NoterapideN 533 - January 2011www.iau-idf.frCreativity and Economic Development inthe Paris Region: a Propitious Synergyin their local culture. Often theydo not operate strictly on a profitmaking basis. An integral part ofthe intangible economy, thecreative economy does not operate according to traditionalmodels or prevailing industryrationales.Michiel S. / www.flickr.comThe English definition has inspired a large proportion of citiesthroughout the world. Theapproach taken by the Île-deFrance is based on that of Greater London. Study results(1)broadly indicate that Paris is acreative urban centre which isevery bit as buoyant as London.363,000 creative industryjobs within the Île-de-FranceThe creative industries, a strategic and emblematic regional sector, are a driving force behindeconomic development and the attractivenessof the nation. Highly concentrated in urbancentres, creative jobs have developed enormouslyover the last decade, meeting the challenges ofthe digital era.here is something ofan obsession on theinternational sceneright now with theconcept of the creative industries. Situated where economicsmeets culture, they are seen asa clear source of competitiveadvantage and a driving forcebehind the knowledge economy.Their profile is hard to pin downand how they work remains obscure. The potential of the creative industries in economic deve-Tlopment still not fully appreciated, although the growingsynergy between creativity andemployment throws new light onthe Île-de-France (Paris Region)economy.Defining the CreativeIndustriesThe United Kingdom has led theway in defining creative industry sectors. The Department ofCulture, Media and Sport(DCMS) describes them as “thoseindustries which have their originin individual creativity, skill andtalent and which have a potential for wealth and job creationthrough the generation andexploitation of intellectual property.” They include variousareas of economic activity, suchas architecture, advertising, filmand video, photography, radioand television, music, performance, arts and antiques,fashion, publishing (books,press), leisure software, designand craft.Despite the wide variety of sectors which they cover, the creative industries have a number ofcommon characteristics. Theypool talents, jobs and structures,encourage collaborative workand tend to be strongly rootedThese jobs are mostly held bysalaried employees (256,000),42,000 held by self-employed workers and 65,000 temporary workers. The jobs carried out underthe aegis of these activities arenot all creative. They cover awide range of functions whichare more or less creative, andmore or less skilled. In total, only44% of those working within thesector have a creative profession.These essentially include journalists, technical production assistants in film, television and theperforming arts, advertising executives, technical assistants in(1) CAMORS C., SOULARD O., Les industries créatives en Île-de-France: un nouveau regard surla métropole, IAU îdF, March 2010. This studyis downloadable from: t-economique.
Note Rapide - N 533Creativity and Economic Development in the Paris Region: a Propitious SynergySalaried employment in the creative industries in France, 2007Salaried jobs within the main business sectors inthe Île-de-France, 2007Île-de-FranceFrench total:538,253 salaried workersCapitalgind oods130,700ustriesAutomoind tive 52,800ustry141,900Reest alate218,500256,000Creind ativeustriesT rans port267,000256,800C ons truc tion100 kmSources: GARP 2007 IAU îdF 2009Hotelcat andering0Rbus etailinessF inanact ,200Salaried workforceSource: IAU îdF, Pôle emploi 2007.the graphic arts, fashion anddecoration (including designers,stylists and graphic designers),dramatic artists, dancers, etc. Noncreative jobs include computerengineers and specialist executives, secretaries, administrativeand financial managers of SMEs,administrative assistants, etc.Half of all France’s salariedcreative industry workersIn 2007, the creative industriesemployed over 538,000 salariedworkers in France. The Parisregion shows the heaviest weighting, accomodating 48% of salaried French workers.Outside of the Île-de-France, theRhône-Alpes (Lyon region) andProvence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur arethe two French regions with thehighest concentration of creativeworkers and organisations, butthe scale differs considerably:Distribution of new creativebusinesses across the Île-deFrance “départements”, 2007Vald'OiseVal-de- 5%MarneSeine- 8%St-Denis7%17%Hauts-de-Seine5%Essonne47%Paris5%6% SeineYvelines etMarneSource: IAU îdF, INSEE (French Institute ofStatistics).the Lyon region employs 44,700salaried workers, i.e. 8% ofFrench workers, with the Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur regionhome to 37,000 jobs, i.e. 7% ofFrench workers.6% of salaried workersin the Île-de-FranceThe creative industries accountfor 6.2% of all salaried employment in the Île-de-France in 2007(as compared to the average of2.3% for other French regions),which is as much as the construction, hotel and catering, or financial industries. Moreover, 80% ofcreative industry workers are inthe service sector (leisure and cultural business services). Only 20%of jobs are accounted for withinthe industry (publishing, press,sound and video recordings). Soit might be more accurate to talkabout “creative services” ratherthan the “creative industries”.Positive evolutions, driven bythe digital revolutionBetween 1994 and 2007, therewas an overall upturn in thenumber of salaried workers inthe creative industries within theÎle-de-France. The workforce inthis sector increased by a 2.6%annual average over the lastthirteen years, representing anadditional 72,000 people. Thisincrease is double that seen inall other sectors put together(representing an average annual1.2% increase).The period in question falls intothree phases: between 1994 and2000, a strong increase in the ICTand software sectors, then aneconomic downturn between2001 and 2004 in which the leisure software, advertising andpublishing industries diminishedsharply, before seeing anotherrecovery between 2004 and 2007,with more varied results according to sector. Film, radio, television, photography and leisuresoftware, increasingly technologically-based industries, weremore dynamic over this period:special effects, animation, specialist channels and multiplebroadcast media. Other sectorscontinued to develop, but at apace below the creative industry average. Only the publishingsector showed itself to be inslight decline.Creating DynamicCreative BusinessesIn 2007, over 5,100 new creativeindustry businesses were set up,representing almost 7% of newbusinesses in the Paris Region,across all sectors(2). 9.8% of allcreative businesses in France areset up in the Île-de-France. However, this new business creationrate is lower than the regionalaverage for all sectors (11.4%).Creative businesses tend largelyto be set up in the central area ofthe capital, with 47% in Paris and17% in the Hauts-de-Seine area.This localisation is accompaniedby an overspill effect into thecommunes neighbouring Paris,which offer suitable and cheaper premises, whilst retaining theadvantages of the capital itself,e.g. access to qualified individuals, professional networks,a central consumption area,authentic location, etc.Over three-quarters ofWorkforce based in Parisand Hauts-de-Seine AreaThe creative industries are verymuch concentrated in the Île-deFrance in the city of Paris and itsimmediate environs. Althoughall départements saw their working populations increase between 1994 and 2007, their preponderance relative to the Îlede-France has grown. Parisremains the undisputed leader,but it underwent “soft” growth tothe benefit of the Hauts-de-Seinearea which benefited from theredistribution of the creativeindustries into the communesbordering Paris such as Issy-lesMoulineaux, Boulogne-Billancourt, Levallois-Perret, etc. Similarly, the Seine-Saint-Denis areaexperienced a boom, with itsworkforce doubling over thisperiod, leading to the emergenceof a cluster of creative industrieswithin the north-east Paris area.Growth in the areas of Seine-et-(2) Source: INSEE (French Institute of Statistics), French register of companies andestablishments.
Note Rapide - N 533Creativity and Economic Development in the Paris Region: a Propitious SynergyCommunity-based creative activitieCreative Industry Clusters in the Paris regionPublishing (books, press)LevalloisLa Défense NeuillyParisBoulogneIssyFilm, radio and television0There is a strong tendency towards geographical clusteringParis, concentrated in Paris itself along the Seine, continuand the central arrondissements of the right bank, continuinarea. Almost all creative industry activity is concentrated intoforce, consumers and producers of content, contractors, finaidentity of the creative cluster.AdvertisingLeisure software
Note Rapide - N 533Creativity and Economic Development in the Paris Region: a Propitious Synergyes: dominant “cluster” phenomenaCluster centreArea shownon mapArea favoured by severalcreative industriesArea favoured by a sectorof the creative industriesArchitecture5 kmMethodological note:This map represents an inclusive view of thefollowing sectors: film, radio, television,photography, publishing (books and press),music, live entertainment, advertising,architecture, design and leisure software. Thefashion, arts and antiques sectors are notincluded on this map.g. The heartland of the Île-de-France creative industries is inuing through Issy-les-Moulineaux and Boulogne-Billancourt,ng through Levallois-Perret, Neuilly-sur-Seine and the Défenseo these areas. The concurrent existence of a specialised workancial organisations and institutions creates the synergies andDesignMusic and PerformanceArea favoured by industryCluster centre010 kmSources: IAU îdF, INSEE (French Institute of Statistics),Pôle emploi, APCI (Design) IAU îdF 2009
Note Rapide - N 533Creativity and Economic Development in the Paris Region: a Propitious SynergyEvaluating the CreativeProfessionsTrident of creative jobs in the Paris regionNot all creative industry workers havea creative job. For instance, institutions within the film and video sectoremploy both workers within the creative professions (actors, directors,sound engineers, etc.) as well as noncreative professions (secretaries,accountants, commercial agents, etc).On the other hand, creative work isnot limited to workers with a creativeprofession within the creative sectors. Workers with creative jobs alsowork within other sectors.Marne and Val-de-Marne on theother hand remained relativelysubdued in comparison.Urban Centres Step upCreative Industry PolicyDecisionsThere have been various measures implemented to supportthe development of these growthactivities. Study visits to Londonand Copenhagen throw somelight onto two specific methodsof intervention. Essentially, theScandinavian approach focuseson social welfare, research andeducation, whilst the AngloSaxons place greater emphasison policies which encourageinnovative and business activities. The Scandinavian modelaims to create conditions whichCreative jobsNon-creative jobsProfessionsThe Trident approach identifies threesuch types of worker: Workers who are doing a creativejob within the creative industries(e.g. television journalist): 160,500people. So three quarters of thosewith a creative job work within thecreative industries. Workers who are doing a creativejob outside of the creative industries (e.g. automotive industry designer): 54,300 people. Workers who are doing a non-creative job within the creative industries (e.g. accountant in a publishing house): 202,500 people. Overall, 56% of jobs within the creativeindustries are done by non-creatives.Activity sectorsCREATIVE INDUSTRIESOTHER SECTORSCreative jobs withinthe creative industriesCreative jobs outsidethe creative industries160,500 jobs,54,500 jobsTotal: 215,000creative jobsof which65,000are temporaryNon-creative jobs withinthe creative industries202,500 jobsTotal workers100,00050,000Total: 363,000 jobsin the creative industriesSources: IAU îdF, Census 1999 / INSEE (French Institute of Statistics), Pôle emploi, Congés Spectacles fund IAU îdF.will propitiate the growth of thecreative industries as a whole,rather than implement a supportstrategy for the more attractivesectors such as design andmedia. English policies are focused more on the commercialaspects of these industries,support for export, intellectualproperty rights management, etc.and less on the cultural aspect ofthe creative industries.In Europe, the European Commission has identified this sector as playing a key role in theeconomy of its member states.A recently-published greenpaper highlights this movetowards harmonising supportivepolicies. Five key areas wereidentified: the professionalisa-tion of the sector, local development, the need for a regulatoryframework for copyright management, as well as the importance of digitisation and accessto industry financing.The Île-de-France Needsto Meet Several Challengesto Assert itself as a CreativeCapitalWhilst the creative industries areundergoing far-reaching changein a competitive global marketplace, the French capital stillneeds to tackle a number ofchallenges. Changes relating tothe digitisation of content andthe place occupied by the internet have turned the various creative industry sectors upsidedown. Similarly, changes inconsumer patterns and practiceshave given rise to other needs(mobility, instant access, etc.);new jobs and new markets haveemerged, bringing with them arestructuring of the playersaround these issues. What’srequired is support for skills, aresponse to the needs of newcreative businesses (digital services and content) and to develop the potential of these industries at international level.Selecting Regional Policiesto Support the CreativeEconomyLong dealt with at national level,policies supporting the creativeeconomy are becoming regionalised, but the view of these activities as a discrete economic sec-
Note Rapide - N 533Creativity and Economic Development in the Paris Region: a Propitious SynergyThe Creative Industries in the Île-de-France: département rankings140 % 10,000 salaried workersFurther reading: CAMORS C., SOULARD O., Les industriesAccumulated growth1994 - 2007créatives en Île-de-France: un nouveau regard sur la métropole, IAUSeine-Saint-DenisSeine-SS aint-DDeniss120 %120îdF, March 2010.The size of the sphere represents the numberof salaried workers in each département.Hauts-de-SeineHauutst -de-S CAMORS C., SOULARD O. « Créativité et100 %100développement économique : uneEssonneEEsssonnesynergie prometteuse», Note rapide8080%n 523, IAU ÎdF, November 2010.Yvelines CAMORS C., SOULARD O., « Les indus-6060%tries culturelles: un levier de déve-Val-d’Oiseloppement stratégique pour l’Île-de-Seine-et-MarneSeine-ete -Marne4040%France », Note rapide, n 427, Iaurif,ParisVal-de-MarneMay 2007. CAMORS C., SOULARD O., Les industries2020%Changes to market share in Paris region1994-2007 (in point)0%- 205- 15-1010-5051015culturelles en Île-de-France, Iaurif,April 2006. EUROPEAN COMMISSION, Green Paper:“Unlocking the potential of cultural- 20 %and creative industries”, April 2010.Source: IAU îdF, Pôle emploi 1994-2007 DCMS, Creative Industries MappingDocument, Department of Culture,tor, creating long-term employment in the capital, rather thanbeing merely a cultural issue, isa recent one.Several policies to support thecreative industries are now beingimplemented. Outside of supportfor the cluster Cap Digital, whichis by its very nature a multi-sectorventure, government intervention does not deal with the creative industries as a whole, butrather the various sectors withinit, such as film, radio and television, performance, books, design, music, or, more recently, artsand crafts professions.The classic signposting of support for cultural industry sectors(film, radio, television and bookpublishing) and performanceshould these days take accountof the convergences taking placebetween the creative industrysectors and their use of digitalcontent and services. Supportfor the Île-de-France’s creativeindustries comes through a global view of regional creativityand innovation which lumpstogether culture, economy andtechnology.Odile Soulard, Carine CamorsMedia and Sport, 1998 & 2001.The Scope of the Creative IndustriesThe workers within the sectors which make up the creative industries aremore or less quantifiable. There is broad consensus for the Anglo-Saxonapproach, which satisfactorily pins down six of the ten sectors which make upthe creative industries: advertising; publishing (books, press); music; performance; film, radio, television and photography; architecture; leisure softwareand digital publishing.However this definition is limited as it does not take into account all sectorswhich make up the creative industries. The definition is being consolidated andthe understanding of the various sectors is changing in line with the statistical data available. Therefore the results shown are limited. Additional studieshave been undertaken in order to better define the less well understood sectors such as arts and antiques, fashion, design and craft. FREEMAN A., London’s Creative sector: 2009 Update, working paper 40,GLA Economics, February 2010.Online: oppement-economique.htmlThe jobs in the creative industries (CI) in the Paris Region, 2007Total workersArchitectureFilm, radio and televisionPublishing (books, press)Leisure softwareMusic, PerformanceAdvertisingArts and AntiquesFashionDesignCraftSalaried CI employmentTemporary workersSelf-employed (non-salaried)Total CI ndnd256,00065,00042,000363,000Sources: Pôle emploi, Congés Spectacle fund, Census 1999 / INSEE (French Institute of Statistics); IAU îdF initiative.Directeur de la publicationFrançois DugenyDirectrice de la communicationCorinne GuillemotResponsable des éditionsFrédéric TheuléRédactrice en chefMarie-Anne PortierMaquetteVay OllivierCartographiePascale Guery - Jean-Eudes Tilloy-----------------------Diffusion par abonnement80 les 40 numérosService diffusion-venteTél. : 01 77 49 79 38www.iau-idf.frLibrairie d’Île-de-France15, rue Falguière 75015 ParisTél. : 01 77 49 77 40ISSN 1967 - 2144
the graphic arts, fashion and decoration (including designers, stylists and graphic designers), dramatic
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