From Buildings To Neighbourhoods And Cities Research On .

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From Buildings to Neighbourhoods and CitiesResearch on Building Energy Efficiency in GermanyAndreas Wagner, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germanywith acknowledgement toall contributions of researchers from the differentuniversities and research institutions involved inthe research programs to be presented hereMIT Symposium - May 6, 2013Andreas Wagner

Content German research programs on building energy efficiency Innovative building technologies andperformance of demonstration buildings Energy efficiency on the urban scale –actors and process implementation Pilot projects in EnEff:Stadt Conclusions and outlookMIT Symposium - May 6, 2013Andreas Wagner

Structure of the German research program EnOBSource: BMWi

Energy performance analysis of demo buildings:Comparison of German and US climateHeating degree daysby census regionbased on 65 F (18.3 C)Germany:approx. 2300 HDD18 3500Source: Energy Information Administration (2008)

Comparison of German and US climateCooling degree daysby census regionbased on 65 F (18.3 C)Germany:approx. 170 CDD18 450Source: Energy Information Administration (2008)

Applied building technologiesTechnologiesProjectsYearsSource:

Insulation standard Introduction of passive housestandard in non-residentialbuildings between 1995 – 2000(new facade technologies),new buildings and refurbishment Vacuum insulation fromsingle elements to prefabricated systemsSource:

Passive coolingDifferent heat sinks: between 1995 and 2005 coolingwith (natural) night ventilation then increased application ofthermally activated concrete slabsconnected to boreholes, earth pilesor ground wateralso use of PCM technology until 2000 application of groundto-air heat exchangersSource:

Lighting Application of shading systemswith daylighting option Very often application of lightingcontrol systems wirh presencedetection and daylight-dependenceEnergy Supply From 2005 on more heat pumps(synergy: ground as heat sourceand sink) all-electricity buildings?Source:

Residential care home for the elderly,StuttgartSource: www.enob.infoArchitecture: Heckmann, Kristel, Jung, StuttgartEnergy concept: ebök, TübingenMonitoring: Fraunhofer IBP, Stuttgart Fraunhofer IBP

Historical building „Kleine Freiheit“,HamburgArchitecture: Dittert & Reumschüssel, HamburgEnergy concept: innovaTec Energiesysteme, AhnatalMonitoring: Fraunhofer IBPSource: Target GmbH, Hannover, Dittert & Reumschüssel Architektur und Stadtentwicklung,TUHH Institut für Angewandte Bautechnik,Passivhaus Darmstadt

Source: www.enob.infoPlus-Energy School,Hohen NeuendorfArchitecture: IBUS Architekten und Ingenieure, BremenEnergy concept: BLS Energieplan, BerlinMonitoring: Hochschule für Technik, Berlin IBUS Architekten und Ingenieure, Berlin/Bremen

ENERGON office building, UlmSource: www.enob.infoArchitecture: oehler faigle archkom solar architektur, BrettenEnergy concept: ebök Ingenieurbüro, TübingenMonitoring: Steinbeis-Transferzentrum FH Ulm Software AG Stiftung, SteinbeisTransferzentrum Energietechnik

Primary energy balance for HVAC L (EnBau)non esearchSource: www.enob.infoPVConventional Germanoffice buildings:300 – 700 kWh/m²a

Investment costs (construction and technical services)Germanbuilding costindexSource: www.enob.infohighmediumlow /m² gross area, before taxes

But:How can we reach the EC targets for green housegases (-80% by the year of 2050)? Ambitious standards introduced for buildings and performance demonstrated Building sector responsible for 40% of primary energy consumption and80% of all buildings are in cities! How can energy performance of whole existing building stock be improvedwithin given time frame? Holistic approach necessaryon different scales Energy concepts for neighbourhoods and citiesStuttgart, GermanyBostonMITSymposiumUniversity- MetropolitanMay 6, 2013 CollegeAndreas Wagner

Integrated energy concepts with multi-directionalenergy and information flowsBuildings as active players in thegrid: decentralized energy productionand storageBoston University Metropolitan CollegeSource:KITAndreasWagner

Actors involved and strategy for co-operationCity councilCityUtilitymunicipalityEnergy ansferindustryNGO‘sBoston University Metropolitan CollegeSource: R. Jank, VolkswohnungAndreasKarlsruheWagner

ImplementationprocessBoston University Metropolitan CollegeSource: R. Jank, VolkswohnungAndreasKarlsruheWagner

Focus of the programs EnEff:Stadt and EnEff:Wärme R&D with regard to improved energy transformation and distribution,low exergy solutions for heat delivery, smart grid technology Demonstration projects on different scales – campuses, neighbourhoods,districts (7 projects in conceptual / planning phase, 4 projects underrealization New planning and management methods, energy efficiency masterplans, assessment criteria and strategies, planning tools formunicipalities and other actorsBoston University Metropolitan CollegeAndreas Wagner

Bad Aibling - a former military base on its way to azero energy cityConversion of total usable floorarea of 72,000 m², divided among52 building complexes or residentialcomplexesImprovement of buildings’ energyquality by more than 50%solar-powered local heating networkwith decentralized feed-in points,woodchip boiler, large-scale, groundmounted PV system and PV roofs onaircraft hangerSource: B&O Wohnungswirtschaft,RK-Stuttgart

Ludmilla energy-plus housing estate, LandshutNew residential buildings with totalusable floor area of 7,600 m²High energy standard achieved withhollow clay bricks with integratedinsulationHeating network with co-generationfor apartment buildings, fueled withbiogasMini heat pumps for detached, semidetached and terraced houses, useof shallow geothermal energyElectricity for building services fromPV systems on roofsSource: Ludmilla-Wohnbau GmbH

Integrated Neighbourhood Energy Concept,Karlsruhe-RintheimRefurbishment of residential buildingsbuilt in 1950 and 1960 with total usablefloor area of 87,000 m²,mixture of high-density linear apartmentblocks and high-rise apartment complexesOptimizing energy reduction costs bycombination of building refurbishment andinstallation of a district heating networkwhich connects to urban distribution systemMaintaining the overall cost level for tenantsby compensating higher rents by lowerenergy bills Volkswohnung GmbHSource:

Conclusions and outlook (I) New building technologies have to be integrated smartly into wholebuilding concept integrated design, system integration (controls) Active role of buildings in overall energy system load shifting andmanagement in connection with grid (energy storage, PV, co-generation) Hugh potential for improving building operation – new tools required (dataprocessing and visualization, automated fault detection, model basedoptimization), market for new services Ambitious European/national energy-saving goals require much strongerfocus on existing building stock in the future; need for combinations ofmeasures on different scales (building city)MIT Symposium - May 6, 2013Andreas Wagner

Conclusions and outlook (II)Energy transition for cities needs integrated strategies (supply/demand) coordinated action over long time co-operation between stakeholders mix of public and private efforts (including grant systems) integration into overall planning framework holistic approachSource: R. JankMITMITSymposiumSymposium- -MayMay6,6,20132013AndreasAndreasWagnerWagner

Conclusions and outlook (III)Research issues: (beyond individual buildings) Technology(neighbourhood scale) Modelling(city andneighbourhood scale)- low exergy applications- monitoring and operation optimization- smart metering smart homes smart grids- 3D neighbourhood modeling with digitalterritory information systems and remotescanning methods- interface to building and energy system models Transition process(city scale)- management structures- urban planning framework integration- financing models ( business cases?)- appropriate participation models- evaluation / learningMITMITSymposiumSymposium- -MayMay6,6,20132013Source: R. JankAndreasAndreasWagnerWagner

Thank you for listening.Dank u wel voor uw aandacht.Merci pour votre attention.Danke für Ihre Aufmerksamkeit.More information:,www.eneff-stadt.infoPersonal contact:wagner@kit.eduThis work is funded by the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi)

Andreas Wagner, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany MIT Symposium - May 6, 2013 Andreas Wagner with acknowledgement to all contributions of researchers from the different universities and research institutions involved in the research programs to be presented here . Content German research programs on building energy efficiency Innovative building technologies and performance of .

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