscience technology and study of theBrain – where next?Is ‘intelligence’ or’ mind’ just in the brain?E.g. Octopus intelligence – appears to be not justin the brain .24/05/16147

5/30/2016 Fairly recent development – 1970s Part of ‘social history’ Somewhat fragmented in approach Not always easy to deduce the emotions ofdead people!24/05/16 15Documentation available for elite andeducated classes – books, letters, diaries,Literature But also - popular novels and other texts General tendencies expressed in attitudes to: ViolenceLove and marriageFamily relationshipsChildren and their education24/05/16168

5/30/2016 Legislation Prevention of violence Protection of women & children (e.g. 19thcentury labour laws)Rights for Women (20th century) Homosexuals, transgender etc (21st century)24/05/16 17Spontaneity of emotionsGradual control of more basic emotions resulted from social, political and culturalchangesReligion and political/cultural influenceimportant factors24/05/16189

5/30/2016 Aristotle argued for ‘right’ and ‘wrong’ angerBut the control of anger - and resultingviolence – gradual change of sociallyacceptable violence laws practiceSee also Steven Pinker (2011) The BetterAngels of Our Nature: Why Violence hasDeclined.24/05/16 Dominant emotion in societies where life isprecariousIn Middle Ages – important due to: 19PovertyDiseaseWarSocial factorsReligious factorsAnd today .!24/05/162010

5/30/2016 Tend to develop later in societies result of:Need to control angerSociety’s way of increasing consciousness of‘wrong’ behaviourPartly substitute exaggerated behaviourbased on notions of ‘Honour’24/05/16 Various types of loveSocial history focuses on family relationshipsas indicators of change 21Romantic love – troubadours till nowLove in marriageParent childHeterosexual & homosexual loveSocial changes Reflected in laws and attitudes24/05/162211

5/30/2016 Sadness, misery and negative emotions ––e.g. in early Protestant religionVictorian ritualisation of grief – funerals etc19th century increasing emphasis onencouraging outward display of cheerfulnessNote: Modern society’s emphasis on‘enforced’ cheerfulness increaseddepression in individuals who cannot cope?24/05/16 23Differences in class behaviour – e.g.: Distinction between ‘respectable’ and‘unrespectable’ in 19th century middle-class Changes start in educated elite filter downthe social scale – e.g.: Attitudes to violence Changes in parent child relationship24/05/162412

5/30/2016 Differences in gender and acceptability ofemotion – e.g.: Fear unacceptable in men Anger unacceptable in women Cultural differences and acceptability ofexpression of emotion: Japanese restraint v. American openness Traditional English v. traditional Portuguesedemonstration of grief.24/05/16 25Objectives: To see how societies change To understand how emotions evolve To explain changes over time and indifferent social situations To understand complexities of modern life To understand the conflicts betweendifferent cultures24/05/162613

5/30/2016 The ‘big picture’ of the emotions is .Enormous!Contemporary analysis of emotion is stillcontrolled by concepts with roots inphilosophical, cultural and historical factors24/05/16 27Modern expression of emotion uses languagecontaining ‘fossilized’ concepts and attitudesLanguage has grown and integrated attitudesover the centuriesThese attitudes differ from culture to cultureand language to language24/05/162814

5/30/2016 Lewis, Michael,& Jeannette M. Haviland-Jones(eds.). Handbook of Emotions, 2nd Edition.Guilford Press, 2000. Kemper, T.D. ‘Social Models in the Explanation of Emotions. Lewis, Michael, Jeannette M. Haviland-Jones &Lisa Feldman Barrett (eds.). Handbook ofEmotions, 3rd Edition. Guilford Press, 2010. Solomon, R.C.’ The Philosophy of Emotions’ Stearns, P.N. ’History of Emotions: Issues of Changeand Impact’. Stets, J. E & J.H. Turner. ‘The Sociology of Emotions’. 24/05/16 29Pinker, Steven (2011) The Better Angels of OurNature: Why Violence has Declined. and Plato, Aristotle, Stoics, St. Augustine, St.Thomas Aquinas, Descartes, Spinoza, Hume, Kant,Hegel, Nietzsche,Wittgenstein, Ryle, Husserl,Heidegger, Ricoeur, Sartre . Philosophy psychology / neurology / sociology Maia, Belinda (1994). A contribution to the study ofthe Language of Emotion in English and Portuguese.Universidade do Porto: PhD thesis. Chapters 1 & 224/05/163015

2. Conceptual models of the emotions: Psychology andlinguisticsDiana SantosILOSd.s.m.santos@ilos.uio.no24 May 2016Theories of emotions seen from psychologyIn The Science of Emotion (1996), Randolph Cornelius presents fourschools in psychology that study emotions:DarwinianJamesiancognitivesocial constructivistThey study and look at different issues, but one can learn from all, andthey are all “alive” (in the sense that they have followers).Diana Santos (UiO)EmotionsMay 20162 / 29

The Darwinian perspectiveMain interest: study theemotions as part of the evolutionaryparadigm: how they helped in naturalselection, what is shared with animals.Modern work: Ekman, Izard, Plutchik.facial expressionsfor happiness, surprise,sadness, fear, disgust andanger are correctly identifiedby people from vastlydifferent cultures (Ekman,Diana Santos (UiO)EmotionsMay 20163 / 29The Darwinian perspective: some objectionsDo universals of facial expressions imply universals of emotions?Primary emotions serve the adaptive interests of the organism. Butwhat about the social meaning?Expression or context of the expression?Spontaneous emotion is much harder to detect than posed emotion.Diana Santos (UiO)EmotionsMay 20164 / 29

The Jamesian perspectiveWilliam James contended that it is the bodily changes that inducethe emotion, not the other way around.(bodily changes visceral change, or expressive behaviour. A set of“nervous anticipations”.)Take away the bodily symptoms from a frightenedindividual; let his pulse beat calmly, his look be firm. ; andwhat remains of his fear? (Lange, 1885)Tenet: There are distinct patterns of physiological responses for atleast some emotions.James Laird, the facial feedback hypothesis (“awareness of one’sfacial expressions is the emotion”)Diana Santos (UiO)EmotionsMay 20165 / 29But: Not all emotions have bodily correlatesAccording to Oatley & Jenkins (p.117), some emotions share thesame or similar forms:some state of arousal could be interpreted as happiness or anger,depending on the social situation (Schachter & Singer, 1962)Does one smile for oneself?According to Fridlund (1994), facial expressions are expressions not ofemotions, but of intentions. Or, in other words, “Communicativeconventions” (Manstead et al. 1999).NB! It is important to distinguish between experience of an emotion, andexpression of an emotion – and subsequent describing of an emotion.Diana Santos (UiO)EmotionsMay 20166 / 29

The cognitive perspective: you need to understand to feelThe primacy of appraisal by Magda Arnold:a person’s emotional response to an event depends on how he orshe appraises the event(measuring skin conductance while viewing a highly disturbing film)the cognitive-motivational-relational theory of Lazarus, suggesting amolecular level (specific judgements) and a molar level (combination)Important: must objects be cognized before they can be evaluated?Automatic/unconscious process, or processes more automatic than others?Liking vs. guilt.Diana Santos (UiO)EmotionsMay 20167 / 29The cognitive perspective: interactionOther theoriesEmotions deal with arousal and perception of arousal, brought aboutby interruption (Mandler)the function of emotions is to call attention to events in ourenvironment that have possible adaptive significance for usEmotions are central to the organization of cognitive processing (likein an operating system) (Oatley & Johnson-Laird)emotions come at the junctures of our plans, when our planshave been interrupted or fulfilled.Diana Santos (UiO)EmotionsMay 20168 / 29

The cognitive perspective: interactionAccording to Lang (1985), there are three separate response systemsrelated to emotions, with different functions or oral/expressiveDiana Santos (UiO)EmotionsMay 20169 / 29The cognitive perspective: You need to feel to understandFrijda et al. (2000) emphasize the impact of emotion on beliefs:Emotions are among the determinants of an individual’s beliefsemotions are states that make the mind inclined to thinkone thing rather than another (Spinoza)emotions provide information and guide attentionemotions lead to new beliefs(some) sentiments (warm affection, despondency, and antipathy)structure our relationships with other people, in distributed cognition(social relations)Diana Santos (UiO)EmotionsMay 201610 / 29

Objections to cognitive approachesZajonc (1980) claims that “Preferences needno inferences”it was a wise designer whoprovided separately for each ofthese processes instead ofpresenting us with a multiplepurpose appliance that, like therotisserie-broiler-oven-toaster,performs none of its functions well(p. 170)Diana Santos (UiO)EmotionsMay 201611 / 29The difference (?) between emotion and opinionThere are many cases where it ishard to distinguish between the two:by displayingan emotion we express an opinionby expressing an opinionwe express a feeling I don’t careHe sneered: “bla bla”franzir o sobrolhoum coração nas mãosby doing a gesture that displaysan opinion we show a feelingSee Pang & Lee (2008) for an excellent survey of opinion mining andsentiment analysis.Diana Santos (UiO)EmotionsMay 201612 / 29

The social constructivist (or cultural) pespectiveEmotions are products of culture.They can be fully understood only on a social level of analysis.(Averill, 1980)emotions are characterized by attitudes such as beliefs,judgements and desires, the contents of which are not natural,but are determined by the systems of cultural belief, value andmoral value of particular communities (Armon-Jones, 1986)Example: if a person does not appraise a situation as one involving aunjustified transgression against him or herself, he or she will not enact thetransitory social role that is anger.Diana Santos (UiO)EmotionsMay 201613 / 29The social constructivist perspectiveObjects of fear can be culturally determinedfear of people with AIDS, of urban spaces, of pesticides, ofcontraceptivesAnd the social function of fear is “instrumental in sustaining social values”members of a society are encouraged to be afraid of departingfrom what is expected of them and what is tolerated.This brings us to the cross-cultural studies of emotions.Diana Santos (UiO)EmotionsMay 201614 / 29

Cross-cultural studies of emotionsLanguage matters. The language of emotion is a vital part of theexperience of emotionemotional experience requires a language of emotion (Lewis &Saarni, 1958)Butemotion talk does not exist in isolation from other domains ofknowledge (Heelas)there are an indefinite number of emotions: societies can shape,mold, or construct as many different emotions as are functionalwith the social system. (Averill)Diana Santos (UiO)EmotionsMay 201615 / 29Moral emotionsAccording to Haidt (2003), moral emotions do “a tremendous amount ofwork in the creation and daily functioning of human morality”difference between homo sapiens and homo economicusfour (traditional Indian) emotion families: other condemning(contempt, anger, disgust); self-conscious (shame, embarrassment,guilt); other suffering (compassion), other praising (gratitude,elevation)two axes: degree of disinterestedness of elicitors; degree ofpro-sociable action tendencieshe argues that anger is a highly moral emotionDiana Santos (UiO)EmotionsMay 201616 / 29

Objections to cultural approachesHuman nature.Evolution and survival.Dangers of too much relativism.Martha Nussbaum’s (1988) suggestionof different emotions related to different“grounding” experiences or domains ofknowledge, or spheres of experience,following Aristotle.Diana Santos (UiO)EmotionsMay 201617 / 29Are we all talking about the same thing?What is an emotion? Different researchers define them differently, havedifferent opinions as to what should be included under the label, and alsohow “emotions” differ from other related notions.One (relatively objective) way to separate concepts is by looking at thetime profile, since emotions can span over many different time frames(figure from Oatley et al. 2000: 30):Diana Santos (UiO)EmotionsMay 201618 / 29

Two approaches for modelling emotionsAnother way where people can really differ is about the methodology ofthe definition. According to Oatley & Jenkins (1996), there is a generaldichotomy:componentialists: emotions can be divided in different componentssome emotions are basic, the others are mixtures of themYou may also emphasize a dimensional theory, where components are nolonger discrete.Diana Santos (UiO)EmotionsMay 201619 / 29The dimensionality of emotionsInspired by Nora Eggen’s reflections on “trust” in Arabic (2016), I define aprototypical emotion as something with several axes:S cognitive/physical stateA attitudeE ethical perspectiveP action (potentiality or actuality)The most accomplished (important/central) emotions are those who havestrength/information in all those axes, instead of choosing just one axis todefine emotion.Diana Santos (UiO)EmotionsMay 201620 / 29

Linguistic approachesGenerally most concerned with studying language, and languagesOrtony et al propose a framework to characterize emotionsWierzbicka proposes a language to describe to emotionsLakoff & Johnson (1980) propose to study the metaphorical power ofemotionsLiterature scholars advance literature as the ground to study emotionsDiana Santos (UiO)EmotionsMay 201621 / 29How to describe emotions independently of languageDiana Santos (UiO)EmotionsMay 201622 / 29

Emotional universals: working proposal Wierzbicka 19991234567All languages have a word for feelin all languages some feelings can be described as good and some canbe described as bad (and possibly others are neutral)words comparable with cry and smile [bodily expression of goodand bad feelings)mouth corners up or down, wrinkled nose are universally connected togood or bad feelingsemotive interjections“emotion terms” (cognitively based feelings)feelings related tosomething bad can happen to meI want to do somethingpeople can think something bad about me89described by (a) bodily symptoms, and (b) bodily sensations, and (c)figurative bodily imagesalternative grammatical constructions to describe cognitively basedfeelingsDiana Santos (UiO)EmotionsMay 201623 / 29Wierzbicka, 1999, pages 24-25Battle against ethnocentrism in the study of emotions.Can we draw any conclusions about the emotional universe of aculture by examining its emotion lexicon? (Paul Harris, 1995)it calls for very little acquaintance with history or ethnography toprovoke serious doubt on the correcteness of the view that “in theiremotional lives human beings anywhere are by and large essentiallyalike” (Needham, 1981)the first lesson is that simply in the numbers of emotionsdiscriminated they diverge very greatly (ibid)Diana Santos (UiO)EmotionsMay 201624 / 29

Relation with the bodyThere are several ways an emotion is linked to body:physical expression, especially facial expression, but also “bodylanguage”description of an emotion through the bodily posture/action, laugh,cry, smile, clapThere are many embodied metaphors for emotion (as pointed out bycognitive linguistics)folk theories of the emotion use metonymically body parts foremotions, my heart brokeDepending on your school of thoughtSome researchers claim that one can induce emotions by doing bodymovementsDiana Santos (UiO)EmotionsMay 201625 / 29The purpose and reason of emotionsEmotions are needed to give priorities among multiple goals,especially guiding our relations with others.Emotions are heuristics to cope with life, a middle way betweenautomatic reflexes of lower animals. and omniscience of a god.Diana Santos (UiO)EmotionsMay 201626 / 29

Psycholinguistics: Emotions and language (development)An extremely important relationship, which is not always recognized, isthat children’s emotional development is mainly done through and withthe help of language. Very coarsely, the development proceeds this way1identification of self (only after that one can feel embarrassed)2recognizing other people’s emotions3understanding the difference between feeling and showing the feelings4recognizing causes and consequences of an emotion5understanding ambivalence: feeling different emotions towards thesame “object”Diana Santos (UiO)EmotionsMay 201627 / 29Psycholinguistics: learning language is a social processAnd in all cases, the interaction with parents and others is essential toverbalize and therefore understand the emotions.Learning for the infant brain is not a passive process. Socialinteraction is an essential prerequisite for mastering a language.(Kuhl, 2015)Diana Santos (UiO)EmotionsMay 201628 / 29

References for picturesKuhl, Patricia K. “Baby talk”, Scientific American, Nov. 2015, pp.55-59Ortony, Andrew, Gerald L. Clore & Allan Collins. The CognitiveStructure of Emotions. Cambridge and New York: CambridgeUniversity Press, 1988.Plutchik, Robert. The Emotions (revised Edition), 1991.Zajonc, R. B. “Feeling and thinking: Preferences need no inferences”.American Psychologist, 35, 1980, -fora-do-palacio-da-despedida-de-dilmaDiana Santos (UiO)EmotionsMay 201629 / 29

30.05.2016Belinda MaiaUniversidade do Porto, Association of Emotion and Cognition overcenturies of philosophyUniversals & Relativity in LanguageMind v. Brain debatePsychological and neurological evidence Evidence in Language – general view 1

30.05.2016 Emotion and Cognition (or Reason) have beenassociated over the centuriesReason masterEmotion slave‘Good’ emotions virtues supportrelationship to cognition‘Bad’ emotions sins the ‘bestial’ part ofhuman natureUnderstanding right and wrong cognition?Brain - centre of emotion limbic system –evolutionarily most primitive partBut sensory perception - except smell - isprocessed between limbic system and prefrontal lobes in complex interactionIf brain is damaged, malformed or developsabnormally – this will affect normalinteraction – e.g. certain types of autismDamage to the brain can affect processing ofemotion and language2

30.05.2016 What is hard-wired – what is learnt?Communication in non-human species Lorenz (1952) – birds; Frisch (1967) – bees; Goodalland Hussey and primates Human brain’s capacity for language Broca’s and Wernicke's areas, have little or nocounterpart in the brains of other speciesChomsky (1947) – Language and Mind – yetlanguage structures in the brain?Used neurological evidence to argue thatDescartes’ theory of dualism of mind andbrain essentially flawedThe brain the sensory information fed in byevery fibre of our bodies contributes to theway we functionThe connections between the informationstored in the brain and incoming informationfrom our bodies in context – very complex3

30.05.2016 Do we experience emotion and then reasonabout it?How ‘instinctive’/’unconscious’ is ourreaction? E.g. Is there time to reason when in danger? Do we appraise a situation and then reactemotionally? Do we ‘instinctively’ love someone – or does loveresult from cognitive appreciation? Compare: Learner driver v. expert driver Beginners v. champions of ping pong Learning to play the piano v. a concert pianist Consider: Fear of – spiders, snakes, lions, dogs, people weknow, strangers, the dark . Love of – God, parents, children, partners, dogs,swimming, coffee .4

30.05.2016 Plato ChomskyHistory of attempts to find: Universal concepts‘Original’ language - (see Crystal)Innate language structures - (Chomsky)Innate ideas - (Jung’s archetypes)Innate behaviour in animals and man (Darwin,Lorenz and others)Fridja (1986) and others – Universals andbehaviourPlutchik (1990) - Universals and categoriesof emotionsEkman (2003) – Universals of facialexpressions5

30.05.2016 Gradual ‘Retreat from Radical Behaviorismand the Rise of Cognitivism’ (pp. 8-15)Lazarus (pp.15-29) Perspectives on Emotion: s (p. 39) – “a theory of emotion that iscognitive, motivational and relational” What does language usage tell us aboutemotion?6

30.05.2016Semasiological processLexicography ---------------------------- wordConcept--------------------------- termOnomasiological processTerminology Which comes first – concept or word? Thechicken or the egg?Can we arrive at new ideas without usinglanguage?Is our ‘folk’ understanding of the worldembedded in our language?OR does our language contribute to our viewof the world?The language debate Universals v.Relativism7

30.05.2016 Churchland (1986: 302) "the image of a homohabilis Newton squatting at the cave mouthand finally sketching out the basics ofpsychology with jawbone and berry juice, isnot very plausible”.However, some degree of universality ofsemantic fields is result of man’s experienceof the world culture societySemantic fields areas of meaning:EMOTION, WEATHER, COLOUR, ANIMALS Usually diagrammed as ‘trees’ Ontologies words connected by meaningand usage Usually diagrammed as ‘nets’ Lexical sets words used within semanticfield / ontology: e.g. EMOTION lexicon8

30.05.2016 Plagiarised ns.html Latest update 1998 Who copied from Ortony – 1990!9

30.05.20161.2.3.‘Quality’ of emotion varies with context John loves his wife / his parents / football / coffeeMeaning of word in context I'm afraid the train is twenty minutes late. politeregret . Or fear of missing the connection? Sense ‘cognitive’I fear millions of hard-pressed customers arehaving to pay for past mistakes by the banks.(BNC)10

30.05.2016 Semantic case emotion verbsSubject SenserObject Phenomenon John (Senser) loves/hates Mary (Phenomenon) Mary’s mother (Senser) was delighted with herexam results (Phenomenon) Tendency to reject verbs in: Imperative - ?Love/hate John! Passive - ?Mary was loved/hated by John Progressive aspect - ?John was loving/hating Mary Argument for emotion as ‘state’ – not ‘action’Verbs of emotion and cognition – classified as‘state’ verbsUse of ‘temporary state’ forms of BEPortuguese – SER or ESTAR? John is angry O João está zangado Not *O João é zangado John was angry O João estava zangado *O João foi zangado11

30.05.2016 Compare:John loves/ hates Mary*John is loving / hating Mary‘I’m loving it’ (McDonald’s slogan) love enjoyJohn thinks/ believes climate change is inevitable(state?). *John is thinking / believing climate change isinevitable. BUT John is thinking about how he will solve thisproblem (mental process). Compare: Love God! (religious command – nature of ‘love’?*Love / hate Mary. (personal relationship)*Think / believe climate change is inevitable.?Mary is loved/hated by John.?That climate change is inevitable is thought /believed by John.12

30.05.2016 Emotion word To look surprised / frightened / horrified Loving / irritating behaviour Word describing emotional response: Facial expression: blush, smile, grimace Verbal reaction: gasp, sob, scream Bodily movement: run away, tremble, jump, kiss, hit Words describing interior physical reaction Heart beating, pulse racing, sweating Lakoff and Johnson Philosophy in the Flesh:The Embodied Mind and Its Challenge toWestern Thought (1999: 3)How Cognitive Science Reopens CentralPhilosophical Questions “The mind is inherently embodied. Thought is mainly unconscious. Abstract concepts are largely metaphorical”.13

30.05.2016 Metaphors and emotionRATIONAL IS UP; EMOTIONAL IS DOWNThe discussion fell to the emotional level, butI raised it back up to the rational plane.We put our feelings aside and had a highlevel intellectual discussion of the matter.He couldn't rise above his emotions.THE EYES ARE CONTAINERS FOR THEEMOTIONS I could see the fear in his eyes.His eyes were filled with anger.There was passion in her eyes.His eyes displayed his compassion.She couldn't get the fear out of her eyes. Loveshowed in his eyes.EMOTIONAL EFFECT IS PHYSICAL CONTACT His mother's death hit him hard.That idea bowled me over.She's a knockout.I was struck by his sincerity.I was touched by his remark. That blew me away.14

30.05.2016 MetonynmyMetaphorsFixed expressionsClichés . General subjective languageWe can – and do – express our emotions,feeling, sentiments, opinions, attitudes inmany different waysAny good translator will tell you how difficultit is to:Translate the central emo

Saw emotions as 'thoughts' that cause us to misunderstand the world misery and frustration. We should avoid them and aim for 'bliss' Hume (1711-1776) Gave more cognitive importance and complexity to the emotions Related emotions to ethics - 'good' and 'bad' emotions Kant (1724-1804)

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