Genomics And The EHR - National Human Genome Research Institute

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Genomics and the EHRMark Hoffman, Ph.D.Vice President Research SolutionsCerner Corporation

Overview EHR from Commercial Perspective What can be done TODAY? What could be done TOMORROW? What are some of the challenges? Change management

EHR Links diagnostic, treatment, procedural, workflow,administrative information in a machine readableframework The LEGALLY BINDING MEDICAL RECORD– Information must be recoverable during legal proceedings– Requires ability to reconstruct information available toclinician AT THE TIME THAT A DECISION WAS MADE Strict versioning, date/time stamp Updates to interpretations must be clearly identified Enables privacy protection through:– Audit trail of access– Role and organization securityHow private is this?

Many Facets of an EHRSoftware Commercial HomegrownHardware PerformanceImplementation decisions Collaborative team between vendor and organizationSupport policies and procedures “We can’t query the EHR”

Many types of “EHR”Off the Shelf Common build Easy start up Quick implementation Limited flexibility Data can be easilyexchanged, limiteddepthConfigurable Common architecture Release variability Modularity Implementations vary widelybetween sites Most data can be exchangedCustomized Custom architecture Highly flexible Significant effort toimplement Limited ability todeploy innovationsbeyond “parent”institution

Meaningful Use – some important lessons Incentive based – enables providers topurchase and install specific EHR capabilities Focuses on functionality, does not prescribehow to deliver functionality– Commercial systems have significant investmentsin their platforms

What can we do TODAY to supportgenomics in the EHR?Non-exceptionalist perspective: Any genetic or genomic test can be ordered from an EHR via CPOE Any genetic test report can be included in the EHR as a textdocumentSome EHR systems (or LIS modules within an EHR): Support storage of discrete genetic findings (variants, quantitativeresults, cytogenetic abnormalities, karyotypes) Support the workflow in molecular diagnostic laboratories Provide ISCN syntax checking Enable automated interactions with molecular diagnostic devices(DNA extractions, RT-PCR etc.) Can configure decision support rules that utilize discrete geneticinformation

Current capabilities Streamline laboratory process Codify discrete results– LOINC for orders– CBO: becoming de facto standard – 17 diagnostic labs in US,Canada and Egypt, VA and 15 other organizations in process Provides rich semantic structure Enable decision support with discrete results Publish interpretative reports to EHR Works within the most widely used HL7 framework (2.x)

iT’s Personal Initiative –Decision Support HIV Genotype - drug resistance reportthat guides physician towards alternativetherapies based on how the virus isevolving through course of treatment. Current: displays recentmutations for patient based oncurrent therapy. Red indicatesnew mutations identified. Summation: displays allmutations found for the patientthrough course of treatment

iT’s Personal Initiative – Family History Consumer-driven – Cerner Health PHR Accessible – web-based Cerner Health PHR Portable – one Cerner Health connection to multiple providers Time Saving – Completed prior to seeing clinician Data Sharing – Copy tree and share with family members Standardized – HL7 compliant and SNOMED enabled Clinically Relevant – Visual representation for clinicians to track familial conditions using NSCG pedigree standards

What could be done TOMORROW? Link storage of DNA sequencing output to EHR– Some lessons from large image files that are stored in archiveapproach– Can be compressed by storing differences relative to a referencesequence Assist diagnostic expert with interpretation of DNAsequence results (current or NextGEN)– Highlight variants of known significance– Highlight variants with likely impact despite lack of knownsignficance (stop, frameshift)– Document and archive variants of unknown significance forfuture interpretation Periodically reassess results of unknown significance asnew findings become available

The problem with using a fixed set of codes There’s always that extra piece Difficult for curated content to keepup with the pace of CGCCGACCAAGCCGG

The problem with codifying after theresult is captured . Codification depends on the rules thatare implemented at the time that a resultis captured If (when) the logical rules change, thecodification of a variant can vary due tominor modification of the rules. Queryingthese codes will be GCCTTCGCCGACCAAGCCGG

A Computer in the Exam Room?Change Management - Scenario 1“That it will ever come into general use,notwithstanding its value, is extremelydoubtful because its beneficial applicationrequires much time and gives a good bit oftrouble, both to the patient and to thepractitioner because its hue and character areforeign and opposed to all our habits andassociations.”from The London Times in 1834Commenting on .the “stethoscope”

Change Management - Scenario 2 The iPadwas immediatelyutilized in clinical practice Users saw immediate valueand did not seek permissionor regulatory approval

Imaging – some similar issues

Some lessons and questions fromimaging Reports and orders are within EHR context Large image files are stored in archive, withlinks to EHR Would the 10 MRI mean that everybodywould and should have an MRI? Are thereenough radiologists to support theinterpretation of the results?

ArchitectureCollaborative Cloud InfrastructureCloud-basedResearch eArchiveLISEHR

Scenario 3Here is myDNA sequence!Courtesy: A. Gonzalez

Mark com816-201-3291

genomics in the EHR? Non-exceptionalist perspective: Any genetic or genomic test can be ordered from an EHR via CPOE Any genetic test report can be included in the EHR as a text document Some EHR systems (or LIS modules within an EHR): Support storage of discrete genetic findings (variants, quantitative

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