Department Of Microbiology - Gujarat Vidyapith

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Department of MicrobiologyThe Department of Microbiology, Gujarat Vidtapeeth, Sadra was established in the year1995. It is about 50 Kms from Ahmedabad and 25 KM away from Gandhinagar. Thedepartment offers B.Sc and M.Sc degree in microbiology. The department also hasfacilities for M.Phil and Ph.d degree in microbiology. Till date 02 students have obtainedPh.d, 26 students have obtained M.Phil and more than 190 students have obtained theirM.Sc degree from the department. The department is also working since 1993 in researchand extension activity of Biogas technology.Courses OfferedName of the CourseSeatsB.Sc.4612th Sciencewith BiologyM.Sc.46B.Sc inMicrobiologyM.Phil.20M.Sc inMicrobiologyDuration3 Yrs2 Yrs1 YrsCourse on ProcessPh.D.02M.Sc /M.Phil inMicrobiologyAs per ucture and FacilitiesThe department has separate laboratory facilities for M.Sc, M.Phil and Ph.d students.Department library is equipped with more than 3379 books and 28 journals along withadditional books in the central library of the university. For effective teaching departmentis also having various audio visual teaching facilities. The above mentioned courses areresidential in our institute, so separate hostel for boys and girls are available at thecampus. Playground and internet facility are also available. Separate laboratory forBioinformatics is also planned to establish.List of various equipment available in the departmentSr. No123456789EquipmentHigh Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)Polymerase Chain Reaction, Gel doc. (PCR)Gas ChromatographyUV-Vis SpectrophotometerAnaerobic Glove BoxN2 AnalyserOrbital environmental ShakerCoolins CentrifugeAutoclaves

radipKumar .B. AcharyaDr.Nikhil .S. BhattDr. Srinivas Murthy DugdiralaDr. Prateek .G.ShilpkarDr. Niraj .T. ShethShrimati Preetiben .K. ShuklaAssociate ProfessorAssistant ProfessorAssistant ProfessorAssistant ProfessorAssistant ProfessorAssistant Professor78Dr. MayurKumar .C. ShahShri ArvindKumar .B. Dungrechiya9Dr. Kaushikkumar Ruganathbhai PatelM.Sc, Ph.D (Microbiology)M.Sc, Ph.D (Biochemistry)M.Sc, Ph.D (Microbiology)M.Sc, Ph.D (Soil Science)M.Sc, Ph.D (Microbiology)M.Sc, M.Phil(Microbiology)M.Sc, Ph.D (Chemistry)M.Sc, (Microbiology) NETClearedM.Sc, Ph.D (Physics)Office Contact No: (079)23274274Assistant ProfessorAssistant ProfessorAssistant Professor

MIC 101-Microbial DiversityUnit I Microbial Evolution and Taxonomy1.1 Evolutionary History of present day microorganisms1.1.1 Evolutionary history1.1.2 Evolution of porphyrin ring1.2 Endosymbiosis1.3 Evolutionary significance of microbial life1.3.1 Fossil record1.3.2 Geochemical evidences1.3.3 Molecular Phylogeny1.4 Evolutionary Chronometers1.4.1 Protocol for using RNA as a molecular chronometer1.5 Signature sequences1.6 Microbial phylogeny as revealed by RNA sequencing1.6.1 Bacteria1.6.2 Archaea1.6.3 Eukarya1.7 Phenotypic characteristics of the Primary domains (Cell wall; lipids; RNA polymerase;features of protein synthesis)1.8 Taxonomy, nomenclature and Bergey’s manualUnit II Basics of Microbial Diversity2.1 Extent of microbial diversity on earth2.2 Sources of diversity2.3 Biodiversity study of culturable bacteria2.4 Biodiversity study of Unculturable bacteria2.5 Algae (Classification of algae)2.6 Fungi (Classification of fungi; introductory description of mold, yeast and mushroom)Unit III Extremophiles3.1 Extreme environments (Low temperature; high temperature; water stress; salinity; pH;oxygen; low nutrient environment; resting stages and survival; light)3.2Habitats, microorganisms, and biochemistry and physiology of adaptation ofHyperthermophiles, Extreme Acidophiles, Psychrophiles, Barophiles, Halophiles,Alkaliphiles

Unit IV Importance and Biotechnological Applications of Microbial Diversity4.1 Economic value of microbial diversity4.1.1 Role of microbial diversity in biodiversity maintenance, biosphere functions and insustainable development4.1.2 Need for diversity4.1.3 Categories of microorganisms4.1.3.1 Substrate based groups4.1.3.2 Size based groups4.1.4. Species specific interactions4.1.5 Qualitative and stabilizing effects of diversity4.1.6 Changes in biodiversity and microbial activity (Biotic interactions; trace gas productionand; Carbon and nutrient cycling)4.2 Conservation strategies4.2.1 Causes of biodiversity loss4.2.2 Biodiversity indicators relevant for decision makers for formulation of conservationstrategies4.3 Biotechnological applications of Microbial diversity4.3.1 Accessing and using molecular DNA data on biodiversity4.3.2 Key technologies used in biotechnology studies4.3.2.1 Chemical screening4.3.2.2 DNA technologies: Genome mapping4.3.3 Biotechnology applications in biodiversity assessment and management4.3.4 Increasing option values: Providing the knowledge base for biodiversity culture andpreservation4.3.4.1 Ex-situ conservation4.3.4.2 Biotechnology-enhances option values4.3.4.3 Role of DNA libraries and sequence data in biodiversity conservation and inbiodiversity assessment and utilization4.3.5 Application of biotechnology for the utilization of biodiversity4.3.5.1 Areas of application of biotechnology in biodiversity utilization4.3.5.2 Biotechnology in the service of industries (Rural industries; manufacturing andprocessing industries; extractive industries)4.3.5.3 Using biodiversity for environmental remediation4.3.5.3.1 Recent discoveries of diversity important for bioremediation(Nitroaromatic compounds; crude oil constituents; aliphatic hydrocarbondegradation; aromatic hydrocarbon degradation; polycyclic aromatic

hydrocarbons; halogenated organic compounds; halogenated aliphatichydrocarbons; chlorinated aromatic compounds; chlorinated polycyclichydrocarbons)4.3.5.3.2 Traits sought in bioremediation (Consortium of organisms; geneticallyengineered organism; tracking microbial strains added to the environment;bioremediation technologies)4.3.6 Impact of biotechnology on biodiversity (Direct impacts and indirect impacts)Reference Books1. Microbial Evolution, Systematic and Taxonomy” In: Brock Biology of MicroorganismsEighth Edition By- Madigan, T.M.; Martinko, J.M. and Parker, J. Prentice Hall Publication,U.K.2.The Prokaryotes-A Handbook on The Biology of Bacteria: Ecophysiology, Isolation,Identification, Application” Second Edition, Volume-I Editors-Balows, A.; Truper, H.G.;Dworkin, M.; Harder, W. and Schleiffer, K.H. Springer-Verlag Publication, New York.3.Encyclopedia of Microbiology” Second Edition, Volume-2 Editor-in-chief- Lederberg, J.Academic Press, New York.4. Manual of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology” Second Edition Editor-in ChiefArnold, L.; Demain and Julian, E. Davies Editors- Ronald, M. Atlas; Gerald Cohen;Charles, L. Hershberger; Wei-Shou Hu; David, H. Sherman; Richard, C. Willson and DavidWu, J.H. ASM Press, Washington5.Global Biodiversity Status of The Earth’s Living Resources” Editor-Groombridge, B.Chapmman and Hall Publication, London.6.Global Biodiversity Assessment” Editor-Heywood, V.H. and Watson, R.T. CambridgeUniversity, Press.7.Biodiversity of Microbial Life” Editor-Staley, J.T. and Reysenbach, A.L. Wiley-LissPublication, New York.8.Brock Biology of Microorganisms” Eighth Edition By- Madigan, T.M.; Martinko, J.M. andParker, J. Prentice Hall Publication, U.K.

M.Sc. (1 st Semester) MIC-102MICROBIAL PHYSIOLOGYUNIT: 1 Principles of PhysiologyTotal 15 hrs1 Cytoplasmic membrane and Nutrient Transport(1.1) Composition and architecture of membrane(1 hr) The cytoplasmic membrane in Bacteria and Archea Composition and architecture of membrane Membrane proteins Membrane-strengthning agents: sterols and Hopanoids Archaei MembranesRef: 1 LehningerPrincipales of biochemistry (4th Edtion) David L. Nelson. Michael M.Cox.Chapter-II2. Brock, Biology of microorganismst l Z'" ed.) Chapter- 4(1.2) The Functions of Cytoplasmic membrane.(1 hr)The Cytoplasmic membrane barrier as a permeability barrier » 'The necessity of trans postproteinsr Properties of transport proteinsRef.:- Brock. Biology of microorganisms (8th edition) Madigan, Martinko, Dunlap,Clark Chapter-4(1.3) Transport and transport systems:(3 hr) Structure and functions of membrane transport proteins. Simple transport: Lac permease of Escherichia coli. Group translocation:The phoshotransferase system.Periplasmic-binding proteins and the ABC system.Ref:- Brock, Biology of micrcorganisms.(12th edition) Chapter-42 Regulation of gene expression.(2.1) Overview of regulationMajor modes of regulation(2.2) DNA binding proteins & regulation of transcription- DNA binding proteins- Negative control of transcription Repression & Induction- Positive control of transcriptionRef.: Brock Biology of Microarganism (8th Ed.) Chapter-9. Pg. 255-230(1 hr)(1hr)3. Signal transduction(4 hrs)3.1 Two-component regulatory system3.2 Molecular mechanism of signal transduction Gated ion channels.i) Ion channels underlie electrical signaling in excitable cellsii) The Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor is a ligand-Gated ion channel G-protein coupled receptors & second massangers (Serpentine receptor)

(i) Adenylyl cyclase.(ii) Cyclic AMP acts as a second massanger for a number of regulatory molecules.Ref.: I. Lehninger, Principles of biochemistry. 4th Ed. Chapter-I 22. Brock, Biology of microorganisms 12th Ed. Chapter-94. Quorum Sensing(1 hr)- Mechanism of Quorum Sensing- Examples of Quorum SensingRef.: Brock. Biology of Microorganisms 12th Ed.5. Cellular differentiation(2 hr)- Sporulation in Bacillus (Chapter-9. Pg-242-243)- Yeast budding (Chapter-IS. Pg. 540-542)Ref.: Brock. Biology of MicroorganismsUNIT: 2 Physiological and Metabolic Diversity of Microorganisms1. Metabolic strategies for generating cellular energy1.1 Sources for generating metabolic energy: Autotrophy andHeterotrophy.1.2 Metabolic pathways1.3 Generation of Protonmotive Force (PM F)1.4 Generation of A TPRef: Principles of Micriobiology'" 4th Ed) Ronald M Atlas(Chapter:4, page: 146-150)Total 10 hrs(l hr)2. Evolution and Diversity of Photosynthetic and Autotrophic bacteria2.1 The Phototrophic way of life (Phototrophy):(2.11) Photosynthesis- Energy production and CO2 assimilation- Pattern of photosynthesis(1 hr)(2.12) Chlorophylls and Bacteriochlorophylls- Chlorophyll diversity- Photosynthetic membranes and chloroplasts- Reaction centres and Antenna pignents.- Chlorosomes(1 hr)(2.13) Carotenoids and phycobilins- Carotenoids- Phycobiliproteins and phycobilisornes(1 hr)(2.14) Anoxygenic Photosynthesis- Photosynthetic Reaction Centers- Photosynthetic electron Flow in purple bacteria- Photophosphoylation(2 hr)

- Genetics of bacterial photosynthesis- Autotrophy in purple bacteria; Electron donors and reverse electron flow.- Photosynthesis in other anoxygenic phototrophs(2.15) Oxygenic Photosynthesis- Elecron flow in oxygenic photosynthesis-ATP synthesis in oxygenic photosynthesis- Anoxygenic photosynthesis in oxygenic phototrophs and the evolution ofphotosynthesis(1 hr)2.2 Autotrophy(2.21) The calvin cycle- Rubis CO and the formation of 3-phosphoglyceric acid (PGA)(1 hr)- Stoichiometry of the calvin cycleJ - Carboxysomes(2.22) Other Autotrophic pathways in Phototrophs.- Autotrophy in chlorofexus. (Hydroxypropionate Pathway)Ref: Brock. Biology ofmicroorganisms (12th Ed.)Chapter:20 (pg.579 to 594)2.3 Nitrogen Fixation(2.31) Nitrogenase and nitrogen Fixation(2.32) Genetics and Regulation of N2 Fixation(1 hr)Ref.: BrockBiology of Microorganisms (12th Ed.)Madigan, Martinko, Dunlap and Clark (Chapter-20)UNIT: 3 Diversity of Microbial Heterotrophic Metabolism1.Respiration1.1 Oxidative Phosphorylation- Electron Transport Chain- Chemiosmotic A TP GenerationRef.: Principles of Microbiology (2nd ed) Ronald M. Atlas,(Chapter-4)1.2 Aerobic chemoorganotrophic process- Molecular oxygen as a reactant in biochemical processes.Total 8 hrs.(2 hrs)(4 hrs)

- Aerobic hydrogen oxidation- Hexose, pentose and polysaccharide metabolism.- Organic acid metabolism.- Lipid metabolism.Ref: Brock, Biology of microorganisms 12th Ed. (Chapter-21)1.3 Anaerobic Respiration:(2 hrs)- Anaerobic Respiration: General Principles.- Proton Reduction.- Anoxic hydrogen oxidation linked to Anaerobic Respiration.Ref: Brock, Biology of microorganisms 12th Ed. (Chapter-21)UNIT -4 (1) Physiological & Applied values of fungiTotal 15 hrs(1) Introduction to Fungi(1 hr)(2) Characteristics of Fungi(1 hr)(3) Classification of FungiRef.: (I) Introductory mycology (4th Ed.) c.J.Alexopoulas, C.W. Mirns,M. Blackwell, Chapter 1 & 2(2) Fundamentals of fungi (4th Ed.)Elizabeth, Moore and Landecke(3) Microbiology (8th Ed.)C.Pelczar, E.C.S. Chan, N.Krieg(4) Fungal growth (Pg. 279-308)Ref.: Fundamentals of fungi, Elizabeth, Moore, Landeckp(1 hr)(5) Applied values of fungi(1 hr)(3 hr)5.1 fungi as sapropgytes5.2 fungi in pathological relationships of Agricultural importance5.3 fungi as Mutualistic syrnbionts5.4 fungi and Human Affairs Penicillin (Antibiotic)5.5 Fungi of Veterinary and medical interestRef.: Fundamentals offungi (4th Ed.) Elizabeth, Moore, Landecker.UNIT-4 (2) Physiological and Applied values of Bacteria(2A) The physiological Diversity in BacteriaTotal 8 hrs

(1) Photosynthesis in Heliobacteria (pg. 447-450)(2) The Nonproteobacteria. Gram negative bacteria- Spirochaetes(3) The proteobacteria- The caulobacter and Hyphomirobium(4) Bacteria: The low G C, Gram positive bacteria: The mycoplasma(5) Bacteria: The high G C. Gram positive bacteria. Streptomyces.Ref.: Microbiology (6th Ed.), Part IV, (Chapter - 20,21,22,23,24)Prescott, Harley, Klein, Megraw-Hill International Publication(2B) Applied values of baeteria(1) Beneficial microbial interactions with humans(2 hrs)(i) Normal flora of the skin(ii) Normal microflora of the oral cavity(iii) Normal microflora of the Gastrointestinal tract(2) Virulence factors and Toxins(2 hrs)(i) Tetanus and Botulinum toxin(ii) Entrotoxin : Cholera toxinRef.: Brock. Biology of microorganisms 12th Ed.) Chapter-28(3) Applications of Genetic Engineering- Medical appl ications- Industrial applications- Agricultural applicationsRef. : Microbiology (6th Ed.)Prescott. Harley, Klein (Chapter-I 4, 29,42)(1 hr)

MIC 103: Instrumentation and BiostatisticsUnit1Topic and ContentSpectroscopy: (Principle, Instrumentation and Applications):i.Infrared Spectroscopy, Flame emission Spectroscopy and Atomicabsorption spectroscopy.Specialized Spectroscopy: (Principle, Instrumentation andApplications) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, ElectronSpin Resonance Spectroscopy, Mass Spectroscopy- X- RayDiffraction Spectroscopy.2Separation Techniques:i.Centrifugation Techniques: Types of centrifugation; Rate Zone;Isopycnic; High speed; Ultra; preparative; Gradientii. Electophoretic Techniques: Zone EP; Isoelectric; DISC EP;Immuno EP; Pulsed Field; Cellular Gel EP3Specialized Separation lColumnChromatography- Ion- Exchange; Affinity; Adsorption.Specialized Technique: GLC- Column; Detectors. HPLC: Pumps;Columns; Instrumentation.Biostatistics: sampling methods, data organization, tabulation, graphicalrepresentation, Significance tests.

References: MIC 103: Instrumentation and Biostatistics1. Instrumental methods of chemical analysis. Sharma B.K.2. Instrumental methods of analysis. Skoog D.A.3. An introduction to practical Biochemistry. Plummer.4. Instrumentation: Spectroscopy. Chatwal and Anand.5. Modern experimental Biology. Boyer.6. Biochemistry. 6th Edition. Freeman, New York. . Berg, J. M., Tymoczko, J. L. and Stryer, L. (2006)7.Biophysics: An Introduction. John Wiley & Sons, England. Cotterill, R. M. J. (2002)8. Principles of protein X-ray crystallography. 3rd Ed. Springer, Germany. . Drenth, J. (2007)9.Biochemistry.3rd Ed. Brooks/Cole, Publishing Company, California. Garrett, R. H. and Grisham, C. M.(2004)10. Understanding NMR Spectroscopy. John Wiley & Sons, England. Keeler, J. (2002)11. Methods in modern biophysics. Second Edition. Springer, Germany. Nölting, B. (2006)12. Biophysics. Kluwer Academic Publishers, New York and Narosa Publishing House, Delhi. Pattabhi, V.and Gautham, N. (2002)13. Principles and Techniques of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 6th Ed.Cambridge UniversityPress, New York. Wilson Keith and Walker John (2005)14. Sampling Techniques, Wiley estern Ltd, New Delhi. Cochran W.15. Introduction to probability theory and its applications, Asia Publishing House, Mumbai. Felller W.16. An introduction to Biostatistics. McGraw-Hill , N.Y. Glover T. and Mitchell K. 2002.17. Fundamentals of statistics. World Press, Kolkota. Goon, Gupta and Dasgupta Irfan Ali Khan andAtiya Khanum,18. Fundamentals of Biostatistics. 2nd Ed. Ukaaz Publications, Hyderabad.19. Design and analysis of experiments, John Wiley and Sons. Montgomery D. C.20. Sampling methods, Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkota. Murthy M.N.21. Biostatistics, a foundation for analysis in the health Sciences, Edn. 7, Wiley-Indian Edn. WayneDaniel 2007.

GUJARAT VIDYAPEETHM.Sc. MicrobiologySemester IEC-101IMMUNOLOGYUnit-IA) General principles of immunology: History of immunology: structure, composition andfunction of cells and organs involved in immune system. Immune response (humoraland cell mediated) innate immunity, acquired immunity; immune haematology, bloodgroups, blood transfusion and Rh-incompatibilityB) Antigens – antibodies: Antigens-structure and properties; types-iso and allo; haptensadjuvants, antigen specificity. Membrane receptors for antigens; immunoglobulins;structure-heterogeneity-types and subtypes-properties (physico, chemical andbiological); theories of antibody production.Unit-IIA) Antigen and antibody interactions: In vitro methods-agglutination, precipitation,complement fixation, immunofluorescence, ELISA, radio immunoassay; in vivomethods; phagocytosis, opsonization, neutralization.B) Complement system; complement components. complement activation - pathways,regulation of complement system, biological consequences of complement activation,complement deficienciesUnit –IIIA) Immunogenetics: Structure, distribution and functions of histocompatibility antigens.Major histocompatibility gene complex (MHC) and the HLI-A system; gene regulationand immune response (IR) genes; HL-A and tissue transplantation- tissue typingmethodsfor organ and tissue transplantations in humans; graft versus host reaction andrejection.B) Tumor immunology: Tumor immunology - tumor antigens, Host immune response totumors, antibody dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC), tumor escape mechanismsImmuno diagnosis and therapyUnit-IVA) Immunopathology: Classification of immunopathological disorders. General account ofimmune deficiency disorders. Primary and secondary, phagocytic cell disorder.Gammopathies. Complement deficiencies. Hypersensitivity reactions: type I, II, III andIV the respective diseases, immunological methods of their diagnosis. Autoimmunity mechanismand diseases .General account of interferon’s, Lymphokines and cytokines.B) Immuno biotechnology: Active and passive immunization, Isolation of spleen cells,Myeloma cell lines used as fusion partner, fusion method, detection and application ofmonoclonal antibodies, recombinant antibodies, immunotoxins types of vaccines, whole- organism vaccines, recombinant vector vaccines, DNA vaccines, synthetic peptidevaccines, subunit vaccines, immunization procedures, adverse reactions to vaccines.

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Department of Microbiology The Department of Microbiology, Gujarat Vidtapeeth, Sadra was established in the year 1995. It is about 50 Kms from Ahmedabad and 25 KM away from Gandhinagar. The department offers B.Sc and M.Sc degree in microbiology. The department also h

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