Housing Costs Of Renters: 2000

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Housing Costs of Renters: 2000Issued May 2003Census 2000 BriefC2KBR-21Census 2000 counted35.7 million renteroccupied housing units,or about one-third of thenation’s 105.5 millionoccupied housing units.Renter-occupied unitsconsisted of those rented for cash paymentsplus those occupied bysomeone other than theowner without paymentof cash rent; the latterusually were rent-freehouses or apartmentsprovided by friends orrelatives, or for compensation for services toresident managers, ministers, and tenant farmers. Almost all rentalunits (95 percent) wererented for cash rent.This report, part of aseries that presentspopulation and housingdata collected fromCensus 2000, examinesgross rent and grossrent as a percentage ofhousehold income in1999 for specifiedrenter-occupied housingunits. It shows howthese measures varygeographically (byregions, states, andlarge cities), by age ofthe householder, by raceand Hispanic origin ofByRobert BonnetteFigure 1.Reproduction of the Question on HousingUtilities and Fuels From Census 200045 What are the annual costs of utilities and fuels forthis house, apartment, or mobile home? If you havelived here less than 1 year, estimate the annual cost.a. ElectricityAnnual cost — Dollars ,.00ORIncluded in rent or in condominium feeNo charge or electricity not usedb. GasAnnual cost — Dollars ,.00ORIncluded in rent or in condominium feeNo charge or gas not usedc. Water and sewerAnnual cost — Dollars ,.00ORIncluded in rent or in condominium feeNo charged. Oil, coal, kerosene, wood, etc.Annual cost — Dollars ,.00ORIncluded in rent or in condominium feeNo charge or these fuels not usedSource: U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000 questionnaire.USCENSUSBUREAUU.S. Department of CommerceEconomics and Statistics AdministrationU.S. CENSUS BUREAUHelping You Make Informed Decisions

the householder, and by somehousing characteristics. This briefalso examines “meals included inrent,” which is intended to gaugethe extent of congregate housing.Congregate housing is generallyconsidered to be housing unitswhere the rent includes meals andother services, such as transportation to shopping and recreation.Gross rent is the monthly amountof rent plus the estimated averagemonthly cost of utilities (electricity,gas, water, and sewer) and fuels(oil, coal, kerosene, wood, etc.).Figures 1 and 2 reproduce theCensus 2000 questions about thecomponents of gross rent.Medians in this report are computed for specified renter-occupiedunits paying cash rent, whichexclude one-family houses on tenor more acres.The Census Bureau initially collected gross rent data for renter-occupied housing units in 1940, the firstCensus of Housing. Beginning in1950, the Census Bureau tabulatedgross rent as a percentage ofincome to create a measure ofaffordability. From 1950 to 1970,income was defined as that of families and primary individuals; since1980, the Census Bureau has usedhousehold income. The question ofwhether meals were included inrent was first asked in 1990.Rents rose in every decadefrom 1950 to 2000.According to Census 2000, the median monthly gross rent was 602 forthe United States as a whole, a 5.4percent increase over the 571median for 19901, and more thandouble the median (adjusted forinflation) of 257 a month in 1950,11990 rent was adjusted to 2000 dollarsusing CPI-U-RS factor 1.277636. Rents forprevious years were also adjusted to 2000dollars using factors appropriate for thoseyears.2Figure 2.Reproduction of the Question on HousingShowing Rent Paid From Census 200046 Answer ONLY if you PAY RENT for this house,apartment, or mobile home — All others skip to 47.a. What is the monthly rent?Monthly amount — Dollars, .00b. Does the monthly rent include any meals?YesNoSource: U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000 questionnaire.Figure 3.Median Gross Rent: 1950 to 2000(In 2000 dollars. Data based on sample. For information onconfidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, anddefinitions, see www.census.gov/prod/cen2000/doc/sf3.pdf) 602 571 481 415 350 257195019601970198019902000Source: U.S. Census Bureau, decennial censuses: 1950 to 2000.as shown in Figure 3.2 Much of thisincrease may be attributed to theincrease in amenities included with2The estimates in this report are basedon responses from a sample of the population. As with all surveys, estimates mayvary from the actual values because of sampling variation or other factors. All statements made in this report have undergonestatistical testing and are significant at the90-percent confidence level, unless otherwise noted.rental units. In 1960, for example,over 90 percent of all rental housinglacked air conditioning, about 40percent lacked central heating, and20 percent lacked complete plumbing facilities. By 1980, the last census to measure these three items,almost half of all rental units had airconditioning, slightly over 80 percent had central heating, and only3 percent lacked complete plumbing.U.S. Census Bureau

Rents varied by race andHispanic origin.discussed in this report refer topeople who indicated only oneracial identity among the six majorcategories: White, Black or AfricanAmerican, American Indian andAlaska Native, Asian, NativeCensus 2000 allowed respondentsto choose more than one race.With the exception of the Two ormore races group, all race groupsTable 1.Median Gross Rent by Race and Hispanic Origin ofHouseholder: 2000(Data based on sample. For information on confidentiality protection, nonsampling error,and definitions, see www.census.gov/prod/cen2000/doc/sf3.pdf)Specified renteroccupied unitspaying cash rentMediangross rentTotal, all households . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33,386,326 602White alone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Black or African American alone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .American Indian and Alaska Native alone . . . . . . . . . . . . .Asian alone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone . . . . . .Some other race alone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Two or more races . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11,007,593 612 541 518 734 690 602 637Hispanic or Latino (of any race) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4,810,020 604White alone, not Hispanic or Latino. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20,068,338 613Race and Hispanic origin of householderSource: U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000 Summary File 3.Hawaiian and Other PacificIslander, and Some other race.3 Theuse of the single-race population inthis report does not imply that it isthe preferred method of presentingor analyzing data. The CensusBureau uses a variety of approaches.4Median gross rent was highest forhouseholders who classified themselves as Asian ( 734), secondhighest for Pacific Islander renters( 690), and third-highest for thoseof Two or more races ( 637).5Rents were high for the Asian andNative Hawaiian and PacificIslander households because thesetwo groups were concentrated inHawaii and California, which registered median monthly rents farabove the U.S. median. In fact, 5of the 7 racial groups shown inTable 1 reported rents at or abovethe U.S. median of 602; onlyAmerican Indian and Alaska Nativeand Black households reportedrents below the national median.Figure 4.Median Gross Rent by Age of Householder: 2000(Data based on sample. For information on confidentialityprotection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, seewww.census.gov/prod/cen2000/doc/sf3.pdf) 641 637 613 567Under 25 25 to 34 56035 to 4445 to 5455 to 64Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000 Summary File 3.U.S. Census Bureau 479 49165 to 7475 andover3For further information on each of thesix major race groups and the Two or moreraces population, see reports from the Census2000 Brief series (C2KBR/01), available on theCensus 2000 Web site at 4This report draws heavily on SummaryFile 3, a Census 2000 product that can beaccessed through American FactFinder, available from the Census Bureau’s Web site,www.census.gov. Information on people whoreported more than one race, such as “Whiteand American Indian and Alaska Native” or“Asian and Black or African American,” isforthcoming in Summary File 4, which willalso be available through American FactFinderin 2003. About 2.6 percent of people reported more than one race.5Hereafter this report uses the term Blackto refer to people who are Black or AfricanAmerican, the term Pacific Islander to refer topeople who are Native Hawaiian and OtherPacific Islander, and the term Hispanic to referto people who are Hispanic or Latino.Because Hispanics may be of any race,data in this report for Hispanics overlap withdata for racial groups. Based on Census 2000sample data, the proportion Hispanic was8.0 percent for Whites, 1.9 percent for Blacks,14.6 percent for American Indians and AlaskaNatives, 1.0 percent for Asians, 9.5 percentfor Pacific Islanders, 97.1 percent for thosereporting Some other race, and 31.1 percentfor those reporting Two or more races.3

Median gross rent paid byHispanics (who can be of any race)was slightly above the nationalaverage. Rents paid by nonHispanic Whites were also abovethe national median.Table 2.Median Gross Rent and Median Gross Rent as Percentageof Household Income for the United States, Regions, andStates, and for Puerto Rico: 1990 and 2000(Data based on sample. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error,nonsampling error, and definitions, see olders aged 25 to 34paid the highest rents.Monthly rents were relatively low( 567) for householders 15 to 24,peaked among householders 25 to34 ( 641), and then declinedsteadily to 479 for householders65 to 74. For older householders,aged 75 and over, rents rose slightly to 491 (see Figure 4).The number of bedrooms wasa major factor in determiningrent.Median gross rent was 522 forunits with no bedroom (generallyefficiencies) and then rose to 542for one-bedroom units, 620 fortwo bedrooms, 698 for three bedrooms, and 786 for units with fouror more bedrooms, which werealmost always one-family homes.Gross rent as a percentage ofhousehold income in 1999 is ameasure of the affordabilityof rental housing.Nationally, renter households spenta little over one-quarter of their pretax income on rent (median25.5 percent). This value was downalmost a full percentage point fromthe median of 26.4 percent in 1990.When gross rent equals or exceeds30 percent of household income,renters are often considered to befinancially burdened. In all states,fewer than half of rental householdspaid this percentage; but certainsubgroups of renter households hadmedians at or above the 30-percentlevel. These included renters wherethe householder was under 25 (forwhom the median was 30.8 percent) and the oldest renters, those42000Mediangross rentMediangross rent aspercentageof householdincome in 1989Mediangross rentMediangross rent aspercentageof householdincome in 1999 57126.4 60225.5 638 506 517 68426.425.425.727.9 651 533 559 69425.924.025.027.1Alabama . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Alaska . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Arizona . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Arkansas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .California . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Colorado . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Connecticut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Delaware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .District of Columbia . . . . . . . . . . .Florida . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415 714 560 418 792 533 764 634 612 61324.823.827.526.529.126.126.624.725.428.0 447 720 619 453 747 671 681 639 618 64124.824.826.624.427.726.425.424.324.827.5Georgia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Hawaii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Idaho . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Illinois . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Indiana. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Iowa. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Kansas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Kentucky . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Louisiana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Maine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 553 830 422 569 477 429 474 408 450 53525.827.423.825.924.324.124.524.927.926.8 613 779 515 605 521 470 498 445 466 d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Massachusetts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Michigan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Minnesota . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Mississippi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Missouri . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Montana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Nebraska . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Nevada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .New Hampshire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 700 741 540 539 394 470 396 445 650 70125.426.827.226.727.125.225.023.726.826.4 689 684 546 566 439 484 447 491 699 64624.725.524.424.725.024.025.323.026.524.2New Jersey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .New Mexico. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .New York . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .North Carolina . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .North Dakota . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Ohio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Oklahoma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Oregon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Pennsylvania . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Rhode Island . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 756 473 620 488 400 483 434 521 516 62526.326.526.324.423.925.325.425.526.127.5 751 503 672 548 412 515 456 620 531 55325.526.626.824.322.324.224.326.925.025.7South Carolina. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .South Dakota. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Tennessee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Texas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Utah. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Vermont . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Virginia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Washington . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .West Virginia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Wisconsin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Wyoming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 482 391 456 505 471 570 632 569 387 510 42524.424.625.024.623.827.125.825.726.824.923.7 510 426 505 574 597 553 650 663 401 540 rto Rico . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26129.4 29727.0AreaUnited States . . . . . . . . . . .RegionNortheast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Midwest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .South . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .West . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .StateNote: Adjusted to 2000 dollars, using CPI-U-RS factor 1.277636.Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 1990 census and Census 2000 Summary File 3.U.S. Census Bureau

75 or over (33.7 percent). Twoother financially burdened groups,with over half paying 30 percent ormore of their household income onrent, were female householders living alone, and female householders,with no husband present, who livedwith their own children under 18.GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONOF RENTAL COSTSMedian gross rents wereabove the national level in theWest and the Northeast, whilebelow it in the South and theMidwest.6Median monthly gross rent washighest in the West at 694, farabove the national median of 602(see Table 2). The Northeast registered the second highest mediangross rent at 651, while the South( 559) and the Midwest ( 533)were below the national median.Rents rose fastest in theSouth and the Midwest from1990 to 2000.In this report, 1990 median grossrents have been adjusted to constant 2000 dollars. Interestingly,the two regions with the lowestmedian gross rents in 2000 hadhigher increases than the othertwo regions from 1990 to 2000.Median rent increases were highestin the South (8.1 percent) and theMidwest (5.3 percent), and lowestin the Northeast (2.0 percent) andthe West (1.5 percent).6The Northeast region includes the statesof Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, NewHampshire, New Jersey, New York,Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont.The Midwest region includes the states ofIllinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan,Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota,Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin. TheSouth region includes the states of Alabama,Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Georgia,Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi,North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina,Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, West Virginia, andthe District of Columbia, a state equivalent.The West region includes the states of Alaska,Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho,Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah,Washington, and Wyoming.U.S. Census BureauHawaii continued to have thehighest median gross rentamong all states.Median gross rent in Hawaii, at 779, surpassed that in all otherstates, just as it did in 1990. NewJersey ( 751) edged out California( 747) for second place; Californiahad been second-highest in 1990.In 2000, half of the ten states withthe highest rents were located inthe West: Alaska, Colorado, andNevada joined California andHawaii in this group. In theNortheast, Connecticut,Massachusetts, New York, andNew Jersey, were among the tenhighest-rent states nationally.Maryland was the only southernstate among the national top ten.Median monthly rents were lowestin West Virginia ( 401). NorthDakota and South Dakota featuredthe next lowest rents ( 412 and 426 respectively). Six of the tenstates with the lowest rents werein the South: West Virginia,Alabama, Arkansas, Kentucky,Mississippi, and Oklahoma. Theother two states with the lowestmonthly rents were in the West:Montana and Wyoming ( 447 and 437, respectively).From 1990 to 2000, rents rosethe most in three RockyMountain states anddecreased the most in twoNew England states.In three states — Colorado, Idaho,and Utah — median gross rentincreased over 20 percent between1990 and 2000. In another fourstates — Arizona, Montana,Oregon, and Washington — rentsincreased 10 percent or more. Bigincreases in rents in these sevenwestern states were offset to somedegree by a 5.7-percent decline inmedian rents in California’s hugerental inventory, so that the Westas a whole registered only a smallincrease (1.5 percent) in medianrents between 1990 and 2000.Georgia, Mississippi, NorthCarolina, Tennessee, and Texasalso recorded double-digit rentincreases from 1990 to 2000.7Ten states posted rent decreases.Seven of the nine states in theNortheast, including every one inNew England, registered rentdecreases, with Connecticut andRhode Island the only states in theUnited States posting double-digitrent decreases. However, thesheer size of the rental inventoriesin New York and Pennsylvania, thetwo states where rents increased inthe Northeast, prevented theregion as a whole from decreasing.California, Hawaii, and Marylandwere the three states outside theNortheast posting rent decreasesfrom 1990 to 2000.8The proportion of householdincome spent on rentdecreased in almost everystate between 1990 and 2000.The few states registering increases were generally in the West —for example, Alaska, Idaho,Oregon, and Utah. States withlarge decreases in median grossrent as a percentage of householdincome were more widely scattered, such as Michigan in theMidwest; Arkansas, Louisiana, andMississippi in the South; and NewHampshire in the Northeast.Renters in California devoted thelargest share of their income torent (median 27.7 percent).Renters in Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska,7At the 90-percent confidence level, Iowashowed an increase between 8.7 and10.3 percent, Nebraska between 9.4 and11.2 percent, and South Dakota between7.7 and 10.2 percent, so these three statesmay also have experienced double-digitincreases.8At the 90-percent confidence level,Alaska showed a 1990-2000 change of -0.5to 2.1 percent, Delaware -0.2 to 2.1 percent,and the District of Columbia -0.3 to 2.3 percent, so these states may also have experienced median ren

U.S.Department of Commerce Economics and Statistics Administration U.S. CENSUS BUREAU Issued May 2003 C2KBR-21 Housing Costs of Renters: 2000 Census 2000 Brief By Robert Bonnette What are the annual costs of utilities and fuels for this house, apartment, or mobile home? If you have liv

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