National Rail Conditions Of Travel

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iFrom 1 October 2016National RailConditions of Travel

NATIONAL RAIL CONDITIONS OF TRAVELCONTENTS ConditionsABCDEFGHA Summary of these ConditionsIntroduction Planning your journey and buying your Ticket1-10Using your Ticket 11-16Making your Train Journey17-28Your refund and compensation rights29-35Special Conditions applying to Season Tickets36-41Lost Property 42-45APPENDIX AList of Train Companies to which the National Rail Conditions of Travel apply as at1 October 2016APPENDIX BDefinitions - an explanation of the terms used in these ConditionsAPPENDIX CCode of Practice - Arrangements for interview meetings with applicants in connectionwith duplicate season ticketsWe have included a number of ‘Information’ panels to help you understand themeaning of certain Conditions. Please note that these panels are not intended tohave contractual effect and do not form part of our contract with you.These National Rail Conditions of Travel apply from 1 October 2016This document replaces the National Rail Conditions of Carriage. Any reference to the NationalRail Conditions of Carriage on websites, Tickets, publications etc. refers to the terms andconditions set out in this document. These Conditions apply in addition to your statutoryrights.

A. A summary of these ConditionsThe National Rail Conditions of Travel1The National Rail Conditions of Travel define the ‘Agreement’ that comes intoeffect between you and the Train Companies that provide scheduled rail serviceson the National Rail Network, when you purchase a rail Ticket.This summary provides a quick overview of the key responsibilities of TrainCompanies and passengers contained in these Conditions.It is important, however, that you read the relevant sections of the Conditionsif you want a full understanding of the responsibilities of Train Companies andpassengers.2The key responsibilities of Train Companies (‘we’) are: Prior to departure and during your journey, we will make availableinformation that will allow you to plan and successfully complete yourjourney on the National Rail Network. This will wherever possible be done ina way in which people with sight and/or hearing difficulties can understand. We will make available clear information about the range of Tickets, so thatyou can make a well-informed choice about the most appropriate and bestvalue Ticket for your journey. We will provide a range of ways in which you can buy a Ticket before yourjourney and will ensure that you are treated fairly if you are unable topurchase a Ticket because advertised facilities are unavailable. If you have a disability, we will provide assistance, upon request (24 hours’notice recommended), to help ensure that you enjoy your journey on theNational Rail Network at no additional cost. If things go wrong we will, in defined circumstances, refund your Ticket,pay you compensation, make sure you get home by another means oftransport or provide you with overnight accommodation.The key responsibilities of passengers (‘you’) are: You must purchase, where possible, a valid Ticket before you board a trainservice on the National Rail Network. You must look after your Ticket and present it for inspection when asked bya member of rail staff. You must use your Ticket in accordance with the specific terms andconditions associated with it. You must not engage in anti-social or criminal behaviour when using theNational Rail Network.3

B. Introduction1When you buy a Ticket to travel on scheduled train services on the NationalRail Network you enter into a legal Agreement with each of the Train Companieswhose trains your Ticket allows you to use. These Conditions set out the rightsand obligations of passengers and Train Companies within this Agreement.Copies of these Conditions are available at, on thewebsites of all Train Companies and online Licenced Retailers and, upon request,from any staffed Ticket office.A list of the Train Companies to which these Conditions apply can be found inAppendix A.These Conditions apply to travel within Great Britain only and are governed byEnglish law, except where a Ticket is bought in Scotland for travel wholly withinScotland, in which case these Conditions will be governed by Scots law.2For international rail journeys to or from continental Europe and Ireland, adifferent set of conditions apply. These are called the ‘Uniform Rules concerningthe Contract for International Carriage of Passengers and Luggage by Rail’(commonly known as ‘CIV’). Further information on CIV arrangements can befound at have tried to make these Conditions as simple and easy to understandas possible. However, as they are a legally binding Agreement between TrainCompanies and passengers, we sometimes have to use legal expressions. Wealso sometimes make use of capital letters to denote ‘defined terms’ to make theConditions easier to use. Appendix B provides a list of such defined terms andwhat they mean.4When you are present in or using stations, train services and other facilities onthe National Rail Network, you are also subject to the Railway Byelaws. A copy ofthese can be found at or ask at a station Ticket office for details.Please note that neither a Train Company’s staff nor a Licenced Retailer’s staffhave the authority to waive or change these Conditions unless they are specificallyallowed to within these Conditions.4

C. Planning your journey and buying your Ticket1. Planning your journey1.1 We will help you plan your journey on the National Rail Network by makingavailable information on train times, the range of Tickets available for you topurchase, the stations you might use and other relevant information such asrefund and compensation arrangements.1.2 We will also make available more specific information on related matters suchas the additional assistance provided to passengers with a disability or takingyour cycle or luggage on the train.2. Buying your Ticket2.1 We want you to make a well-informed choice when buying your Ticket, and tofeel confident that you have purchased the most appropriate and best valueTicket for your journey.2.2 The ‘National Rail Guide to Tickets’ provides information on the range ofTickets that can be purchased and is available from all staffed railwaystations. The National Rail Enquiries website at providescomprehensive information on the range of Tickets available for your journey.2.3 When purchasing your Ticket, we will make available information on specificrestrictions that apply to your Ticket (for instance the train services on which youcan use your Ticket or the route(s) you are entitled to use) and, where possible,any known changes to planned services.2.4 Once you have bought your Ticket, you should check that you have the correctTicket(s) for the journey you intend to make. If you think a mistake has beenmade by the Train Company or Licenced Retailer that sold you the Ticket, youshould tell them as soon as possible.3. Reserving seats3.1 It is possible to reserve seats on many train services. Where this is the case it willgenerally be shown in the timetable information provided by National RailEnquiries, Train Companies, Licenced Retailers and other information providers.5

3.2 Some types of Ticket (for instance advance Tickets) require you to make areservation when buying your Ticket. For other Tickets you can request areservation either when buying a Ticket, or before the departure of your train onpresentation of a valid Ticket, at most staffed stations. You are allowed amaximum of one seat reservation per person for each train that forms part ofyour journey.INFORMATION: Seat reservations for reservable services arenormally available up to two hours before the departure of a train(or up to the previous day for very early morning departures). Pleasecheck with the train operator if you require details of the latestbooking times for a specific service.3.3 Unless you have made a reservation please note that your Ticket does notautomatically entitle you to a seat, and at busy times you may have to stand.You will not be entitled to any refund in these cases unless you hold a first classTicket and no first class seats were available on a train service where thetimetable indicated that first class seats would be provided. More information onthe refund to which you are entitled in such circumstances can be found insection 31 of these Conditions.4. Your Ticket4.1 Your Ticket is evidence of your entitlement to travel on the National Rail Network,as allowed by the type of Ticket you have purchased. It is your responsibility tokeep it safe and it should be looked after with care.4.2 Some Tickets are held as an electronic record on a smartcard or electronic device,or may be transmitted to you for you to print out yourself. In such cases you willbe advised of (and must comply with) the specific conditions applying to Ticketsheld in those formats.4.3 You may only buy your Ticket from a Train Company or Licenced Retailer,otherwise it will not be valid.4.4 Some Tickets entitle you to goods or services from another party (for instance theright to travel on bus services). Where this is the case your Ticket is alsoevidence of a contract between you and that other party, whose own conditionswill apply when using their services.4.5 If you lose or mislay a Ticket or it is stolen, it will only be replaced or (subjectto the specific conditions associated with the Ticket) refunded provided thatthe original Ticket can be cancelled. In such cases you should apply to the TrainCompany or Licenced Retailer from where it was purchased.6

4.6 Special conditions apply to Season Tickets and more information can be found insection G of these Conditions.4.7 You should not tamper with a Ticket in any way. If you do so it will not be validfor travel.4.8 If a Ticket is damaged and you return it to the Train Company or Licenced Retailerthat sold it to you they will arrange a replacement Ticket to be issued to youunless there is reason to suspect that it has, or will be, used for fraudulent orimproper purposes. You may have to pay a reasonable administrative charge(not exceeding 10) for the replacement.5. Tickets are not transferable5.1 A Ticket may only be used by the person who bought that Ticket or on whosebehalf that Ticket was bought unless specifically allowed by the terms andconditions applying to that Ticket. A Ticket may not be resold to anyone else.5.2 When a Ticket is purchased on behalf of an organisation, business or similarentity, it may be used by any person employed by that organisation, business orsimilar entity unless otherwise shown on the Ticket by means of a person’sname, photocard number or other identifying means. In such cases it may onlybe used by the person identified on the Ticket.6. You must have a valid Ticket to travel6.1 We will ensure that you have a reasonable opportunity to purchase your Ticketbefore you travel.6.2 Tickets can be purchased at staffed Ticket offices or through self-service Ticketmachines at many stations, and can also be purchased from a range of TrainCompanies and other Licenced Retailers online and by telephone. You may alsopurchase a Ticket through use of a smartcard or registered payment card in areaswhere such schemes apply.INFORMATION: ‘Ticket’ includes a validated contactless paymentcard where accepted. The ‘Tickets’ definition in Appendix B givesmore information.7

6.3 You must have in your possession a valid Ticket before you board a train unlessone of the following circumstances applies:(a) At the station where you start your journey, there is no means of purchasing aTicket, either because there is no Ticket office open or self-service Ticket machinein working orderand, where notices indicate that you are in a Penalty Fares areayou purchase a Permit to Travel if there is a working Permit to Travel issuingmachine at the station where you start your journey – see section 10 for moreinformation about Penalty Fares; or(b) Where you are specifically permitted to board a train service by an authorisedmember of staff or notice of the Train Company whose service you intend toboard; or(c) You have a disability and Ticket purchasing arrangements at the station you aredeparting from are not suitably accessible.In these cases, you must, as soon as you are reasonably able, buy an appropriateTicket to complete your journey. The price of the Ticket you purchase will be thesame as if you had bought a Ticket at the station from which you first departed.INFORMATION: This means that you should buy a ticket from theconductor on the train if there is one available; at an interchangestation provided there is sufficient time before your connectingservice; or, if neither of these is possible, at your destination.6.4 Children under five years of age may travel free of charge without a Ticketproviding that they are travelling with a passenger holding a valid Ticket or otherauthority to travel.6.5 Children aged between 5 years and 15 years must have a valid Ticket for travelbut are entitled to a “child” discount on most Tickets. If a discount is notavailable, it will be made clear to you when you buy your Ticket.6.6 Special arrangements apply for accompanied children aged under 11 in theLondon pay as you go zonal fare area. For details please go r-under-18s/travelling-with-children8

7. Personal identificationSome types of Tickets are only valid with a specific form of personal identification.Where this applies it will be made clear when buying your Ticket, and in these casesyou must ensure that you have the identification with you when you travel.INFORMATION: This applies, for example, for some types of selfprint ticket which are only valid when carried with the appropriate IDstated at the time of booking.8. Railcards8.1 If you use a Railcard to purchase a discounted Ticket, you must carry the Railcard(and have it available for inspection) when you travel. The Railcard must bewithin its period of validity when you travel (in other words it should not haveexpired).8.2 The Railcard may have additional restrictions which will apply to any Tickets youbuy when using it.8.3 If you have a Railcard, you must ensure that the information on it can be read byrail staff. On occasions this printed information will fade over time. If yourRailcard starts to become illegible for this reason, we will replace it withoutcharge. This can be done at any station with a Ticket office or through theLicenced Retailer from which it was purchased.8.4 When you buy a national Railcard the full terms and conditions will be provided.They are also available from, and on request from all staffedTicket offices.9. Travelling without a valid Ticket9.1 Travelling without a valid Ticket (which includes, where relevant, any supportingdocumentation such as a Railcard), or being unable to present them when askedis a serious matter.If you believe that there are reasonable circumstances that led to you travellingwithout a valid Ticket or being able to present one, then you should explain theseto the member of Train Company staff who has asked to inspect your Ticket.9

9.2 If you are unable to present a valid Ticket when asked, we are permitted, in law,to take one of the following measures:a) To charge you a Penalty Fare on certain trains and stations (see section 10below); orb)c)To charge you the full undiscounted anytime single fare to a station directlyserved by the train that you are on. You will not be entitled to any discountsor special terms, or for a Ticket to a station other than one served by the trainthat you are on; orTo report you for prosecution.If you are unable to present a valid Ticket or to pay a fare (including a partpayment of a Penalty Fare to the value of the Ticket required) when requested,you will be required to provide your name and address so that the matter can befollowed up.9.3 It is an offence under the Railway Byelaws to fail to provide your name andaddress when requested.9.4 Notwithstanding Condition 9.2 (b) above, if you are using an advance Ticket andyou miss your booked train because a previous connecting train service wasdelayed, you will be able to travel on the next train service provided by the TrainCompany with whom you were booked without penalty.If you have an ‘off-peak’ or ‘super off-peak’ Ticket, correctly dated but invalid forthe service on which you are travelling; you are using a route for which yourTicket is not valid; or you break your journey when you are not permitted to doso, you will be charged the difference between the fare that you have paid andthe lowest price Ticket that is valid for the train you are using.INFORMATION: All Train Companies adhere to a Code of Practicewhich sets out the procedures we will follow when dealing withticketing irregularities. A copy can be found

10. Penalty Fares10.1Some Train Companies operate a Penalty Fares scheme. All such schemesoperate on the same basis, and are approved by the Department forTransport. More information on Penalty Fare schemes and a list of the TrainCompanies operating such schemes can be found at Companies are required to ensure that warning notices are clearlydisplayed on trains and stations where such schemes operate. Within theareas where such schemes operate, you may be charged a Penalty Fare if:(a) You travel on a train service without a Ticket or Permit to Travel;(b) You travel in first class accommodation with a standard class Ticket;(c) You travel on a train service at a time when your Ticket is not valid;(d) You travel with a Train Company for which your Ticket is not valid;(e) You do not have the necessary supporting document(s), where required(for example a valid Railcard or photocard).D. Using your Ticket11. IntroductionThe following sections 12 – 16 set out the general conditions or restrictions that mayapply depending on the type of Ticket that you have purchased.12. General conditions12.1You must use your Ticket on or within the date(s) that it is valid. Most Ticketsfor shorter journeys are valid for one day only; for longer journeys they maybe valid for a longer period of time. The date(s) of validity will be made clearwhen you buy your Ticket and will also be printed on your Ticket. Moreinformation can also be found in section 16 of these Conditions.12.2If, as a result of a delay to your train, your Ticket expires during your journey,you will still be allowed to complete that journey without penalty.11

12.3A return Ticket must be used in the correct sequence (you must use theoutward portion of your return Ticket before you use the return portion). Theoutward portion of a return Ticket is no longer valid for travel once the returnportion has been used.13. The Train Company or Companies you may travel with and the routes you can use13.1Some Tickets, particularly advance Tickets, require you to travel on a specifictrain service or services, or the services of a particular Train Company orCompanies. We will make these conditions clear to you when you purchaseyour Ticket.13.2For all other Tickets, you are allowed to make your journey on the services ofany Train Company covering the journey you are making on the date(s) andby the route(s) on which your Ticket is valid.13.3Your Ticket may show that it is valid only on certain train services, such asthose of a particular Train Company, or on trains travelling via a certain routeor routes. If no specific route or Train Company is shown, then (subject toany time restrictions for the type of fare you have purchased) it will be validon:a) any direct train service between the station(s) shown on your Ticket;b) by any services (including any change of trains) over the shortest routewhich can be used by scheduled passenger services between the stationsshown on your Ticket;c)any other routes as shown in the ‘National Routeing Guide’.INFORMATION: Restrictions may be applied to services departingor arriving at certain times; to the services of one or more specifiedTrain Companies; or to groups of train services indicated by aparticular brand name or identity.Details will be shown with your ticket and may be supplemented byannouncements.The easiest way to check for valid routes is to use the journey planner You can also check the National Routeing Guide which isavailable at, or ask the Ticket seller when you buy yourTicket.12

INFORMATION: The National Rail Journey Planner lets you selectany specific journey, and allows you to include specific locations youwish to travel through. It will display valid tickets for your chosenjourney alongside the train times.13.4If you make a journey by a route that is not valid you will be liable to pay anexcess fare. The price for this will be the difference between the amount paidfor the Ticket you hold and the lowest price Ticket available for immediatetravel that would have entitled you to travel by that route.13.5If you are using a Zonal Ticket, which allows travel within a definedgeographic area, you may travel on trains which take any route within thezone or zones shown on the Ticket.13.6If you travel beyond the destination shown on the Ticket, you will betreated as having joined the train without a valid Ticket for the additional partof your journey. Section 9 of these Conditions sets out what may happen ifyou travel without a valid Ticket.14. Using a combination of Tickets14.1Unless shown below, you may use a combination of two or more Tickets tomake a journey provided that the train services you use call at the station(s)where you change from one Ticket to another.14.2If you are using a Season Ticket, daily Zonal Ticket, or another area basedTicket such as a concessionary pass, ranger or rover in conjunction withanother Ticket and the last station at which one Ticket is valid and the firststation that the other Ticket is valid are the same, then the train does notneed to call at that station for your combination to be valid.14.3Some Tickets specifically exclude their use in conjunction with other Tickets.This will be made clear in the terms and conditions when buying suchTickets, and you cannot use such a Ticket in conjunction with another exceptas set out in 14.1 above.14.4In all cases you must comply with the specific terms and conditions of eachof the Tickets you are using (for example, keeping to the valid route(s) andtrain services for which each Ticket is valid). It is your responsibility to checkthat you comply with the Conditions listed above.13

15. Using first class accommodation15.1Some train services include first class accommodation. Where first classaccommodation is available, the relevant seats and area(s) of the train will beclearly marked.15.2Unless Train Company staff, or notices on the train give you specificpermission, you cannot travel in first class accommodation with a standardclass Ticket. This applies even if there are no vacant seats in standard class.15.3A standard class Ticket can in most cases be upgraded to first class. Wherethis is the case you should pay the additional fare due before you board thetrain. The amount you pay will be the difference between the fare you havealready paid and the appropriate first class fare for the journey you wish tomake.15.4Some Train companies allow you to upgrade on train on payment of asupplement. Where this is the case it will be made clear by announcementsor notices.15.5If you travel in first class accommodation without a valid first class Ticketor permission from staff to occupy that accommodation, the Conditions setout in section 9 will apply.15.6If you are given permission to sit in a first class seat when holding a standardclass Ticket, it is on the basis that you may be later required to give up yourseat to a passenger holding a valid first class Ticket.If you hold a first class Ticket and the first class accommodation on your train servicehas been declassified or you are unable to sit in it because it is full, you will beentitled to a refund as set out in section 31.16. General conditions applying to Tickets16.1The Conditions in this section apply to ordinary train Tickets, but may varyfor individual products, especially discount and promotional Tickets. Theconditions and any exclusions applying to these will be explained when youbuy those Tickets.16.2Most Tickets allow you to break your journey. This means that you do nothave to make the whole of your journey at the same time or, where allowed,on the same day.14

16.3Where a break of journey is allowed, there is no limit to the number of timesthat you can do so within a Ticket’s period of validity, until the journey iscompleted.16.4Generally, you may start, or break and resume, a journey (in either directionin the case of a return Ticket) at any intermediate station, as long as theTicket you hold is valid for the trains you want to use. However, this may notbe the case with some through services that take an indirect route. You mayalso end your journey (in either direction in the case of a return Ticket) beforethe destination shown on the Ticket.INFORMATION: For example, where a train service makes a circularjourney, you may travel either way to the destination on yourticket. However, you would not normally be allowed to get off at anintermediate station where the fare would have been higher.16.5If you start, break or resume your journey at an intermediate station whereyou are not entitled to do so, you will be liable to pay an excess fare. Theprice for this will be the difference between the amount paid for the Ticketyou hold and the lowest price Ticket available for immediate travel thatwould have entitled you to start, break or resume your journey at the stationconcerned.16.6Tickets valid for travel across London using Transport for London services donot entitle you to break your journey on London Underground and/orthe Docklands Light Railway, unless your Ticket is a Season Ticket or atravelcard covering the Zones in which you are travelling.E. Making your Train Journey17. IntroductionThis section sets out the specific Conditions that apply when making your journey.18. Inspection of Tickets18.1You must show and, if asked to do so by the staff of a Train Company, handover for inspection your Ticket and any Railcard, photocard or other form ofpersonal identification which your Ticket requires.15

18.2If for any reason your Ticket is invalid, Train Company staff may withdrawit unless it is held on an electronic device or payment card. Where your Ticketis withdrawn you will be given a receipt.19. Showing consideration for other passengers19.1You should show consideration for other passengers, so that everyone isable to have an enjoyable travel experience on the National Rail Network.Anti-social and criminal behaviour, in particular, affects other passengers andcan prevent them from enjoying their journey.19.2This behaviour is covered by the Railway Byelaws, which apply to anyone onrailway property, regardless of whether they have a Ticket or not.20. Changing trainsIf your journey requires a change of trains, you must allow sufficient time to makeyour connection when selecting the trains you wish to use. Train times shown or on any journey plan provided by a Train Company orLicenced Retailer will allow sufficient time for making your change of trains. You canalso ask for advice on this when purchasing your Ticket at a station.21. Passengers with disabilities21.1We aim to make using the National Rail Network as accessible as possible forpassengers with disabilities, and provide a range of services to help ensurethat they have an enjoyable journey.21.2We will provide specific assistance for passengers with disabilities (andother passengers that may need extra help such as older people) uponrequest, at no additional cost. This will include, as required, arranging forstaff to be available to deploy ramps that allow wheelchair users to boardtrains; or arranging for an accessible taxi to take passengers with disabilitiesto the most convenient accessible station appropriate to the journey beingmade.21.3We recommend that passengers requiring assistance contact the relevantTrain Company up to 24 hours in advance. Further information on how to dothis is available from each Train Company’s website, from Train Companystaff and from National Rail Enquiries, which also provides guidance on thekind of journeys where we recommend that assistance is booked.16

21.4Each Train Company publishes a ‘Disabled People’s Protection Policy’,which sets out the way in which it will assist passengers with disabilities inusing its services. These policies are published on each Train Company’swebsite and are also available at, which provides awide range of other information for passengers with disabilities planning touse the National Rail Network.22. Taking your cycle on the train22.1Non-folding cycles are permitted on most train services, but restrictions mayapply at particular times of day and/or days of the week. In some cases, acharge may be made and a reservation may be required.22.2Train Companies publish details of their cycle policies online. Details are alsoavailable at staffed Ticket offices, and we will tell you about these restrictionsand any charges if you ask when buying your Ticket.INFORMATION: More details about taking your cycle on the traincan be found destinations/cyclists.aspx22.3If a cycle reservation is not honoured, the Train Company responsible willrefund any reservation fee paid. If the Train Company is unable to providealternative equivalent accommodation for your cycle and you thereforedecide not to travel yo

These National Rail Conditions of Travel apply from 1 October 2016 This document replaces the National Rail Conditions of Carriage. Any reference to the National Rail Conditions of Carriage on websites, Tickets, publications etc. refers to the terms and conditions set out in this document. These Conditions apply in addition to your statutory .

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