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Reason and Bradbury(2e)-Prelims.qxd9/24/20075:51 PMPage iThe SAGE Handbook ofAction Research

Reason and Bradbury(2e)-Prelims.qxd9/24/20075:51 PMPage ii

Reason and Bradbury(2e)-Prelims.qxd9/24/20075:51 PMPage iiiThe SAGE Handbook ofAction ResearchParticipative Inquiry and PracticeSecond EditionEdited byPeter ReasonHilary Bradbury

Reason and Bradbury(2e)-Prelims.qxd9/24/20075:51 PMPage iv Sage Publications 2008First published 2008Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research orprivate study, or criticism or review, as permitted under theCopyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication maybe reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means,only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or inthe case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with theterms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency.Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should besent to the publishers.SAGE Publications Ltd1 Oliver’s Yard55 City RoadLondon EC1Y 1SPSAGE Publications Inc.2455 Teller RoadThousand Oaks, California 91320SAGE Publications India Pvt LtdB 1/I 1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial AreaMathura RoadNew Delhi 110 044SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte Ltd33 Pekin Street #02-01Far East SquareSingapore 048763Library of Congress Control Number: 2006938718British Library Cataloguing in Publication dataA catalogue record for this book is available fromthe British LibraryISBN 978-1-4129-2029-2Typeset by C&M Digitals (P) Ltd, Chennai, IndiaPrinted in Great Britain by The Cromwell Press Ltd, Trowbridge, WiltshirePrinted on paper from sustainable resources

Reason and Bradbury(2e)-Prelims.qxd9/24/20075:51 PMPage vContentsEditorial BoardPrefacePeter Reason and Hilary BradburyNotes on ContributorsxxiixviIntroductionPeter Reason and Hilary Bradbury1PART ONE GROUNDINGSIntroduction to GroundingsPeter Reason and Hilary Bradbury11111Living Inquiry: Personal, Political and PhilosophicalGroundings for Action Research PracticePatricia Gayá Wicks, Peter Reason and Hilary Bradbury152Participatory Action Research as PracticeMarja Liisa Swantz313Some Trends in the Praxis of Participatory Action ResearchMd. Anisur Rahman494Action Research and the Challenge of ScopeBjørn Gustavsen, Agneta Hansson and Thoralf U. Qvale635Action Research at Work: Creating the Future Followingthe Path from LewinHilary Bradbury, Phil Mirvis, Eric Neilsen and William Pasmore77Continuing the Journey: Articulating Dimensionsof Feminist Participatory Research (FPAR)Colleen Reid and Wendy Frisby93678Towards Transformational Liberation: Participatoryand Action Research and PraxisM. Brinton Lykes and Amelia MallonaCritical Theory and Participatory Action ResearchStephen Kemmis106121

Reason and Bradbury(2e)-Prelims.qxd9/24/2007vi95:51 PMPage viCONTENTSSystems Thinking and Practice for Action ResearchRay Ison13910 Social Construction and Research as ActionKenneth J. Gergen and Mary M. Gergen15911 Power and KnowledgeJohn Gaventa and Andrea Cornwall17212 Appreciable Worlds, Inspired InquiryDanielle P. Zandee and David L. Cooperrider19013 Ethics and Action Research: Deepening our Commitmentto Principles of Social Justice and RedefiningSystems of Democratic PracticeMary Brydon-Miller19914 The Future of Universities: Action Researchand the Transformation of Higher EducationMorten Levin and Davydd Greenwood21115 Action Research, Partnerships and Social Impacts:The Institutional Collaboration of PRIA and IDRL. David Brown and Rajesh Tandon227PART TWO PRACTICESIntroduction to PracticesPeter Reason and Hilary Bradbury23523516 Action Inquiry: Interweaving Multiple Qualitiesof Attention for Timely ActionWilliam R. Torbert and Steven S. Taylor23917 Action Science: Linking Causal Theory and MeaningMaking in Action ResearchVictor J. Friedman and Tim Rogers25218 Clinical Inquiry/ResearchEdgar H. Schein26619 The Practice of Appreciative InquiryJames D. Ludema and Ronald E. Fry28020 PRA, PLA and Pluralism: Practice and TheoryRobert Chambers29721 Action LearningMike Pedler and John Burgoyne319

Reason and Bradbury(2e)-Prelims.qxd9/24/20075:51 PMPage viiCONTENTS22 The Jury is Out: How Far Can Participatory Projects GoTowards Reclaiming Democracy?Tom Wakeford with Jasber Singh, Bano Murtuja, Peter Bryantand Michel Pimbert23 Learning History: An Action Research Practice in Supportof Actionable LearningGeorge Roth and Hilary BradburyVII33335024 Extending Epistemology within a Co-operative InquiryJohn Heron and Peter Reason36625 Action Research in HealthcareIan Hughes38126 Action Research on a Large Scale: Issues and PracticesAnn W. Martin39427 Theorizing Audience, Products and ProvocationMichelle Fine and Maria Elena Torre40728 Taking the Action Turn: Lessons from Bringing Participationto Qualitative ResearchSonia Ospina, Jennifer Dodge, Erica Gabrielle Foldy andAmparo Hofmann-PinillaPART THREE EXEMPLARSIntroduction to Exemplars: Varieties of Action ResearchHilary Bradbury and Peter Reason42043543529 Charismatic Inquiry in Concert: Action Research in theRealm of ‘the Between’John Heron and Gregg Lahood43930 Presentational Knowing: Bridging Experience and Expression withArt, Poetry and SongJennifer Mullett45031 Working with ‘Not Knowing’ Amid Power Dynamics Among Managers:From Faultfinding and Exclusion Towards Co-learning and InclusionMarianne Kristiansen and Jørgen Bloch-Poulsen46332 Learning to Love Our Black Selves: Healing from Internalized OppressionsTaj Johns33 The Tapestry of Leadership: Lessons from Six CooperativeInquiry Groups of Social Justice LeadersLyle Yorks, Arnold Aprill, LaDon James, Anita Rees,Amparo Hoffman-Pinilla and Sonia Ospina473487

Reason and Bradbury(2e)-Prelims.qxd9/24/2007viii5:51 PMPage viiiCONTENTS34 The Workplace Stress and Aggression Project:Ways of Knowing – Our Rosetta Stone for PracticeRita Kowalski, Lyle Yorks and Mariann Jelinek49735 Theatre in Participatory Action Research: Experiencesfrom BangladeshMeghna Guhathakurta51036 Changing the Culture of Dependency to Allow forSuccessful Outcomes in Particpatory Research: Fourteen Years ofExperience in Yucatan, Mexico.María Teresa Castillo-Burguete, María DoloresViga de Alva and Federico Dickinson52237 Health Promotion and Participatory Action Research:The Significance of Participatory Praxis in Developing ParticipatoryHealth InterventionLai Fong Chui53438 ‘This Is So Democratic!!’ Action Research and Policy Developmentin East TimorErnie Stringer55039 ‘No – You Don’t Know How We Feel!’: Collaborative Inquiry UsingVideo with Children Facing the Life-threatening Illness of a ParentGillian Chowns56240 IT and Action Sensemaking: Making Sense of New TechnologyChris Dymek573PART FOUR SKILLSIntroduction to SkillsPeter Reason and Hilary Bradbury58541 Negotiating the Challenges of Participatory Action Research:Relationships, Power, Participation, Change and CredibilityJill Grant, Geoff Nelson and Terry Mitchell58942 Getting in, Getting on, Getting out: On Working withSecond-person Inquiry GroupsKate Louise McArdle60243 Facilitation as Action Research in the MomentJenny Mackewn44 Muddling Through: Facing the Challenges of Managing aLarge-scale Action Research ProjectGeoff Mead615629

Reason and Bradbury(2e)-Prelims.qxd9/24/20075:51 PMPage ixCONTENTSIX45 Insider Action Research: The Dynamics of DevelopingNew CapabilitiesDavid Coghlan and A.B. (Rami) Shani64346 Teaching Reflective Practice in the Action Science/Action InquiryTradition: Key Stages, Concepts and PracticesSteven S. Taylor, Jenny W. Rudolph and Erica Gabrielle Foldy65647 The Praxis of Educating Action ResearchersMorten Levin66948 Finding Form in Writing for Action ResearchJudi Marshall68249 Concluding Reflections: Whither Action Research?Peter Reason and Hilary Bradbury695Index708

Reason and Bradbury(2e)-Prelims.qxd9/24/20075:51 PMPage xEditorial BoardRobert ChambersUniversity of Sussex, UKOrlando Fals BordaNational University of Colombia, BogotaBjørn GustavsenWork Research Institute, NorwayMarcia HillsUniversity of Victoria, BC, CanadaStephen KemmisCharles Sturt University, NSW, AustraliaMorten LevinNorwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, NorwayYvonna LincolnTexas A&M University, USAPatricia MaguireWestern New Mexico University, USARobin McTaggartJames Cook University, Queensland, AustraliaPeter SengeSociety for Organizational Learning, USABridget SomekhHuddersfield University, UKMarja-Liisa SwantzUniversity of Helsinki, FinlandRajesh TandonSociety for Participatory Research in Asia, New Delhi, IndiaWilliam TorbertBoston College, USAMd. Anisur RahmanResearch Initiatives, Bangladesh

Reason and Bradbury(2e)-Prelims.qxd9/24/20075:51 PMPage xiEDITORIAL BOARDYoland WadsworthSwinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, AustraliaDavydd GreenwoodCornell University, USAMary Brydon-MillerUniversity of Cincinnati, USASonia OspinaNew York University, USAJudi MarshallUniversity of Bath, UKL. David BrownHarvard University, USAJohn GaventaUniversity of Sussex, UKKenneth GergenSwarthmore College, UKVictor FriedmanEmek Yezreel College, IsraelJack WhiteheadUniversity of Bath, UKJenny RudolphBoston University, USAElizabeth KaslCalifornia Institute for Integral Studies, USAKurt NeilsenRoskilde University, DenmarkWerner FrickeInstitute for Regional Cooperation, GermanyBob DickSouthern Cross University, AustraliaXI

Reason and Bradbury(2e)-Prelims.qxd9/24/20075:51 PMPage xiiPrefaceWelcome to the second edition of the Handbook of Action Research: Participative Inquiry andPractice!This volume, published five years after the original Handbook, builds on the original workand extends it. Because most of the material in the first edition will continue to be available inthe ‘concise paperback edition’ (Reason and Bradbury, 2006), we have put together a collection of all new material. Some chapters are revisions and developments of key chapters in thefirst edition (Gaventa and Cornwall, Chapter 11; Schein, Chapter 18) or completely new articulations (Kemmis, Chapter 8). In other chapters we address similar themes and issues to thefirst edition, but have invited different authors to address them in order to provide a differentperspective (e.g. Swantz, Chapter 2; Rahman, Chapter 3; Ison, Chapter 9; Gergen and Gergen,Chapter 10). We have added some important practices that were omitted from the first edition(e.g. Chambers on Participatory Rural Appraisal and related approaches, Chapter 20; Pedlerand Burgoyne on Action Learning, Chapter 21; Wakeford et al. on Citizen’s Jury, Chapter 22).Finally, we have chosen both a completely new set of exemplars which demonstrate significant developments in quality since the first edition and extended the section of skills.In editing we have actively tried to develop four important themes which we thought underdeveloped in the first edition. First, we have attempted to show more fully the interrelationshipof a wide range of ideas and practices in which action research is grounded. Chapter 1, organized primarily by Patricia Gayá Wicks, introduces what we think is a strong Groundingssection by drawing on accounts provided by the Handbook Editorial Board of the range of theoretical and practical influences on their practice.Second, we have attempted to contribute to the active debate about the scope and scale ofaction research, which we began in the first edition (particularly with the chapters byGustavsen and Martin) and which has been carried forward in particular in the pages of thejournal Concepts and Transformations (now the International Journal of Action Research; seeVolume 8(1) and 8(3)). In this volume Swantz, Rahman, Gustavsen, Brown and Tandon,Martin, Wakeford, Stringer, and Mead in their different ways address issues that arise whenaction research is taken beyond the face-to-face group in an attempt to have an impact at aregional, national or international level. While in important contrast, Heron and Lahood,Mullett, Chowns, Chiu, Johns, McArdle and others demonstrate that if we wish to do work ofsignificance and to influence changes in society toward justice and democracy, we not onlyneed to build large-scale networks of inquiry but also to engage in transformations of consciousness and behaviour at personal and interpersonal levels. While it is true that we cannotmake large-scale change on the basis of small cases, neither can we build truly effective andliberating political networks of inquiry without developing significant capacities for criticalinquiry in the individuals and small communities that constitute them.Third, we have recognized the importance of non-propositional, presentational forms ofknowing in action research. The theme of voice and audience is foregrounded by Fine andTorre (Chapter 27), with particular emphasis on how we may speak out from a participativeinquiry process to a wider audience and influence a range of stakeholders; the nature of

Reason and Bradbury(2e)-Prelims.qxd9/24/20075:51 PMPREFACEPage xiiiXIIIpresentational knowing in an extended epistemology is explored by Heron and Reason(Chapter 24); Chambers points to how visual and tangible ways of expressing knowing can beempowering (Chapter 20); the use of presentational forms is exemplified by Mullett (Chapter30), Guhathakurta (Chapter 35), Kowlaski (Chapter 34); and the need to find appropriate formin writing explored by Marshall (Chapter 48).Fourth and finally we have addressed the question of skills and education of actionresearchers. As Morten Levin argues in this volume, ‘No other role in social science demandsa broader spectrum of capacities bridging practical problem solving, reflective, and analyticalthinking than that of an action researcher’. The final section of this volume addresses some ofthe personal, interpersonal, and political abilities that are demanded of an action researcher.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSOur thanks must go to all those who have contributed to putting this volume together: To theEditorial Board for helping us think through what was needed for this revised volume and supporting our editorial work. To the contributors for their willingness to work closely with usthrough the process of draft and re-draft, for reviewing each others’ chapters thoroughly andcreatively, for taking the comments and criticisms of their own writing seriously and responding thoughtfully. To the participants and co-researchers in action research endeavours aroundthe planet who have been part of the learning reflected here; a few of them are recognized inthis volume as co-authors, but of course many remain unnamed. We are grateful for the helpwe have received from Kiren Shoman, Anne Summers, Katherine Haw and the editorial andproduction teams at Sage London, who have been responsive and efficient at all times. And wewish to appreciate each other and our efficient, supportive and where necessary challengingtrans-Atlantic and pretty much ‘virtual’ relationship.As with the first edition, we hope that the production of this work has been congruent withthe action research philosophies and practices we espouse.Peter writes:I am enormously grateful for my friends, colleagues and students (and these roles are oftenindistinguishable!) who are associated with the Centre for Action Research in ProfessionalPractice at the University of Bath. We do seem to have developed a genuine community oflearning and practice which has some quite extensive influences both in the theory of actionresearch and its practice and of which I am extremely proud. I am also grateful to the collaborative relationships with action researchers and others all round the world with whom I feelclose through the curious phenomenon of the internet, and with whom I feel close connectionsas we develop this work of action research together.Thank you to my extended family, who continue to bring with their love and nurture a quality of intellectual and emotional conversation. In particular I greet my grandchildren withdelight, gratitude and enormous love: Otto, Liberty, Nathaniel and Aiden. Thank you also tomy network of friendships, some new, some forged over 60 years.My primary concern these days is for the state of the ecology of Planet Earth and for thechallenges to her integrity coming from anthropogenic climate change, species extinction, anddegradation of eco-systems everywhere. I am shocked by the speed with which these issues ofsustainability have grown in significance over recent years and even months, as more evidencefrom the scientific communities becomes available and as the human community continues toevidence its inability to respond. Ten years ago I was concerned; now I am seriously alarmed.

Reason and Bradbury(2e)-Prelims.qxdxiv9/24/20075:51 PMPage xivPREFACEThere are many practical things we can do to lessen our impact on ecosystems, but I do notbelieve we will be able to move into a sound relationship with planetary ecosystems until werecognize that we humans are participants in the life of the planet, members of the communityof beings. I hope that the participatory ethos expressed throughout this volume plays some partin influencing this essential shift in worldview.Hilary writes:Though written last, a preface is read first. It’s therefore an ideal punctuation point at which tomarvel over the Handbook and express the gratitude that arises.My gratitude goes first to Peter. It astounds me how much we accomplish, how easily andwith how much grace and humor. When we first started out as collaborators, on the firstHandbook of Action Research, I did not understand just how unusual productive partnershipactually is. And in all these years of working with such a maestro I have also learned, in theway one just does when learning in a context of practice, how to be a better partner and hopefully a better editor and a better action researcher. We have learned to create space for eachother’s contributions while also aiding each other in articulating what was sometimes inchoate.Our commitment and conscientiousness has led to real insight and better practice for me. I hopewe still have some more innovations left to complete as a duo. Thank you Peter for being agifted teacher, colleague and Bodhisattva.Thank you to George Roth, Phil Mirvis, Bill Pasmore and Eric Neilsen who were my buddies in chapter writing. In holding you all as knowing so much more than I, I could ask questions I have been noodling for years. In writing I therefore could share some of the things Ihave also learned with and from you. I hope our readers will find it as useful for their own practice and understanding.Through the editorial work for the Handbooks and the Journal, the community of actionresearch has become a real community for me. I am simply stating a happy fact when I say thatall my friends are action researchers! Happily many of those I have met through the virtualwork of editing have also become real people for me. I especially love it when visitors fromdistant communities of action research – say from Australia – arrive in Los Angeles and we getto have lunch and discuss upcoming chapters and papers! I have truly appreciated the alacrityof all writers in the ‘exemplars’ chapters to which I devoted most of my energies. I thank youall for being flexible and responsive. To my task as editor, I brought my genuine interest inlearning from you. I hope I communicated that in asking those questions of your work that Ineeded to have answered for my own practice, all readers would also, hopefully, benefit. I lookforward to testing that assumption in the next few years with the graduate students to whom Iassign the book in class (and who happily never seem that reluctant to share their opinions!).Editing means getting to read what I might not otherwise have read. My own practice is thatmuch richer as a result. I bring improvements to my work at the University of SouthernCalifornia where we seek to engage business leaders in creating innovations in the world of sustainable development so that their own comp

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