Day 2 0830-0915 IECEx Dubai Area Classif Final Leroux P

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Area ClassificationWhy ? Where ? How ? Who ? When ?Patrick LerouxTOTAL

AREA CLASSIFICATIONWhy ?A brief history of accidentsSevere accidents in coal mines occurred through the world in the 19th and 20thcentury (thousands of casualties).Causes : result of ignition of Fire damp by sparks (often generated by electricalapparatus) leading to those catastrophic accidents .IECEx Dubai 20‐21/03/2012 P.Leroux2

AREA CLASSIFICATIONWhy ?A brief history of accidents Oil & gas and chemical industries also generated many accidents (fire ,explosion). Safety problems related to the design and use of electrical apparatus in hazardousareas have led the Authorities,Authorities at a very early stage to impose very strict rulesrules.IECEx Dubai 20‐21/03/2012 P.Leroux3

AREA CLASSIFICATIONWhy ?FIRE TRIANGLEFire , Explosion originHEXAGON EXPLOSIONSource of ignition (heat)ExplosivitylimitsGas or Dust insuspensionFuelOxygen in air-If any side of the triangle is missing , a fire cannot existIf any side of the triangle is removed,removed the fire will extinguish-IfConcentrationProtection methods are based on the removal of one summit of the triangle/hexagon.IECEx Dubai 20‐21/03/2012 P.Leroux4

AREA CLASSIFICATION Why ? Area classification objectivesIn a situation in which there may be an explosive (flammable) atmosphere , thefollowing steps should be taken:a) eliminate the likelihood of an explosive gas atmosphere occurring around the source of ignition, orb) eliminate the source of ignition.WhWherethithis iis nott possible,ibl protectivet ti measures, process equipment,it systemstandd proceduresdshouldh ld bebselected and prepared so the likelihood of the coincidence of a) and b) is so small as to be acceptable. Area classification : method of analysing and classifying the environment whereexplosive gas atmospheres may occur so as to facilitate the proper selection andinstallation of equipment to be used safely in that environment. Allows preparation of safety procedures for plant operation and maintenance. The area classification process reduces the overall installation risk levelththroughhddesigni improvements.itIECEx Dubai 20‐21/03/2012 P.Leroux5

AREA CLASSIFICATIONWhere ?Included as per IECEx Oil & gas production and processing plants :-onshore-offshore : platforms, FPSO (Floating Production Storage Offloading vessels) Oil and ggas tankers, drillingg ships Oil refineries Petrochemical and Chemical processing plants Gas pipelines and distribution centers Re-fuelling stations or petrol stations Underground coal minesPrinting industries, paper and textilesHospital operating theatresSurface coating industriesSewerage treatment plantsGrain handling and storage and processing (flour-milling industry)Sugar refineriesLight metal working, where metal dust and fine particles can appearWoodworking areasIECEx Dubai 20‐21/03/2012 P.Leroux6

AREA CLASSIFICATIONWhere ?Excluded as per IEC 60079-10-1IEC 60079-10-1 Classification of areas - Explosive gas atmospheresStandard intended to be applied where there may be an ignition hazard due to thepresence of flammable gas or vapour, mixed with air under normal atmosphericconditions but does not apply to : mines susceptible to firedamp, but IEC 60079 series apply to mines (gas group I) processingi andd manufacturefoff explosives.l i areas where a hazard may arise due to the presence of combustible dusts or fibers(refer to IEC 61241-10 / IEC 60079-10-2). catastrophic failures which are beyond the concept of abnormality dealt with in thisstandard. rooms used for medical purposes. domestic premises. This standard does not take into account the effects of consequential damage.IECEx Dubai 20‐21/03/2012 P.Leroux7

AREA CLASSIFICATIONHow ?RulesRules to be applied for area classification are divided into 2 categories :REGULATIONSSTANDARDS- Published by the national legal Authorities.- Application is mandatorymandatory.(Law)-They vary from country to country.Published by a standardization committee (international/national/regional).Application is not mandatory but only if it has been enforced by law.Standardization committees generally include representatives from :* manufacturers,* end users,users* safety agencies, certifying agencies* utilities, etc. They publish a document (the « STANDARD ») which represents a consensusbetween all the parties and reflects the state of the art at a given time Consensus does not imply unanimity !IECEx Dubai 20‐21/03/2012 P.Leroux8

AREA CLASSIFICATIONHow ?Reference documentso Generally regulations give few details about on « How to achieve safety »but only aims are defined .REGULATIONS International level nothing so far .but . !Regional level (eg Europe) . 2 ATEX directives (1 for products , 1 for workers)N tiNationall llevell ((eg USA) . USA)OSHA ,MOSHAMOSHA , US CoastCt GuardsG do Details are most of time found in Standards which can be of different types :STANDARDS InternationalIEC 60 079 seriesEuropeanENationalCENELEC 60 079 seriesiUSA : ANSI/API RP 505 (zone system)Russia : Gost R 51330-X-99 seriesIECEx Dubai 20‐21/03/2012 P.Leroux9

How ?AREA CLASSIFICATIONAvailable IEC standardsIEC 60 079 -1010 Explosive atmospheres standardPart 10-1: Classification of areas – Explosive gas atmospheresPart 10-2: Classification of areas – Combustible dust atmospheresPart 10-1 Introduction stipulatesIn areas where dangerous quantities and concentrations of flammable gas, vapouror mist under normal atmospheric conditions may arise, protective measures areto be applied in order to reduce the risk of fire and/or explosion.explosionPart 10-1 scope stipulates :For detailed recommendations regarding the extent of the hazardous areas inspecific industries or applications, reference may be made to national orindustry codes relating to those applications.IECEx Dubai 20‐21/03/2012 P.Leroux10

AREA CLASSIFICATIONHow ?CodesCODE Example 1Model CODE of safe practice Part IP 15 (UK)published by the Energy Institute (formerly Institute of Petroleum )Title :«Area Classification code for installations handling flammable fluids» The 3rd edition ( 2005 ) -143143 pagespages was prepared by about 15 major oil companies It is considered as a well established, internationally accepted code for classificationof hazardous areas In the foreword, it is written:“The information contained in this publication is provided for information only and whileevery reasonable care has been taken to ensure the accuracy of its contents, the EI cannotaccept any responsibility for any actions taken, or not taken, on the basis of this informationThe EI shall not be liable .”IECEx Dubai 20‐21/03/2012 P.Leroux11

AREA CLASSIFICATIONHow ?CodesCODE Example 2The European Commission (publisher of the 2 ATEX directives ) has also publisheda document titled :“NonNon binding guide of good practice for implementing Directive n n 1999/92/EC1999/92/EC”(User directive ) which addresses area classificationThe ATEX “User” directive is an 8 pages document (the law )but the non binding guide is a 65 pages document !CODE Example 3API RP 505 « Recommended Practice for classification of locations for ElectricalInstallations at Petroleum facilities classified as Class I, zone 0, zone1, zone2 »Foreword states :« API publications may be used by anyone desiring to do so. Every effort has been made by the Instituteto assure the accuracy and reliability of the data contained in them ; however the Institute makes nowarranty or guarantee in connection with this publication and expressly disclaims any liability orresponsibility for loss or damage resulting from its use.This standard is not intended to obviate the need for applying sound engineering judgement . »IECEx Dubai 20‐21/03/2012 P.Leroux12

AREA CLASSIFICATIONHow ?Which code to select ? Selection of a code to be applied (API,IP15,etc ) for a project depends on a Companydecision . The codes applied may depend on the type of facilities ( offshore , refinery, .). No code can be considered as the best one ! AsA an examplel considerid flanges/fl/ valveslDo they generate a zone or not ?API RP 505IP 15UNCLASSIFIED* 1st Edition generates a zone 2* 3rd Edition unclassified except if there is.a number of possible leak sources closetogether (typic 10),in this case .Zone 2IECEx Dubai 20‐21/03/2012 P.Leroux13

AREA CLASSIFICATIONHow ?Company specifications Many oil companies have prepared their own documents sometimes called :Company specifications These company specifications generally include : references to specific regulations, standards and codes to be applied requirements not included in regulations, standards and codes (coming fromfeedback and experience of the Operator) and topics/situations notcovered by standards/codes.Caution !Above company requirements must not be in contradiction withregulations, standards and also preferably with codes !!TOTAL, as many other Operators, has a set of Company Specifications named GS (generalspecifications) :«Area Classification» is covered by the specifications published by the «Safety department»«Electrical equipment for explosive atmospheres» is covered by the specification publishedby the «Electrical department» (GS ELE 079)IECEx Dubai 20‐21/03/2012 P.Leroux14

AREA CLASSIFICATIONHow ?Which code to select ?Other Operator’s practices ? Most of European companies uses IP15 Code amendments/supplements. American companies refer to API RP 505 (zone system), RP 500 (division system). In conclusion, each Company has its own rules (Company specifications) but theyare based on common documents (codes) which have been amended/supplementedin a different manner. This means that it is unlikely that two individuals classifying the same location wouldarrive at the same or perhaps even similar area classification with only the generalguidance of a code.IECEx Dubai 20‐21/03/2012 P.Leroux15

Hazardous areaZone(as per IEC60079-10-1)HHazardousdarea (on account of explosive gas atmospheres) called “hazardous locations” in the USAn area (3-dimensional region or space) in which an explosive gas atmosphere is or may beexpected to be present, in quantities such as to require special precautions for theconstruction installation and use of equipment.construction,equipmentHazardous areas are classified into 3 zones based upon the frequency of the occurrence and durationof an explosive gas atmosphere, as follows:Zone 0Area in which an explosive gas atmosphere is present continuously or for long periods or frequently.Zone 1Area in which an explosive gas atmosphere is likely to occur in normal operation occasionally.occasionallyZone 2Area in which an explosive gas atmosphere is not likely to occur in normal operation but, if it does occur,will persist for a short period only.onlyNon hazardous area (safe area )A non hazardous area is an area in which an explosive atmosphere is not expected to be present.IECEx Dubai 20‐21/03/2012 P.Leroux16

Lower, Upper Explosive (Flammable) limitsCombustionCb ti willill onlyl occur if ththe flflammablebl mixturei tcomprisingi i ffuel,l iin ththe fform off a gasor vapour and air, is within certain limits. These limits are:Thee Lowero e Explosivep os e Limitt ((LEL)) sosometimeset es cacalleded Lowero e Flammabilityaab ty Limitsts (LFL)The Upper Explosive Limit (UEL) . Upper Flammability Limits (UFL)Vol % in airLEL UELmethane515hydrogen475Between these limits is known as the FLAMMABLE RANGE100%FLAMMABLE RANGELEL0No combustion(l k off ffuel)(lackl)concentrationof fuel in airUELEXPLOSIONIECEx Dubai 20‐21/03/2012 P.LerouxNo combustion(l k off oxygen))(lack17

Flash point Lowest temperature at which sufficient vapour is given off a liquid, to form a flammablemixture with air that can be ignited by an arc, spark, naked flame, etcFLASH POINT off a materialt i l givesian indicationi di ti off howhreadilydil thatth t materialt i l willill ignitei it ininormal ambient temperature.Gasoline - 45 CKerosene 38 CDiesel fuel 55 C Explosion of gas or vapour is possible when the ambient temperature becomes greaterthan the flash point of the flammable material. High flash point liquids are less hazardous than low flash point liquids. Practically liquids with flash point above 55 C are not liable to generate a hazardous area,unless they are likely to be submitted to a temperature above this flash point.IECEx Dubai 20‐21/03/2012 P.Leroux18

Normal Operation ?Sit ti whenSituationh ththe equipmentit iis operatingti withinithi itits ddesignedid parameterst , Normal operation includes start-up and shut-down conditions. Minor releases of flammable material may be part of normal operationoperation.For example, releases from seals which rely on wetting by the fluid which is beingpumped are considered to be minor releases. FFailuresil((suchh as ththe breakdownb kdoff pump seals,l flangeflgasketsk t or spillagesillcauseddby accidents) which require urgent repair or shut-down are not considered to be partof normal operation nor are they considered to be catastrophic. Catastrophic failures which are beyond the concept of abnormality are excluded(such as rupture of a process vessel or pipeline and events that are not predictable). In case of activities other than those of normal operation,operation e.g.e g commissioning ormaintenance, the area classification drawing may not be valid !It is expected that this would be dealt with by a safe system of work (work permit ).IECEx Dubai 20‐21/03/2012 P.Leroux19

Method for classification of hazardous areas The basic elements for establishing the hazardous zone types are :* Identification of the sources of release* Determination of the grade of release* Determination of the release rate, velocity, etc* Determination of the type of area (openness)* Degree and availability of ventilation* Use of an appropriate code or calculations to determine the extent of zoneExtent of zone : Distance in any direction from the source of release to the point where thegas/air mixture has been diluted by air to a value below the LEL. The extent of the zone depends on the estimated or calculated distance over whichan explosive atmosphere exists before it disperses to a concentration in air below itslower explosive limit with an appropriate safety factor. Penetration of flammable gas into an area can be prevented by: Physical barriers Sufficient overpressure in the area relative to the adjacent hazardous areas Purging the area with sufficientflow of freshIECEx Dubai 20‐21/03/2012P.Lerouxair20

Sources and grades of releaseSSourceoff releaselA point or location from which a gas, vapour, mist or liquid may be released into the atmosphere so thatan explosive gas atmosphere could be formed.A source of release may give rise to any one of these grades of release, or to a combination of more thanone.oneGrades of release3 basic grades of release in order of decreasing frequency and likelihood of the explosive gas atmospherebeing present may occur. Continuous grade of releaseRelease which is continuous or is expected to occur frequently or for long periods. Primary grade of releaseRelease which can be expected to occur periodically or occasionally during normaloperation. Secondary grade of releaseRelease which is not expected to occur in normal operation and, if it does occur, is likely todo so only infrequently and for short periods.GRADE OF RELEASE( VENTILATION) ZONE 0, 1, 2IECEx Dubai 20‐21/03/2012 P.Leroux21

Relationship between grade of release and zoneIIndicationsdi ioff theh frequencyfoff theh occurrence andd durationdi may beb takenk fromfcodesdrelating to specific industries or applications.Continuous grade release 1 000 hPrimary grade of release10 - 1 000 hThis rule of thumb is derived fromSecondary grade of release 1 - 10 hAPI RP 505 & IP 15Grade of release is dependent solely on the frequency and duration of the releaseGrade of release is independent of the rate and quantity of the release ,the degree of ventilation or characteristics of thefl id (althoughfluid( lthh thesethfactorsf tdetermined ti theth hazardoushdarea dimensionsdii)In “open air “ conditions there is a relationship between grade of release and zone towhich it gives rise: A continuous grade of release normally leads to a zone 0 A primary grade to zone 1 A secondary grade to zone 2However grade of release and zone are not synonymous !Poor ventilation may result in a more stringent zone while with high ventilation theconverse is true .IECEx Dubai 20‐21/03/2012 P.Leroux22

Release rateIECEx Dubai 20‐21/03/2012 P.Leroux23

Extent of zoneIECEx Dubai 20‐21/03/2012 P.LerouxVentilation24

Extent of zoneIECEx Dubai 20‐21/03/2012 P.LerouxVentilation25

Zone in relationship with grade of release & ventilation Extract of IEC 60 079-10-1 Annex B (informative) allows the determination of thetype of zone from the degree and availability of ventilation and the grade of release .IECEx Dubai 20‐21/03/2012 P.Leroux26

Ventilation as per IP 15 CODEOpennessAn area can be classified in three categories with respect to confinement: An open area (basically no roof/ceiling, no walls and floor made of grating) . Assheltered,e te ed, papartiallyta yeenclosed,c osed, partiallypa t a y confinedcoed aareaea ((variousa ous cocombinationsb at o s oofsolid floor, ceiling and walls or equivalent obstructions to natural draft). An enclosed area(building rooms ). The extent of confinement governs the determination of the level of ventilation.Adequate/Inadequate ventilationAdequate ventilation is defined as ventilation sufficient enough to prevent theaccumulation of concentrations of flammable ggas-air. This will normallyy be achieved byy auniform ventilation rate of at least 12 volumetric air changes per hour with no stagnantareas.Dilution ventilationDilution ventilation shall be sufficient to immediately bring the flammable gasconcentration below 20% of the Lower Flammability Limit (LFL) and keep it so all thetime.IECEx Dubai 20‐21/03/2012 P.Leroux27

Ventilation as per IP 15 CODEVentilationVtil tiassessmenttA method allows to assess the type and degree of ventilation for each type of area (open,sheltered or enclosed). The level of ventilation available in a location shall be establishedin oorderde to aallowo Zoneo e cclassification.ass cat oPressurizationPressurization shall be provided to ensure the protection of a room or building: Containing electrical equipment or other potential sources of ignition and located in ahazardous area where flammable gases or vapours may enter (over pressurisation). Containing sources of release and surrounding by a safe area containing electricalequipment or other potential sources of ignition (under pressurisation) .The difference in pressure to be maintained shall be greater or equal to 25 Pa (0.25(0 25 mbar)mbar).IECEx Dubai 20‐21/03/2012 P.Leroux28

Determination of the hazard radius3 methodsth d can bbe usedd:o Direct examples limited to common facilitieso A point source approach for all situationso A risks based appapproachoac foro secosecondaryda y ggradeade releasee ease equequipmentp e toor whene tthee releasee easerate is unknown ( hole size and pressure ) Hazard radius depend on : Grade of release - Fluid categorycategory Release pressurepressure Hole release size The hazard radius is not the result of a fully deterministic approach. It should be regarded as a standard to be used when no better method is available. It is not a substitute for good engineering judgment. The hazard radius does not take into consideration all the actual physical propertiesof the gas characteristics and conditions of release. Gas dispersion calculations using computer programs can be used (CFD, PHAST .)IECEx Dubai 20‐21/03/2012 P.Leroux29

Classification of petroleum (based on Flash Points FP) acc IP 15CLASS relates to FP & handlingtemperatureFor flammable liquids , volatilitydeter

API RP 505 «API RP 505 « Recommended Practice for classification of locations for ElectricalRecommended Practice for classification of locations for Electrical Installations at Petroleum facilities classified as Class I, zone 0, zone1, zone2 » Foreword states : « API publications may be used by anyone desiring to do so. Every effort has been made by the Institute to assure the accuracy and .

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