Monetary Policy Normalisation Of Major Central Banks And .

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Monetary policy normalisation ofmajor central banks andfinancial riskZsolt DarvasBruegel and Corvinus University of BudapestProject LINK Meeting 201917-19 June 2019, New York

One-week interbank interest rates (%),2 January 2000 – 14 June 2019US dollarBritish pound sterlingJapanese yenEuroSwedish kronaSwiss 120102009200820072006200520042003200220012000-2 Federal Reserve:sizeable tightening sincelate 2015 Bank of England: sometightening since late2017 Other 4: low interestrates remain But temporary tighteningin 2011 by the ECB andthe Swedish centralbank2

Central bank balance sheet (% GDP)140Bank of England120Bank of JapanEuropean Central Bank100Federal Reserve80Sveriges Riksbank60Swiss National 08200720060 Sizeable differences inpre-crisis balance sheetsizes Even more so after2008 Switzerland: mainlyforeign currencypurchase Others: purchase ofvarious securities,including governmentbonds3

Monetary policy normalisation questions Interest rates: when to raise and up to what ‘new normal’? Central bank balance sheet: shrink or not? And to what level? Financial stability: expansionary monetary policies, and theirnormalisation, could create financial risks. Should monetarypolicy aim to support financial stability?4

Outline1. New normal in monetary policy2. Lessons from monetary policy exit mistakes of Sweden, theUS and the UK3. ECB monetary policy exit when the inflation outlook isuncertain4. Monetary policy and financial stability5

1. New normal in monetarypolicy?6

Secular decline in global real interestrates4Trends in short-term real interest rates 0-1JapanUnited StatesFranceGermanyCanadaItalyUnited KingdomSource: Del Negro, Marco, Domenico Giannone, Marc P. Giannoni and AndreaTambalotti (2018) ‘Global Trends in Interest Rates’, NBER Working Paper No. 25039Explanations of the seculardecline in global real rates byDel Negro et al (2018): Increase in the premium thatinternational investors arewilling to pay to hold safe andliquid assets (scarcity of safeassets in the context of aglobal saving glut) Lower economic growthBlanchard (2019): low interestrates will likely prevail7

Central bank balance sheet No benchmark for ‘normal’ balance sheet Balance sheet depends on the way monetary policy is conducted,on the exchange rate regime, past monetary policy actions, centralbank tasks, profit distribution Arguments in favour of larger balance sheet: (1) Lower equilibrium interest rate zero lower bound will likely bereached more frequently unconventional monetary policy would be usedmore regularly; Larger balance sheet could (2) improve monetary transmission, (3) providesafe assets, (4) reduce banks’ incentives for excessive maturitytransformation Arguments against larger balance sheet: It exposes the central bank to financial risk and undue political influence8

2. Lessons from monetarypolicy exit mistakes ofSweden, the US and the UK9

Sweden: premature monetary policy exitfollowed by massive easingQE startspurchases increasedpurchases reduced5432purchases reducedpurchases reducedQE endsSwedish interest rates (%), 2 Jan 2008 – 14 June 2008-1 The premature2011 monetaryRepo ratepolicy exit led tohigh costs in termsof excessively low3-monthinflation, overlytreasury bill highrateunemploymentand a higher real10-yeargovernment debt burden forhouseholdsbond yield10

The Riksbank’s repo rate: actual & Riksbankforecasts, and the 10-year gov. bond yield 2017120162201532014420135Thick red line: actual repo rate Apart from the short periodBlue dots: 10-year bond yieldaround 2010, the RiksbankRemaining lines: repo forecasts interest rate guidanceturned out to be grosslyinadequate Noteworthy that recently,the 10-year governmentbond yield has even fallendespite the Riksbank’sinterest rate increaseforecast and the ending ofQE2012611

Federal Reserve: ‘taper tantrum’unnecessarily pushed-up the 10-year yield While QE3 was ongoing in the US, in early 2013 unemploymentrate fell to 7.5%, nearing the 6.5% threshold which wasannounced earlier as the rate when the FED will start increaseinterest rates FOMC started to discuss “tapering” of QE in early May 2013:the 10-year yield increased from 1.7% to 3% in a few months –leading to a far larger tightening in financing conditions than theFED had intended Later, the 10-year yield has fallen back even below 1.7%,despite the actual tapering and ending QE and the first increasein federal funds rate in December 201512

5Federal fundseffective rateQE3 ends6QE3taper tantrumQE17QE1 endsQE2QE2 endsUS interest rates (%),2 January 2000 – 14 June 201910-yeargovernment -run federalfunds rateprojection by theFOMC (median)13

Bank of England: communication & forwardguidance problems unnecessarily pushed-upthe 10-year yield July 2013: BoE releases a statement (an unusual move in theabsence of a policy change) clarifying current policy andquestioning whether the expected future rates were in line witheconomic developments Aug 2013: BoE introduces forward guidance, linking increase ininterest rate to unemployment falling below 7% Feb 2014: BoE updates forward guidance, unlinking it fromunemployment following the decrease of the unemploymentrate below 7% June 2014: Mark Carney suggests that the interest rates couldreach 2.5% in early 201714

Bank rate10-year government bond yield20192018201720162015QE3QE4 endsBrexitreferendumQE4QE3 endsConfusingstatements420142013QE2QE2 ends520122011QE1QE1 ends620102009200820072006UK interest rates (%)2 January 2006 – 13 June 2019321015

Main conclusions from monetary policyexit experiences of Sweden, US and UK Premature exit has to be avoided Inappropriate forward guidance could cause non-intendedmonetary tightening (US, UK) Systematically mistaken forward guidance could be disregardedby markets (Sweden) Long-term interest rates have not increased when net assetpurchases have been stopped; not even after the first few rateincreases16

3. ECB Monetary policy exitwhen the inflation outlook isuncertain17

The ECB’s core inflation forecast has proved tobe overly optimistic. Would it work this time?2.5 Despite stubbornlypredicting a sizeableincrease in coreinflation, core inflation isstuck at around 1%ECB staff macroeconomic projections foreuro-area core inflation (moving 12-monthaverage rate of change)21.51Thick red line: actual data (real time)Remaining lines: 0112010200920082007200620052004200320020.5Note: ECB forecasts are available for the annual averageinflation. That’s why I use the 12 month average rate ofchange for the actual data, which, in each December,equals annual average inflation. In the chart the Decemberobservation of each forecast curve corresponds to theannual average inflation forecast numbers published by theECB. I have linearly interpolated this December annualaverage forecast data and the actual inflation rate in themonth of the date of the forecast.18

Labour force participation continues toexpand – good news for the people, badnews for inflationLabour force participation rate (age 15-64, % of population)80Euro area (19countries)75JapanUnited Kingdom70United States While Americans werefleeing the labourmarket in 2000-2015,there has been asteady increase ineuro area labour 07Q12005Q12003Q12001Q11999Q11997Q16519

Italy 10-yearSpain 10-yearFrance 10-yearGermany 10-yearECB deposit facility rate2019Monthly purchase 15bn,then zero2018Monthly purchase 30bnMonthly purchase 60bn2017Monthly purchase 03200220012000876543210-12006ECB President Mario Draghi's"Whatever it takes" speech2015Monthly purchase 60bnECB deposit facility interest rate and 10-yeargovernment bond yields of four countries (%)4 January 2000 – 14 June 2019Note: for asset purchases the announcementdates are indicated; the actual changes topurchased volumes took effect typically about 220months later.

ECB monetary policy normalisation Deteriorating economic outlook Inability to lift core inflation and systematic forecast errorsundermine ECB credibility (see next two charts) Text of ECB press release has hardly changed: “The Governing Council now expects the key ECB interest rates to remainat their present levels at least through the first half of 2020, and in anycase for as long as necessary to ensure the continued sustainedconvergence of inflation to levels that are below, but close to, 2% over themedium term.” (6 June 2019 ECB press release) What’s needed: more time, more monetary stimulus or a newinflation target?21

Market-based five-year average headlineinflation expectations in the next five years,January 2004 – June 201954United Kingdom3United States21Euro 2008200720062005-120040Japan22

Market-based five-year average headlineinflation expectations in the five years startingin five years’ time, January 2004 – June 201954United Kingdom3United 92008-12007Japan200602005Euro area20041-2-323

4. Monetary policy andfinancial stability24

Financial stability risks Low interest rates can: Encourage ‘excessive’ risk takingEncourage bank lending to less credit-worthy customersIncrease the leverage of the corporate sectorCreate asset price bubbles (e.g. stock market and housing)Worsen banks’ profitability Monetary policy normalisation can: Increase defaults Burst bubbles Spillovers from advanced to emerging/developing countries25

Evidence for the euro area Darvas and Pichler (2018): Some house price increases, but not comparable to earlier housingboom periods House price increase not boosted by credit growth (except Slovakiaand Belgium) Difficult to identify bubbles ECB Financial Stability Review (May 2019): Return of search for yield Euro area banks struggle with low return on equity (share of nonperforming loans still higher than in the US, overcapacity, low costefficiency) Expected default frequencies of European (and also US) non-financialcorporations are relatively low26

Non-performing loans to total gross 4United Kingdom2United States0Q4 Q4 Q4 Q4 Q4 Q4 Q4 Q4 Q4 Q4 Q4 Q4 Q4 Q42005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 201827

Should monetary policy aim to supportfinancial stability? There are strong interactions between monetary policy andfinancial stability policy However, the interest rate (the main monetary policy instrument) istoo broad and ultimately quite ineffective in dealing with the buildup of financial imbalances Problem is even more severe in the heterogeneous euro area Macroprudential policy should play a major role In several euro area countries certain vulnerabilities have alreadyled to measures, like capital buffer for systemically importantinstitutions, countercyclical capital buffers, debt-to-income ratiolimits and loan-to-value ratio limits28

Five main take-aways1. The natural rate of interest might remain low, constrainingmonetary policy2. Premature monetary policy exit involves major risks, whileinadequate forward guidance could cause market turbulence3. The inflation outlook in the euro area is very uncertain: moretime, more stimulus or a new inflation target?4. Monetary policy is unsuitable for addressing financial stabilityconcerns; instead, macroprudential policy should have amajor role5. The large heterogeneity of the euro area makes the use ofmonetary policy for financial stability even less effective29

Thank you for your bruegel.org30

1. New normal in monetary policy 2. Lessons from monetary policy exit mistakes of Sweden, the US and the UK 3. ECB monetary policy exit when the inflation out

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