International Journal ofMolecular SciencesReviewClinical Spectrum of KCNA1 Mutations: New Insightsinto Episodic Ataxia and Epilepsy ComorbidityKelsey Paulhus, Lauren Ammermanand Edward Glasscock *Department of Biological Sciences, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275, USA;[email protected] (K.P.); [email protected] (L.A.)* Correspondence: [email protected]: 31 March 2020; Accepted: 16 April 2020; Published: 17 April 2020 Abstract: Mutations in the KCNA1 gene, which encodes voltage-gated Kv1.1 potassium channelα-subunits, cause a variety of human diseases, complicating simple genotype–phenotype correlationsin patients. KCNA1 mutations are primarily associated with a rare neurological movement disorderknown as episodic ataxia type 1 (EA1). However, some patients have EA1 in combination withepilepsy, whereas others have epilepsy alone. KCNA1 mutations can also cause hypomagnesemiaand paroxysmal dyskinesia in rare cases. Why KCNA1 variants are associated with such phenotypicheterogeneity in patients is not yet understood. In this review, literature databases (PubMed)and public genetic archives (dbSNP and ClinVar) were mined for known pathogenic or likelypathogenic mutations in KCNA1 to examine whether patterns exist between mutation type anddisease manifestation. Analyses of the 47 deleterious KCNA1 mutations that were identified revealedthat epilepsy or seizure-related variants tend to cluster in the S1/S2 transmembrane domains andin the pore region of Kv1.1, whereas EA1-associated variants occur along the whole length of theprotein. In addition, insights from animal models of KCNA1 channelopathy were considered, aswell as the possible influence of genetic modifiers on disease expressivity and severity. Elucidationof the complex relationship between KCNA1 variants and disease will enable better diagnostic riskassessment and more personalized therapeutic strategies for KCNA1 channelopathy.Keywords: episodic ataxia; epilepsy; KCNA1; Kv1.11. IntroductionMutations in the voltage-gated potassium channel gene KCNA1 underlie a myriad of humandiseases, thereby preventing simple genotype–phenotype correlations in patients. The primary diseaseassociated with KCNA1 mutations is episodic ataxia type 1 (EA1), a rare neurological movementdisorder. Over half of the known KCNA1 variants lead to EA1 only. Some patients with KCNA1 variantsexhibit EA1 in combination with epilepsy, while others suffer from epilepsy or epileptic encephalopathyin the absence of EA1. Finally, in some rare instances, KCNA1 mutations cause hypomagnesemia,paroxysmal dyskinesia, and myokymia. To begin to decipher the complex genotype–phenotyperelationships associated with KCNA1 channelopathy and EA1, this review examines all known humanKCNA1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that have been identified as pathogenic or likelypathogenic to date. The disease phenotype associated with each variant is then examined to determinewhether patterns exist between types of mutations and manifestation of disease. In addition, animalmodels of the KCNA1 mutation are reviewed to provide further insight into phenotypic consequencesof KCNA1 dysfunction. Finally, the role of genetic modifiers in KCNA1 channelopathy is discussed asanother potential factor affecting genotype–phenotype relationships in patients.Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 2802; doi:10.3390/ijms21082802www.mdpi.com/journal/ijms
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 28022 of 202. Episodic AtaxiaEpisodic ataxias (EAs) are a group of at least eight rare genetic neurological movement disorders(affecting approximately 1/100,000 people ). EAs belong to a larger family of paroxysmal movementdisorders (PMDs), which are divided into two main types: ataxias and paroxysmal dyskinesias(PxDs) . These two types of PMD are distinguishable by the nature of their attack. Whereas EAs areassociated with ataxia characterized by impairments in purposeful movements (i.e., walking), speech(dysarthria), and vision (nystagmus), PxDs are associated with abnormal involuntary movement(dyskinesia), often involving postural abnormalities and repetitive movements (dystonia) [3,4]. EAs arecategorized into eight main subtypes (EA1–8) based primarily on the underlying genetic cause. A ninthtype of EA has recently emerged, termed “late onset” because it occurs around the fifth or sixthdecade of life, but the cause of this form is still unknown . The primary genes responsible for EA1,EA2, EA5, EA6, and EA8 have been identified as KCNA1, CACNA1A, CACNB4, SLC1A3, and UBR4,respectively . Causative genes for the remaining types of EA (EA3, EA4, and EA7) have either beenmapped to a chromosomal location or are entirely unknown. The forms of EA without associated genesare the most rare, so diagnosis relies on a unique combination of clinical characteristics to distinguishthese forms from other EA subtypes .Recurrent ataxic attacks are common to all EAs, but the characteristics of the disease varysignificantly between the different EA subtypes and also between patients with the same causativegene mutation. For example, whereas patients with any EA type can exhibit vertigo during attacks,seizures are only reported in patients with EA1, EA2, EA5, and EA6 [1,6]. Both the age of onset andthe attack duration are sources of variability between the EA types. Depending on the particulardisorder, onset can occur anywhere from infancy through to late adult life, and attacks can last fromseconds to days [1,5]. This same level of variability exists at the patient level, notably for patientssharing mutations in KCNA1, the genetic cause of EA1. Identical twins that share the same KCNA1gene mutation but exhibit different degrees of ataxic symptoms have been identified, suggesting thatadditional factors beyond the causative mutation may impact phenotype presentation . AlthoughEA1 is the most common diagnosis resulting from a KCNA1 mutation, patients can also exhibit manyother types of diseases such as epilepsy, hypomagnesemia, and paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia(PKD) (Table 1). Why patients with mutations in the same gene exhibit such widely variable symptomsis not fully understood.Table 1. Human KCNA1 mutations designated as “pathogenic” or “likely pathogenic” withheterogenous phenotypes.MutationProtein DomainClinical 226MT226KT226RR239SA242PP244HF249CF249IFF F250N255DN255KS1S1S1S1S1S1S1S2S2S2S2S2S2S2–S3 ILS2–S3 ILS2–S3 ILS2–S3 ILS3S3EA1EA1EA1EA1EA1EA1 SeizuresEA1 HyperthermiaEA1EA1MyokymiaEA1 EpilepsyEA1Neuromyotonia SeizuresMyokymiaEA1 HyperthermiaEA1EA1HypomagnesemiaPKDOther Clinical ObservationsSleep aRespiratory b , Sleep c , DDRespiratory 27]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 28023 of 20Table 1. Cont.MutationProtein DomainClinical opS3S3S3–S4 ELS4S4S4S4S4–S5 ILS4–S5 ILS4–S5 ILS4–S5 ILS5S5S5S5S5S5–S6 pore loopS6S6 (PVP)S6 (PVP)S6 (PVP)S6 (PVP)S6S6S6C TerminusC TerminusC TerminusEA1EA1EA1EA1 PMCEA1EA1EA1EA1EA1EA1PKD SeizuresEA1 EpilepsyEA1HypomagnesemiaEA1EA1 SeizuresEEEA1EA1 EpilepsyEA1EEEEEA1EA1EA1 SeizuresEA1EA1 EpilepsyEA1Other Clinical ObservationsSevere IDRespiratory e , DD, Moderate IDMild IDDD, Macrocephaly fPDD gGlobal 43][43,45]Human SNP mutations were identified using the NCBI ClinVar and dbSNP databases. The full list of KCNA1mutations was filtered by the categories “Pathogenic” and “Likely Pathogenic.” The compiled list of humanmutations was used as search criteria in PubMed to find clinical discussions of patients with these mutations and thefunctional research associated with them. Additional literature searches were also used to identify mutations notyet listed in the NCBI genetic databases. A compilation of “Benign”, “Likely Benign”, and “Uncertain Significance”mutations was also accomplished through the NCBI database ClinVar . Abbreviations: IL, intracellularlinker; EL, extracellular linker; PVP, proline-valine-proline motif; PKD, paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia; EE,epileptic encephalopathy; PMC, paradoxical myotonic congenita; DD, developmental delay; ID, intellectualdisability; PDD, pervasive developmental disorder. * published citation could not be found; ClinVar variation labelNM 000217.3(KCNA1):c.1183G T (p.Ala395Ser) and accession number VCV000431378.; a self-reported needingonly 5–6 h of sleep per night and being very active during the night; b recurrent apneic episodes with cyanosis;c prolonged sleep latency, reduced sleep efficiency, obstructive sleep apnea, hypopnea, 80% oxygen desaturationduring sleep; d difficulty breathing during attacks and isolated episodes of an inability to inhale; e before age 2, veryloud breathing at night; f head circumference in the 93rd percentile; g now also called autism spectrum disorder.3. KCNA1 Structure and RegulationThe KCNA1 gene encodes the 495 amino acid (aa) Kv1.1 voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channelα-subunit [1,49]. KCNA1 is one of 40 human Kv α-subunit genes that are spread across 12 differentgene subfamilies (Kv1–12) . Kv channels, such as Kv1.1, play important roles in regulating neuronalexcitability by controlling the action potential shape, repolarization, and firing properties . Kv1.1 isuniquely suited for counterbalancing depolarizing inputs and preventing excessive neuronal excitationbecause it has a much lower activation threshold and faster onset rate than other members of theKv1 family, which includes Kv1.1–Kv1.8 . Kv channels are comprised of four α-subunits whichassociate as homo- or hetero-tetramers to form a functional transmembrane pore [53–55]. To form acomplete channel complex, α-subunit tetramers also associate with up to four accessory β-subunitsthat can impact channel gating, assembly, and trafficking . In the brain, Kv1.1 associates withKv1.2 and/or Kv1.4 α-subunits to form heterotetramers, but evidence is lacking for the presence ofKv1.1 homotetramers in the central nervous system (CNS) . Although Kv1.1, Kv1.2, and Kv1.4subunits are all abundant in the brain, their expression and channel composition varies dependingon the brain region, cell type, and subcellular localization . Interestingly, Kv1.1 levels are lowestin the cerebellum and hippocampus, implying a low copy number in heterotetramers in these brainregions . The relatively low representation of Kv1.1 in these brain structures combined with itsdistinctive biophysical characteristics, which cannot be completely compensated for by other Kv1
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 28024 of 20subunits, has been hypothesized to cause a low functional reserve that renders the cerebellum andhippocampus especially vulnerable to Kv1.1 deficits .Each Kv α-subunit has six transmembrane (TM) spanning segments (helices S1–S6) that includethe functionally critical voltage-sensing and pore domains. Helices S1–S4 form the voltage-sensingdomain of the protein, with S4 playing a specifically important role as the voltage sensor . Evenlyspaced positive charges across S4 allow this helix to acutely sense changes in voltage across themembrane; together with S3, these helices form a voltage sensor paddle that can change conformationto alter the state of the channel [59–61]. The pore region of the channel, which allows ion flux throughthe membrane, is formed by S5 and S6 . The S4–S5 intracellular linker communicates changes inthe voltage-sensing domain to the pore domain and thus can initiate a shift between the open andclosed states of the pore [59,61]. The intracellular N- and C-terminal domains of each Kv α-subunitalso regulate channel function. While the mechanisms are not fully understood, evidence suggests thatthe C-terminus influences channel tetramerization and membrane targeting , while the N-terminusparticipates in both channel inactivation and subunit assembly [63,64].RNA editing of KCNA1 transcripts is an important regulatory mechanism to control protein function.KCNA1 transcripts can be edited by human adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 2 (ADAR2). ADAR2converts adenosine to an inosine in the KCNA1 transcript, thereby resulting in an isoleucine-to-valinesubstitution at amino acid (aa) 400 [65,66]. This editing process occurs normally in the brain, butthe percentage of edited KCNA1 transcripts varies by region. For example, in the mouse brain,approximately 20%, 35%, and 50% of transcripts are edited in the hippocampus, cortex, and cerebellum,respectively . For this editing to take place, an RNA hairpin must form between complementarybase pairs flanking the edit site on the transcript. ADAR2 then recognizes and enzymatically processesthis hairpin as a substrate . The aa at position 400, which is subject to RNA editing, is predicted toline the pore in S6 where it may interact with the inactivation particle of the channel contributed byβ-subunits . In support of this, functional biophysical studies have demonstrated that this RNAediting event decreases the channel recovery time from inactivation [65,66].4. Overview of KCNA1 Mutations in EA1 and DiseaseEA1 was first identified in 1975 by Van Dyke and colleagues when they described a family witha movement disorder accompanied by myokymia, which is characterized by muscle rippling ;however, it was not until much later, in 1994, that Browne et al. identified KCNA1 as the geneticcause of EA1 . At present, the biomedical literature (Pubmed) and genetics databases (dbSNP andClinVar) describe 47 KCNA1 mutations identified in patients that are pathogenic or likely pathogenic(Table 1; Figure 1) . These mutations span the Kv1.1 protein, from the first transmembraneregion to the beginning of the C-terminal domain. The majority of these mutations are missense;however, one nonsense mutation (R417stop) and one in-frame deletion event (FF F250) have also beenidentified [21,24]. Many of these mutations have been examined at the electrophysiological level todetermine their functional consequences. These studies provide evidence that pathological KCNA1mutations lead to a loss-of-function (LOF) of Kv1.1 by various mechanisms [18,35]. Furthermore,some KCNA1 mutations have a dominant negative effect whereby incorporation of the mutatedα-subunit detrimentally impacts the otherwise normal subunits that form the tetrameric structure ofthe potassium channel [37,39]. In addition, biochemical and electrophysiological experiments haverevealed that certain KCNA1 mutations can lessen the surface expression of Kv1.1, reduce inactivation,or even decrease protein stability [67,68]. The varying functional consequences of these differentKCNA1 LOF mutations underscore the importance of understanding KCNA1 at both the genetic andfunctional protein levels to understand how specific mutations may ultimately correlate with humandisease phenotypes.
the potassium channel [37,39]. In addition, biochemical and electrophysiological experiments haverevealed that certain KCNA1 mutations can lessen the surface expression of Kv1.1, reduceinactivation, or even decrease protein stability [67,68]. The varying functional consequences of thesedifferent KCNA1 LOF mutations underscore the importance of understanding KCNA1 at both theInt.J. Mol. Sci.21, 2802 protein levels to understand how specific mutations may ultimately correlate5 of 20geneticand2020,functionalwith human disease isease.Humanmutationsin KCNA1Figure1. 1.Mapof anmutationsin oindicatetheirclinicallydocumenteddiseasemapped across the protein and color-coded to indicate their clinically documented disease association.association.Circleswithtwo colorsrepresentmutationswithmultiple phenotypes.MultipleCircleswith Multiple circlesat ino acid position represent multiple diseases caused by different amino acid changes at the C,paradoxicalmyotoniccongenita;PKD,position (e.g., N255D/K). Abbreviations: PMC, paradoxical myotonic congenita; PKD, paroxysmalparoxysmalkinesigenic verydiscoveryofofa cular causecause ofof EA1,EA1, thethe gene became umandisease.Sincethattime,KCNA1mutationsfirst potassium channel gene associated with human disease . Since ases,includingepilepsyand herotherdiseases,includingepilepsyand hypomagnesemia.TheseThese diseasescanoccuror comorbidwithThe spectrumof phenotypesbydiseasescan occuraloneor alonecomorbidwith EA1.TheEA1.spectrumof phenotypesexhibitedexhibitedby atientsexhibituniquesymptomsnotsharedbywith KCNA1 mutations is broad, and some patients exhibit unique symptoms not shared by mostmost others.Examiningthe differentcausedby mutationsKCNA1and themappingtheothers.Examiningthe differentdiseasesdiseasescaused bymutationsin KCNA1inandmappingstructuralstructuralof thesevariantsrevealsthatpatternsthat may theunderliethe relationshipalocationsof locationsthese variantsrevealspatternsmay underlierelationshipbetweenbetweena specificspecificgenotypeandphenotype.genotype and dwithwithKCNA1KCNA1 mutationsmutations isis EA1.EA1. At the basketbasketcellscellsofofthethe cerebellum.cerebellum. Basket cells formlevel,KCNA1inhibitory synapses on Purkinje cells and provide the sole output from the cerebellar cortex [1,54].In EA1, Kv1.1 dysfunction due to KCNA1 mutation is thought to cause hyperexcitability of theseinterneurons, leading to excessive inhibition of Purkinje cells and subsequent motor deficits [1,49].In EA1 patients, the age of onset is typically younger than 20 years, and attacks commonly consist ofataxia, myokymia, and dysarthria [1,16]. Attacks are usually triggered by stressors such as exercise,emotional stress, temperature, and sudden movement [16,31]. KCNA1 mutations associated with EA1occur widely across the protein, from the first transmembrane segment to the early C-terminal domain(Table 1; Figure 1). A subset of these mutations results in EA1, with unique comorbidities such ashyperthermia and seizures/epilepsy. Additional patient variability is apparent in cases that displaymyokymia/neuromyotonia in the absence of ataxia.Hyperthermia, a somewhat rare feature in EA1, has been reported in two patients with differentKCNA1 mutations in the voltage-sensing domain: C185W and F249C [15,22]. Both mutations associated
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 28026 of 20with hyperthermia lie in the voltage-sensing domain. C185 is located on the extracellular edge ofS1, and F249 is located on the intracellular linker between S2 and S3. In contrast to hyperthermiaassociated with the F249C mutation, a F249I mutation causes EA1 without hyperthermia . Thus,the specific amino acid change may be a contributing factor to differences in phenotype. It could alsobe attributable to environmental differences, as these mutations are found in separate families [11,22].In unique cases, KCNA1 mutations have been associated with myokymia or neuromyotoniawithout ataxia. These mutations are located on the S2 helix (T226K, A242P) and the S2–S3 intracellularlinker (P244H) [8,18,21]. Interestingly, in the 16 amino acid span between these three mutations,there are two different mutations that cause a more common form of EA1 which presents withmyokymia [11,19,21,23]. It is unclear why such closely localized mutations can lead to myokymia,neuromyotonia, or EA1 with myokymia. Mutations in the S2 transmembrane helix and the linker to theS3 transmembrane helix appear to be disproportionately represented in association with neuromyotoniaor myokymia alone. Genetic modifiers or environmental factors may influence the patient phenotype,as there are four LOF mutations at amino acid position 226, but only one presents with myokymia;the other three mutations at this position exhibit EA1 or EA1 with epilepsy [12,17–20].5.2. Epilepsy, Seizures, and Epileptic EncephalopathiesEpilepsy is over-represented in patients with EA1 and appears to be related to the impact ofspecific mutations on the function of the Kv1.1 pore region. Kv1.1 is widely expressed in neuronsthroughout the brain, including the hippocampus and cerebellum, as well as in the peripheral neuronsystem [54,69]. Subcellularly, it localizes to axons, including unmyelinated axons, axon initial segments,and juxtaparanodal regions of myelinated axons, where the protein plays an important role in actionpotential propagation, repetitive firing properties, and neurotransmitter release [51,54,69,70]. Neuronslacking functional Kv1.1 subunits exhibit membrane hyperexcitability at both subcellular (e.g., axons)and multicellular network levels (e.g., CA3 region of the hippocampus), which can manifest in thebrain as epilepsy [71–73].In contrast with EA1-associated mutations, which span the whole length of Kv1.1, KCNA1mutations associated with epilepsy or a family record of seizures appear to preferentially localize incertain domains of the Kv1.1 protein, specifically in the S1/S2 helices and the pore domain (Table 1;Figures 1 and 2). In patients with KCNA1-related epilepsy, three mutations have been identified in the S1and S2 helices of the voltage-sensing domain. Several mutations have also been found throughout thepore domain, from the end of the S4–S5 intracellular linker to the beginning of the C-terminal domain(Table 1; Figure 2). In the S1 helix, an F184C mutation that impairs pore function has been found. F184 isa component of a “hydrophobic layer” formed by 10 conserved, buried residues in the voltage-sensingdomain . These hydrophobic residues interact with the conserved gating charges on the S4 helixand are thought to be the molecular basis for the creation of a focused electric field between internaland external solutions in the voltage-sensing domain . F184 may also influence the selectivity filterin the adjacent subunit [14,75,76]. In the S2 helix, two different epilepsy/seizure-associated mutations(T226R and A242P) that are predicted to cause neuronal hyperexcitability have been identified [20,77].Electrophysiological studies showed that the A242P variant reduces the K current amplitude, whereasT226R leads to an increase in neurotransmitter release [21,78]. These two residues (T226 and A242)surround a phenylalanine residue at position 232 (position 233 in Kv1.2) which stabilizes the pore’sopen configuration [75,79–81]. Consequently, these two mutations may indirectly impact the ability ofF232 to make the proper contacts required to stabilize the pore.Epileptic encephalopathies (EEs) also arise from KCNA1 mutations which directly impact porefunction. EEs are defined by early onset seizures and epileptiform activity that progressively impairsbrain function, leading to cognitive, behavioral, and language deficits . Of special importance isthe PVP (Pro-Val-Pro) motif of Kv channels; this motif (aa 403–405 in Kv1.1) is critical for flexibility inhelix S6, as it allows proper gating of the channel . A P403S mutation at the first proline of thePVP motif is associated with both EA1 and epilepsy with intellectual disability . This mutation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 28027 of 20was identified in a set of identical twin boys with epilepsy, where one had a greater seizure burdenand level of intellectual disability than the other . The difference in expressivity between identicaltwins harboring the same mutation exemplifies the difficulty of determining the relationship betweengenotype and phenotype. With one having more severe symptoms than the other, it is possible thatthere could be an underlying de novo genetic modifier in one of the twins, causing the difference inphenotype. The recent advent of next generation sequencing is allowing the identification of smallgenetic differences responsible for phenotypic discordance between siblings with the same disease,thereby enabling molecular dissection of the effects of multilocus pathogenic variants on phenotypicvariation . Two different mutations in the second proline of the PVP motif in the S6 helix, P405S andP405L, have also been identified in EE patients . De novo mutations in the homologous position inKCNA2 also cause EE in patients . Interestingly, mutation of the valine in the PVP motif (V404I) isassociated with EA1 without epilepsy and only mild intellectual disability, suggesting alteration ofthe prolines may cause higher risk for the development of epileptic encephalopathy or epilepsy withintellectual disability . The only other clinical case of KCNA1 epileptic encephalopathy was causedby a V368L mutation . While not in the PVP motif, this mutation sits behind the selectivity filterof the pore, helping to support its structure . Of note, a T374A mutation in this same region inKCNA2 also causes EE .The importance of the PVP motif in epilepsy is further strengthened by high resolution genomicscreening, which has also identified a KCNA1 copy number variant (CNV) affecting this region in a threeyear old child with severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy (SMEI) who succumbed to sudden unexpecteddeath in epilepsy (SUDEP) . The patient exhibited drug-resistant EE with noted cardiorespiratorycomplications and global developmental delay . Post mortem analysis showed that the patientharbored non-synonymous SNPs and CNVs in several different ion channel genes, including a de novonon-synonymous SNP (A1783V) in the voltage-gated sodium channel SCN1A which was previouslyfound in another SMEI patient .The CNV in KCNA1 resulted in five extra copies of the region thatextends from the PVP motif to the end of the S6 transmembrane helix, which may render the proteingreatly impaired or non-functional . This region of the S6 helix connects to the flexible C-terminaldomain, which may influence channel tetramerization and membrane targeting . The addition of along flexible piece so close to the C-terminal domain could hinder channel tetramerization and criticalinteractions with other subunits, or it could prevent proper protein folding and embedding into theplasma membrane. Furthermore, motions of this flexible addition could disrupt the conformation,tilt, and orientation of the S6 helix, and thus, adversely affect the pore domain of the channel. Thus,the KCNA1 CNV is likely a key contributor to both the EE and SUDEP phenotypes, especially giventhe strong association between missense mutations in the PVP motif and severe forms of epilepsyand intellectual disability. However, the principal risk factor for epilepsy and premature death in thepatient was probably the co-occurrence of the KCNA1 mutation with the non-synonymous SNP inSCN1A . Mutations in SCN1A are the most common genetic cause of SMEI, and they are stronglyimplicated in EE and SUDEP [89,90]. Therefore, the combination of variants in KCNA1 and SCN1Acould have led to a lethal compound effect.Several epilepsy and seizure-associated mutations (P403S, P405S, P405L, and V408L) are caused byunderlying nucleotide changes in the region of the KCNA1 mRNA transcript that is edited by ADAR2(Table 1). These sequence changes may disrupt RNA base pairing within or near the region that formsa hairpin. By preventing proper formation of the hairpin in the KCNA1 transcript, these mutations mayprevent subsequent RNA editing by ADAR2 and thereby impair an important regulatory mechanismfor Kv1.1 protein function . As mentioned previously, residues P403 and P405 are structurallycritical in the S6 PVP motif, so the combined effects of these mutations (P403S and P405S/L) on bothRNA editing and subsequent channel function may explain the more severe phenotypes seen inthese patients.Unlike the other mutations in the RNA-editing region of the transcript, the V404I, I407M, andV408A variants do not cause seizures (Table 1). Mutational experiments show that the nucleotide
mutations may prevent subsequent RNA editing by ADAR2 and thereby impair an importantregulatory mechanism for Kv1.1 protein function . As mentioned previously, residues P403 andP405 are structurally critical in the S6 PVP motif, so the combined effects of these mutations (P403Sand P405S/L) on both RNA editing and subsequent channel function may explain the more severephenotypes seen in these patients.Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 28028 of 20Unlike the other mutations in the RNA-editing region of the transcript, the V404I, I407M, andV408A variants do not cause seizures (Table 1). Mutational experiments show that the nucleotidechangesepilepsy-associated(V408L)and non-epilepsy-associated(I407M(I407Mand V408A)changes 08L)and non-epilepsy-associatedandvariantsreduce editingthe KCNA1by disruptingthe complementarityrequiredV408A) variantsreduceofeditingof themRNAKCNA1transcriptmRNA transcriptby disruptingthe .The showedsame studiesshowedaffect
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 2802 3 of 20 Table 1. Cont. Mutation Protein Domain Clinical Diagnoses Other Clinical Observations Reference I262T S3 EA1 [28,29] I262M S3 EA1 
Teacher’s Guide: Mutations Page 1 of 10 Genetics – Mutations Teacher’s Guide 1.0 Summary The Mutations activity is the seventh core Genetics activity and should be run after XLinkage.It should take students approximately 45 minutes to complete this
or less often (20-30%) BRAF mutations and are MSS or MSI-low. The KRAS and NRAS mutations are activating oncogenic mutations at codons 12, 13 and 61, and the BRAF mutation is the classical V600E activating mutation. Mutations in KRAS or BRAF lead to hyperactivation of MAP Kinase and PI3K pathways. RAS signaling pathway being downstream .
We will begin with an overview of spectrum analysis. In this section, we will define spectrum analysis as well as present a brief introduction to the types of tests that are made with a spectrum analyzer. From there, we will learn about spectrum analyzers in term s of File Size: 1MBPage Count: 86Explore furtherSpectrum Analysis Basics, Part 1 - What is a Spectrum .blogs.keysight.comSpectrum Analysis Basics (AN150) Keysightwww.keysight.comSpectrum Analyzer : Working Principle, Classfication & Its .www.elprocus.comFundamentals of Spectrum Analysis - TU Delftqtwork.tudelft.nlRecommended to you b
Absorption Spectrum of Hydrogen Emission Spectrum of Mercury Emission Spectrum of Lithium Emission Spectrum of Helium Emission Spectrum of Hydrogen Spectrum of White Light Line Spectrum: hf Eu-El Equations Associated with The Bohr Model Electron's angular momentum L Iω mvrn nh/2π, n 1,2,3 n is called quantum number of the orbit Radius of a .
spectrum, while the part of the spectrum that can be seen is th e visible spectrum. NASA relies on a range of tools for communicating and creating images utilizing almost every single component of the electromagnetic spectrum in one way or another. This report is designed to provide a better unde rstanding of basic issues for NASA spectrum access
the spectrum used by Federal agencies is not a sustainable model for spectrum policy” “The essential element of this new Federal spectrum architecture is that the norm for spectrum use should be sharing, not exclusivity”
IBM Spectrum Control Tivoli Storage Productivity Center (TPC) and management layer of Virtual Storage Center (VSC) IBM Spectrum Protect Tivoli Storage Manager (TSM) IBM Spectrum Archive Linear Tape File System (LTFS) IBM Spectrum Virtualize SAN Volume Controller (SVC) IBM Spectrum Accelerate Software from
2.2 Basics of Spectrum sensing and Optimization By the spectrum sensing, the CR user is able to find temporally idle spectrum, which is known as spectrum hole or white space. If the licensed user comes active for communication then CR user has to use another spectrum holes or change its transmission parameter to avoid interference.
proteins inside a cell that support its shape and movement. Many DOCK8 mutations are large deletions, but point mutations also are common (see the Glossary for more information about these mutation types). The DOCK8 mutations that cause the disease are present in every cell of the body. For some people with DOCK8 immunodeficiency syndrome .
DNA Transcription and Translation Notes 20d. Transcription and Translation Worksheet 21d. DNA Mutations Notes 22d. Mutations Worksheet Transcription and Translation Worksheet Mutations . Activities 1d. Genetics Vocabulary 2d. Notes on cell cycle and mitosis 3d. Cell Cycle Coloring 4d. Cell Regulation Notes 5d. Mitosis Lab – Onion Root Tip 6d. .
III. Mutations: What happens when DNA goes wrong A change in the genetic material which effect genetic information and traits Not all mutations are bad, some are beneficial Ultimate source of genetic variation (depends on environment) MUTATIONS MUST OCCUR IN SEX CELLS IN ORDER FOR THEM TO BE PASSED ON TO NEXT
BRAF muta-tion can activate the MEK/ERK pathway, which increases cell proliferation and inhibits apoptosis . In addition, it is shown that BRAF mutations may predict EGFR treatment resistance and such mutations do not overlap with RAS mutations . ERBB2 gene en-codes human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), which is a key gene .
EGFR Mutations Found in 15-18% of adenocarcinoma patients and 50% of never-smoking adenocarcinoma patients Characteristics that enhance chances are low or never-smokers, adenocarcinomas, Asians Predominantly located in EGFR exons 18-21 90% of EGFR mutations are either exon 19 deletions or exon 21 point mutations (L858R)
Type Handheld spectrum analyzer Universal spectrum analyzer from the Family 300 General-purpose spectrum analyzer High-performance spectrum analyzer High-performance signal analyzer Frequency range 100 kHz to 6 GHz 9 kHz to 3 GHz 9 kHz to 40 GHz 20 Hz to 50 GHz 20 Hz to 40 GHz With external mixer – – up to 1.12 THz1) up to 1.12 THz1) up to .
GSMA recommends supporting the 26 GHz, 40 GHz, 50 GHz and 66 GHz bands for mobile - and ensuring that spectrum in bands between 3 GHz and 24 GHz can be secured at the following WRC in 2023. 4. Exclusively licensed spectrum should remain the core 5G spectrum management approach. Spectrum sharing and unlicensed bands can play a complementary role. 5.
The GSMA endorses the findings and conclusions of this report IMT spectrum demand Estimating the mid-bands spectrum needs in the 2025-2030 timeframe A report by . 4.1 Mix of spectrum to deliver 5G . 8 4.2 Spectrum demand model linked to the ITU-R IMT-2020 requirements 9 .
The Visible Spectrum provides instructions for creating a visible spectrum with an overhead projector. Introduce the electromagnetic spectrum by showing students that white light is composed of a rainbow of colors. Students can draw the visible spectrum and explore how common objects “filter” light. Use these activities to engage students’File Size: 243KBPage Count: 9
– Authored the original edition of the Spectrum Analysis Basics application note and contributed to subsequent editions – Helped launch the 8566/68 spectrum analyzers, marking the beginning of modern spectrum analysis, and the PSA Series spectrum analyzers that set new performance benchmarks in the industry when they were introduced
We will begin with an overview of spectrum analysis. In this section, we will define spectrum analysis as well as present a brief introduction to the types of tests that are made with a spectrum and signal analyzer. From there, we will learn about spectrum and signal analyzers in terms of the . Spect
Studi Pendidikan Akuntansi secara keseluruhan adalah sebesar Rp4.381.147.409,46. Biaya satuan pendidikan (unit cost) pada Program Studi Akuntansi adalah sebesar Rp8.675.539,42 per mahasiswa per tahun. 2.4 Kerangka Berfikir . Banyaknya aktivitas-aktivitas yang dilakukan Fakultas dalam penyelenggaraan pendidikan, memicu biaya-biaya dalam penyelenggaraan pendidikan. Biaya dalam pendidikan .