Green Roofs Copenhagen - Klimatilpasning

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green roofscopenhagen

forewordcontentsGreen roofs are on the agenda worldwide as part of a growingeffort to meet the challenges that we face, including climatechange, denser cities and the need for healthier neighbourhoods. Green roofs are unique as a green infrastructure element. They can bring about a multitude of benefits in a singlelocation without reducing development space. Green roofscool our cities, enhance biodiversity and reduce rainwaterrunoff. They also bring beauty to what otherwise can be verygrey places.Copenhagen has been inspired by the world’s leading citiesand has since 2008 focused on integrating green roofs as partof urban development. This process has involved learningfrom and sharing with colleagues throughout the world and ithas been extremely worthwhile.The City of Copenhagen has mandated green roofs in mostnew local plans since 2010. Green roofs are an importantpart of our city’s strategy to meet the challenges of climatechange, to enhance biodiversity and to create a greener city.Strolling through Copenhagen you will encounter green roofsof all scales, from cycle shelters, to schools and mixed usebuildings to landscapes above underground garages. ThisCongress booklet includes a few of these many projects anddescribes some of the local plans that mandate green roofs.mayor of the technical and enviroment administrationbenefits of green roofs. 5green roofs policy andplanning in copenhagen. 11case studiesproject cases. 13local plans. 33Ayfer Baykalpolicy approaches in other cities. 47photo credits. 5523

benefits ofgreen roofsGreen roofs – sustainable,climate-adapted urban designEver more dense cities, climate change and a sustainablefuture call for innovation in the way in which we structureour cities.Green roofs provide us with a unique chance to transformthousands of traditional roof surfaces to green life-givingoases.Green roofs support biodiversity. They lead to larger quantities of rainwater being absorbed in a sustainable way and cancurb the rise in temperature at the same time. Green roofsare therefore part of the City of Copenhagen’s Climate Planand Climate Adaptation Plan. Green roofs also create habitatsfor animals and plants and in this way support biodiversity.For these reasons, they have become integrated in the City ofCopenhagen’s Strategy for Biodiversity.Urban design of the futureGreen roofs are the seeds of future urban design with apotential for creating desirable buildings, cities with highstandards of living, and cities in several levels which arebraced for the challenges of the future. We can increase theroof space ratio and the amenity value by transforming theroofs to utilized spaces, such as for instance green parks,vegetable gardens, or beautiful green vistas.45

WHAT IS A GREEN ROOF?GREEN ROOFS CREATE HABITATSFOR ANIMALS AND PLANTSGREEN ROOFSABSORB RAINWATERGreen roofs are covered with vegetation such as stonecrops,mosses, perennials, shrubs, or trees.Green roofs transform traditional roofs to life-giving greenoases. They provide habitats for animals and plants.Green roofs absorb the rainwater, and some of it evaporates.The roofs can absorb between 50 and 80 % of the annualrainfall.If you aim explicitly at making a green roof which supportsbiodiversity, you should choose different growth media anddepth on the roof as well as indigenous species, and addsome stones and old twigs on which the insects can live.From soil to green roofsHumus-bearingsoil layerGrowth layerSystem substrateFilter layerGreen roofs are part of the City of Copenhagen’s Strategy forBiodiversity.If it rains a lot, the green roofs delay the water on its way tothe sewers. This means that rainwater which would otherwisehave an adverse impact on the sewers does not reach thesewers until there is enough space for it.For this reason, green roofs form part of the Climate Plan andthe Climate Adaptation Plan of the City of Copenhagen.Drain layerDisintegratedsoil layerProtection layerGREEN ROOFSINCREASE THE FUNCTIONALITYOF BUILDINGS AND CITIESIf we turn our eyes towards the sky, we will see several thousands of square metres of unexploited potential on the cities’roofs – in other words, a vast potential for transforming ourtraditional cities to green life-giving oases. Here lie the seedsof future urban design.Cities with high standard og livingGreen roofs provide us with a possibility of creating desirable buildings, cities with high standards of living, and citiesin several levels which are braced for the challenges of thefuture.We can add increased value to the building industry and ourcities by transforming the roofs to recreational areas, suchas for instance running tracks in green surroundings, greenparks, vegetable gardens, etc.Roof constructionBedrockIllustration of how a green roof construction may look, www.igra-world.comThe choice of vegetation determines the thickness and thereby the weight of thegreen roof, and different degrees of maintenance are required, depending on thevegetation.Type ofgreen al landscapeGardens/environmental landscapeGardens/parksType afvegetationMosses,herbs, grassGrass, herbs,shrubsLawn, perennial plants,shrubs, treesWateringNonePeriodicallyRegularlyDepth ofsubstrate60-200 mm120-250 mm150-400 ddleHighGreen roofs and rainwater treatment. Illustration from www.igra-world.comGREEN ROOFS REDUCETEMPERATURES IN CITIESGreen roofs help reduce the Urban Heat Island effect in builtup areas which are notably warmer than the surroundingareas.By transforming the black heat-absorbing surfaces of thecities to surfaces with vegetation we can reduce the temperatures in the cities a couple of degrees.Green roofs also contribute to reducing the temperature inbuildings during the summer, and thanks to this the indoorenvironment is improved.The choice of plants, thickness, weight, and maintenance are connected.67

Design, specification,installation, and maintenanceStep 1 / Correct design Decide the scope of the green roofCheck the climate-dependent factorsCheck the construction of the building, the load capacity,and the pitch of the roofPlant-dependent factorsStep 2 / Correct specification You get what you ask forDefine which needs the roof must fulfill, and which landscape you wantSpecify which growth medium you wantStep 3 / Correct installation Use specialistsStep 4 / Correct maintenance The key to consistent success is correct maintenanceCheck drainage conditions once or twice a yearRemove unwanted growthGreen roof on the exhibition hall in Basel. The green roof is designed to support biodiversity89

green roofspolicy andplanning incopenhagenBack in 2008 the City of Copenhagen began focusing onalternative ways to handle rainwater and the WastewaterPlan 2008 became the first plan document that included approaches in that direction. In 2009 Denmark was in charge ofthe UN Climate Change Conference COP15 which defined theframework for the strategies that could be implemented tomeet the challenges of climate change. During that period, thefocus on green roofs intensified setting a goal for urban designwith green roofs in the Climate Plan of the City of Copenhagen.Since then Green Roofs have become integrated in differentguidelines such as the guidelines for Sustainability in constructions and Civil works, which mandates green roofs for allthe Municipalities buildings. Green roofs are also a part of thecity’s Strategy for Biodiversity.Since 2010 green roofs are mandated in most new local plans.A calculation based on approved new local plans mandatinggreen roofs gives a total of 200.000 m2 of green roofs to beinstalled.Today The City of Copenhagen has more than 40 green roofs.Some of these projects and local plans are described in thefollowing pages.1011

projectscasesResidential18 - house2Birkegade PENTHOUSES3Nørrebrogade 184Commerciel4Nordre Toldbod5 THE CITY DUNE6The New National ARchiveS7TCC - HOTEL8 HENKEL / Carl JacobsensvejPublic buildings9Tagensbo skole10 THE LIBRARY / Bispebjerg kulturhus11Gyldenrisparken12 Korsgadehallen13 Environmental centre1213

8 - houseSignificance to CopenhagenWith spectacular views towards the Copenhagen Canal andover Kalvebod Fælled’s protected, open spaces, 8 House willnot only be offering residences to people in all of life’s stagesas well as office spaces to the city’s business and trade - it willalso serve as a house that allows people to bike all the way fromthe ground floor to the top, moving alongside townhouses withgardens winding through an urban perimeter block.Two sloping green roofs totalling 1,700 m2 at the 8 House arestrategically placed to reduce the urban heat island effect aswell as providing the visual identity to the project and tying itback to the adjacent farmlands towards the south. The roofsplay with contrasts between nature and architecture, as do theplanted balconies. The large sloping sedum roofs seem to pullthe fields of the nature reserve over the building, cloaking itin an air of biodiversity. These extend down almost to groundlevel from the twelfth floor on a gentle 30 degree incline, adding drama and appeal to the development but also reducing itsvisual impact at the sensitive south edge where Ørestad endsabruptly at the nature reserve. The dipping of the wings of thebuilding allows views of the drainage canal, grazing cows andreed beds beyond from the residential courtyard.Name 8 House adress Richard Mortensens vej 81 Roof area 1700 m2 of extensive roof and 1 m2 x 100 semiintensive gardensBuild Cost EUR 92 000 000 Client Name St. Frederikslund Holding Development Type Mixed Use residential buildingDate Completed December 2010 Architect BIG – Bjarke Ingels Group Landscape Architects KLAR StructuralEngineer MOE & BRØDSGAARD System Supplier Veg Tech A/S, P. Malmos A/S1415

Birkegade Penthousesand Rooftop terraceKey DriversElmegade district is probably one of the most densely populated areas of inner Nørrebro, CPH. Especially the triangularblock between Birkegade / Egegade / Elmegade has a veryhigh density, which is reflected in the very narrow courtyards.And it is precisely around the cramped courtyard that theconcept for BIR originates. The driving concept is to createthe ‘missing garden’ at the top of the existing housing blockin association with 3 new penthouses, so all residents gainaccess to a genuine outdoor garden.In order to qualify ‘ the missing garden’, JDSA took inspirationfrom the Copenhagen gardens, which characteristically hasan associated functionality. Therefore, a rooftop garden isdesigned as a space of functions and an associated materiality.This is reflected in a playground with shock-absorbing surfaceand a playful suspension bridge, a green hill with varying accommodation backed by real grass and durable vegetation,a viewing platform, an outdoor kitchen and barbecue, and amore quiet wood deck.The concept for BIR, is to optimize and fully exploit the situations the site has to offer, and thereby design a potential forthe future exploitation of the roof to the delight of all the coop’s residents. It is a concept which is not limited to establishthe 3 new apartments, but a concept which both creates auseful roof garden as well as a beautiful landscape for the coop’s neighbours and city residents in general.Usually a roof defines a final measure of any construction –closure. In the near future the Birkegade roof will open up fora versatile stay and experience.Name Birkegade Rooftop Penthouses adress Birkegade 4-6 Roof Area 900 m2 Build Cost 950 000 EUR (7 000 000DKK) Development Type Commission for A/B Birkegade for a rooftop terrace and penthouses on a historic residential buildingDate Completed Completed 2011 Architectural collaboration PLOT JDS BIG, EKJ System Supplier Veg Tech A/S1617

Nørrebrogade 184Roof of a warehouse,Nordre ToldbodKey DriversKey DriversTo promote and support many of Copenhagen City’s strategiesincluding; strategy for biological diversity. Copenhagen’s Climate Plan 2025, Climate Adaption Plan, A Greener Copenhagenand the strategy for Sustainable Urban Renewal.To open up a new recreational area to the public and manyvisitors on Langelinje.Development benefitsIncrease biodiversity locally, reduce water runoff, and createan aesthetically pleasing roof for the neighbouring buildings.Significance to CopenhagenThe green roof is a pilot-project for Copenhagen’s Building Renewal which provides a platform for further research on howto incorporate a bio diverse green roof on an existing roof andhow to incorporate it into historic heritage buildings.Planning Authority18Development benefitsThe green roof is also a part of the climate adaption process,where the plants and soil restrain the water. It also improvesthe climate in the underlying warehouse building. Less rainwater in the sewer system means less pollution by sewage inthe water.Significance to CopenhagenLangelinje is a place visited by many people, and it is important to show environmentally friendly solutions to some ofthe grave challenges we face in the form of adapting to thecoming climate changes.Copenhagen CityPlanning AuthorityName Nørrebrogade 184 adress Nørrebrogade 184 Roof Area 100m2 Client Name Pecunia Miim AnpartsselskabDevelopment Type Renovation of a historically listed residential and commercial rental property Date Completed July 2012Architect SBS Rådgivning A/S in partnership with Centre for Urban Design and Centre for Park and Nature, Copenhagen CityLandscape Architects SBS Rådgivning A/S System Supplier P. Malmos A/SName Warehouse adress Nordre Toldbod 24, behind Gefion Fountain Roof Area 1900 m2 Client Name By & Havn/ cph City& Port Development Type Renovating the flat rooftop area of an old warehouse and opening it up for public access. The roofwas secured, insulated and partly planted with sedum. Date Completed 1. of November 2009 Architect Einar Madvig / TineMouritsen Structural Engineer Orbicon System Supplier Byggros A/S / Nykilde ApSCopenhagen City19

Foto: SLAThe City Dune - acclimatizedurban space in CopenhagenKey DriversSignificance to CopenhagenThe demands and the programme for the urban space weremany and apparently mutually exclusive: The urban spaceis privately owned by SEB Bank & Pension, but was (by therequest of the bank) to be fully open for the general public; itshould rise 7 meters up to the coming high line, but also beof use at street level; it should incorporate needs as different as parking spaces, recreational spots for employees andguests, full accessibility for the walking impaired, provide theSEB Bank & Pension with a distinctive urban brand, and, mostimportantly, it had to be fully sustainable and 100 percent acclimatized with regards to the handling of rainwater. All in allthe demands to SLA were to create a privately owned but fullyopen quality urban space in a central part of Copenhagen thatat the same time should handle all the different demands andneeds of the programme.The City Dune and the new SEB Bank Head Quarter has wonseveral prizes: The RIBA Award, The Danish Arne JacobsenPrize, and The Copenhagen Municipality Award for Beautiful Urban Spaces. But the most important ‘prize’ is that theCopenhageners have taken the new urban space to theirhearts as a green, democratic and recreational urban space inthe middle of the city. Thus The City Dune provides not onlysustainability, infrastructure and transit; it also gives a muchneeded green recreational value to a part of Copenhagen longneglected by city planners.Planning AuthorityCopenhagen CityDevelopment benefitsThe City Dune is Copenhagen’s first fully acclimatized urbanspace, transforming the challenges of climate change intourban amenities such as the recreational use of rain water andthe natural cooling of temperature rises. But most importantly, the City Dune is a model example of the democratization ofprivately owned space in our cities: By demonstrating the corporate value for the SEB Bank & Pension in investing in publicurban spaces, The City Dune shows how private corporationsand municipalities can cooperate in creating open urban spaceof high value to the public as well as the private land owners.Name The City Dune – SEB Bank Copenhagen adress Bernstorffgade 50 Roof Area 7.300 m2 Build Cost 35 millionsClient Name SE Bank & Pension Development Type New headquarters for SE Bank in Copenhagen Date CompletedJuly 2010 Landscape Architects SLA Structural Engineer Rambøll System Supplier Skælskør AnlægsgartnereFurther Information www.sla.dk2021

The new National ArchivesProject descriptionDevelopment benefitsThe roof terrace of the Danish State Archives is a part of thefuture elevated pedestrian passage, accessible to the public,which will connect two areas in the Centre of Copenhagen. Theroof terrace has an area of approximately 220 x 30 m. The areais defined by two large record storage buildings on one sideand the façade of an older building, containing offices for theDanish National Railway (DSB) on the other. The roof terrace ofthe State Archives is the first from among, at least four othersections of the passageway to be realized. In the coming years,the planned elevated passage will be completed, stretchingapproximately 900 m in total.The greenways adds a recreational and landscape spacebetween the area’s large buildings. The roof garden increasesbiodiversity, collects rainwater and helps stabilize the temperature of the archive buildings.The primary purpose of the roof garden is to provide a pedestrian passage for the public, and to create a quiet garden ina central area of Copenhagen, close to the Port of Copenhagen and the Central Station. The objectives were to create asustainable urban park by optimizing on the environmentalconditions. These objectives influenced the visual design byminimizing the areas with hard surfaces and by using a widerange of different plant species. Technically the roof gardenhas been constructed in a way that leads all precipitation water through the growth media and the reservoir plates, beforethe excess water reaches the drainage system. These technical solutions optimize the reservoir effect and hold back upto 70 % of the water on an annual basis and increase naturalevaporation.Significance to CopenhagenBrings landscape and publicly accessible space into an areacharacterized by large building volumes with an industrialcharacter, and creates a functional garden with a delicateconnection to the brickwork of the National Archives storagefacility.Planning AuthorityCopenhagen CityName The new national archives adress Kalvebod Brygge 32 Roof Area ca. 7.000 m2 Client Name OPP Pihl Arkivet A/SDevelopment Type Construction of a new storage facility for the National Archives building and rebuilding of DSB’s formerFreight Terminal with construction of new offices on the lower floors Date Completed 2009 Architect PLH ArkitekterLandscape Architects Schønherr A/S Structural Engineer Grontmij System Supplier P. Malmos A/S2223

TCC – Hoteland public roof gardenHenkel /Carl Jacobsens Vej, ValbyKey DriversKey DriversTo create a lush roof landscape that is both beneficial to hotelguests and locals. A landscape that is fully accessible to alltypes of users, and a landscape that supports Copenhagen’ssustainable strategy.Copenhagen Municipality’s Local Plan for the area requiresgreen roofs on planned new buildings and the local diversionof rainwater within the area of private ground. Since this is arenovation, there was no requirement for green roofs, but thedecision was made to install the green roof as it would benefitthe site by alleviating drainage problems and also lower thetemperature inside the building by 1 degree, it was also thebes

the Municipalities buildings. Green roofs are also a part of the city’s Strategy for Biodiversity. Since 2010 green roofs are mandated in most new local plans. A calculation based on approved new local plans mandating green roofs gives a total of 200.000 m2 of green roofs to be installed. Today The

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