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College Physics, Putting It All Together, Ron Hellings. Montana State University, Jeff Adams, Montana State University. Greg Francis, Montana State University, university science books. mill valley california, University Science Books, Mill Valley California. www uscibooks com, Editor Jane Ellis, Production manager Julianna Scott Fein.
Manuscript editor Lee Young, Illustrator Laurel Muller. Text design Yvonne Tsang at Wilsted Taylor, Cover design Yvonne Tsang at Wilsted Taylor. Compositor Laurel Muller, Printer and binder to come. This book is printed on acid free paper, Print ISBN 978 1 938787 93 5. eBook ISBN 978 1 938787 95 9, Copyright 2017 by University Science Books.
Reproduction or translation of any part of this work beyond that permitted by Sec. tion 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the. copyright owner is unlawful Requests for permission or further information should be. addressed to the Permissions Department University Science Books. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data. Names Hellings Ronald W author Adams Jeffrey P author Francis Gregory E. Title College physics putting it all together Ron Hellings Jeff Adams Greg Francis. Description Mill Valley California University Science Books 2017 Includes index. Identifiers LCCN 2017010603 ISBN 9781938787935 alk paper ISBN 1938787935. alk paper ISBN 9781938787959 eBook ISBN 1938787951 eBook. Subjects LCSH Physics Textbooks, Classification LCC QC21 3 H45 2017 DDC 530 dc23. LC record available at https lccn loc gov 2017010603. Printed in the United States of America, 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1. To our wives and families for their continual support. and to all of our former students who taught us so much. Preface vii, 1 I nt ro d u ction 1 4 T wo Di m ensiona l K ine m atics 5 5. 1 1 Measurement 2 4 1 Position Vectors and Coordinate. 1 2 Arithmetic 4 Systems 55, 1 3 Working with Units 6 4 2 Displacement and Velocity 56. 1 4 Mathematics Requirements 7 4 3 Acceleration in Two Dimensions 57. 1 5 Summary 7 4 4 Projectile Motion 61, 1 6 Problems 8 4 5 Circular Motion and Centripetal.
Acceleration 65, ne Di m ensiona l K ine m atics 11 4 6 Relative Velocity 68. 2 1 The Coordinate System 11 4 7 Summary 70, 2 2 Displacement 12 4 8 Problems 71. 2 3 Velocity 13, 2 4 Straight Line Acceleration 5 N e w ton s Law s 79. Speeding Up and Slowing Down 15 5 1 Newton s First Law 79. 2 5 Graphing the Motion 19 5 2 Newton s Second Law 80. 2 6 Equations Governing Uniformly 5 3 Newton s Third Law 83. Accelerated Motion 21 5 4 Forces 85, 2 7 Free Fall 24 5 5 Free Body Diagrams 87. 2 8 How to Solve Physics Problems 25 5 6 Statics 90. 2 9 Summary 29 5 7 Summary 91, 2 10 Problems 30 5 8 Problems 91.
3 V ecto rs 37 6 Fo rces 97, 3 1 Superposition 37 6 1 Gravitational Force Weight 00. 3 2 Vectors and Scalars 37 6 2 Normal Force 00, 3 3 Vector Addition 38 6 3 Frictional Forces Kinetic and Static 000. 3 4 Vector Subtraction 40 6 4 Problems On an Inclined Plane 000. 3 5 Trigonometry Review 41 6 5 Tension 000, 3 6 Vector Components 44 6 6 Elastic and Spring Forces 000. 3 7 Vector Addition Revisited 45 6 7 Refrigerator Magnet Force 000. 3 8 Summary 48 6 8 Apparent Weight 000, 3 9 Problems 30 6 9 Centripetal Force 000. 6 10 Centrifugal and Other Fictitious Forces 000, 6 11 Summary 000.
6 12 Problems 000, 7 E ne rgy 11 S i m p l e Ha rm onic Motion. 7 1 Forms of Energy 11 1 Period and Frequency, 7 2 Energy Change and Work 11 2 Simple Harmonic Motion. 7 3 Power 11 3 The Hanging Block on a Spring, 7 4 Conservative and Non Conservative 11 4 The Period Formula. Forces 11 5 Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion, 7 5 Conservation of Energy 11 6 Other Harmonic Oscillators. 7 6 Solving Mechanical Energy Problems 11 7 Summary. 7 7 Summary 11 8 Problems, 7 8 Problems, 12 P u l ses an d Waves.
8 Mo m ent u m 12 1 Definitions, 8 1 Impulse and Momentum 12 2 Wave Speed. 8 2 Collisions 12 3 Superposition of Pulses, 8 3 The Three Flavors of Collisions 12 4 Reflection of Pulses at a Boundary. 8 4 Collisions in Two Dimensions 12 5 Reflection of Pulses at a Boundary Between. 8 5 Elastic Collisions in One Dimension Two Media, 8 6 Summary 12 6 Properties of Continuous Waves. 8 7 Problems 12 7 Sound, 12 8 Beats, 9 Rotationa l Mec h anics 12 9 The Doppler Effect. 9 1 The Radian 12 10 Summary, 9 2 Rotational Kinematics 12 11 Problems.
9 3 Torque, 9 4 Center of Mass 13 S tan d in g Waves. 9 5 Extended Free Body Diagrams 13 1 Standing Wave on a String. 9 6 Rotational Inertia 13 2 Reflection of Sound in an Air Column. 9 7 Angular Momentum and Kinetic Energy 13 3 Longitudinal Standing Waves. 9 8 Summary Open Open Tube, 9 9 Problems 13 4 Longitudinal Standing Waves. Open Closed Tube, 10 P ressu re an d F lu i d s 13 5 Summary. 10 1 Pressure 13 6 Problems, 10 2 Pressure in Fluids. 10 3 Pascal s Principle 14 T h e rm a l P h ysics, 10 4 Archimedes Principle 14 1 Temperature.
10 5 And What If It Floats 14 2 Thermal Expansion, 10 6 Summary 14 3 Specific Heat. 10 7 Problems 14 4 Latent Heats, 14 5 Summary, 14 6 Problems. 15 T h e rm o dy na m ics 19 Mag netic Fo rces an d F ie l d s. 15 1 Kinetic Theory of Gases 19 1 Magnetic Poles, 15 2 Thermodynamics 19 2 Magnetic Fields. 15 3 Specific Heats of a Gas 19 3 Magnetic Force on a Charged Particle. 15 4 Summary 19 4 Magnetic Force on a Current carrying. 15 5 Problems Wire, 19 5 Magnetic Field Due to a Wire. 16 E l ect ric Fo rces an d F ie l d s 19 6 Loops and Solenoids. 16 1 Charge 19 7 Calculating the Magnetic Field, 16 2 Coulomb s Law 19 8 Ampere s Law.
16 3 Induction and Polarization 19 9 Magnetic Polarization and Refrigerator. 16 4 Electric Fields Magnets, 16 5 Superposition 19 10 Summary. 16 6 Electric Field Lines 19 11 Problems, 16 7 Uniformly Charged Sheets. 16 8 Charged Conducting Plates 2 0 I n d u ction, 16 9 Electric Flux and Gauss s Law 20 1 Faraday s Law. 16 10 Summary 20 2 Lenz s Law, 16 11 Problems 20 3 Inductors. 20 4 Induced Magnetic Fields, 17 Vo ltag e 20 5 Maxwell s Equations.
17 1 The Gravitational Potential 20 6 Summary, 17 2 Electric Potential Energy and Voltage 20 7 Problems. 17 3 Uniformly Charged Parallel Plates, 17 4 Equipotential Surfaces 21. Li g h t an d E l ect ro m ag netic, 17 5 Capacitance Waves. 17 6 Polarization and Dielectrics 21 1 Electromagnetic Waves. 17 7 Energy in a Capacitor 21 2 The Electromagnetic Spectrum. 17 8 Summary 21 3 Huygens s Principle, 17 9 Problems 21 4 Reflection and Refraction. 21 5 Energy in Electromagnetic Waves, 18 C i rcu its 21 6 Summary.
18 1 Current and Wires 21 7 Problems, 18 2 Batteries. 18 3 Resistors and Light Bulbs 2 2 Geo m et rica l O ptics. 18 4 Energy and Power in Circuit Elements 22 1 Spherical Waves and Curvature. 18 5 Circuits 22 2 Thin Lenses, 18 6 Experiments with Batteries and Light 22 3 Ray Tracing and Image Size. Bulbs 22 4 Spherical Mirrors, 18 7 Equivalent Resistance 22 5 Combining Optical Elements. 18 8 Kirchoff s Laws 22 6 Optical Instruments, 18 9 RC Circuits 22 7 Summary. 18 10 Summary 22 8 Problems, 18 11 Problems, 2 3 Wave O ptics 2 6.
N u c l ea r an d Pa rtic l e, 23 1 Double Slit Interference P h ysics. 23 2 Gratings 26 1 Nuclear Forces, 23 3 Diffraction 26 2 Nuclear Reactions. 23 4 Resolution 26 3 Elementary Particles, 23 5 Thin Films 26 4 Fundamental Forces. 23 6 Polarization 26 5 Epilogue, 23 7 Summary 26 6 Summary. 23 8 Problems 26 7 Problems, 2 4 S pecia l Re l ativit y Appendices.
24 1 The Two Principles of Relativity Answers to Odd Numbered Problems. 24 2 The Three Effects Index, 24 3 Applications and Paradoxes. 24 4 Relative Velocity Again, 24 5 Relativistic Mechanics. 24 6 Summary, 24 7 Problems, Ato m ic Ph ysics an d Q uant u m. Mec h anics, 25 1 Photons, 25 2 Atomic Physics, 25 3 Quantum Mechanics. 25 4 Spin and The Exclusion Principle, 25 5 Summary.
25 6 Problems, What should a student expect to find in a physics textbook What should be included that. the reader will find useful and worth his or her effort And what things that are commonly. included in physics textbooks might effectively be left out These are the questions that moti. vated us as we produced this book We would like to preface our book by stating what the. reader may expect to find and not to find in these pages. First most students in general college physics classes will depend on lectures by the pro. fessor for the introduction of new material for explanations of the principles that describe. how the universe behaves But new material will often not be grasped at the first presenta. tion An important goal of a textbook should be to provide a second look at the principles. the student has learned in class We want to be as clear as we can we want to get quickly to. the point of the principles being taught without getting off on tangents but we also want to. provide enough background information that the situations where the principles apply are. clearly understood, Second with an eye to learning where the principles apply we provide many worked. examples in which we use the principles to solve sample problems But we do not feel that our. examples need to explain how to solve all physics problems that the student may ever encoun. ter On the contrary the goal of the worked examples is simply to help the reader understand. the principles by showing typical ways in which they apply In particular students should not. expect to be able to read a problem from the back of the chapter and then browse through the. worked examples to find one that tells them exactly how to solve their problem That would. mean that we were teaching procedures not principles. Third the path the student should follow through the textbook should be clear Many. textbooks attach boxes and sidebars and web links places where the reader will find all kinds. of supplemental material biographies of famous physicists block diagrams showing how. to solve certain kinds of problems summaries of reasoning strategies concept checks etc. This often leaves the reader not knowing whether to stop and follow a parallel path or jump. forward to stay with the text We provide a single string to follow Even when we break the. narrative to display a worked example the example is meant to be read in sequence It will. usually be introduced in the main text and then discussed in the text afterwards. Fourth the text should be readable We find that a more informal style is easier to follow. and more interesting We talk with the reader about the physics If we find something funny. about our subject we will share it with the reader If we know of something that is difficult to. understand we will try to summarize and restate it in clear short sentences. xii Preface, Fifth the entire text should be short and to the point Most textbooks spend pages and. pages explaining interesting ways in which the principles of the chapter can be used to under. stand everyday things as diverse as the tides in the Bay of Fundy or the iridescence of drag. onfly wings And we understand why books do this We ourselves are fascinated by these. applications and would dearly love to tell you all about them But it all takes time to read and. truth be told it does not help the student learn the physics any better or any more quickly You. will find a few such applications in our pages but only a few. In summary let us just say that we have tried to always keep in mind that this book is for. VECTO rS 37 3 1 Superposition most students in general college physics classes will depend on lectures by the pro fessor for the introduction of new material

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