Conducted Immunity Tests forAutomotive ElectronicsAutomotive EMC Seminar - IEEE HKJeffrey TsangJeffrey.email@example.com
Teseq Group27th November 20062
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Conducted Immunity Testing on Automotive Electronics:From ISO 7637 to Introduction of Manufacturer standards10
What is EMC?Special Considerations for Motor VehiclesIn ISO 7637 and variants, we are considering transients and voltage drops thatare coupled over battery lines and signal linesImmunity Testing simulates ‘Conducted EMC’ that occurs during normal orerror conditions in a motor vehicle.Emissions testing ensures that the noise created by a device is less thanspecified levels.Evaluates the performance of components during simulated real-world EMCeventsThese failure conditions are documented and tests defined by Internationalorganizations (ISO, SAE) and manufacturers (Ford, VW)11
Why EMC is important?Causes:Alternators, Converters, Switching ProcessesElectric Motors, Fuel Pump, Fan MotorsBefore production and sampling duringproductionLights, RadioDuring redesigns or modificationsEvery kind of electronic deviceDuring initial design phasesCoupled on Power Lines and Wiring HarnessesEngine Start12When devices shall be tested:
Automotive EMCAutomotive VoltageFluctuationMany test cases13Conducted ConductedContinuousTransientRF
Distinct Characteristics inAutomotive Conducted EMCDC 12V, 24V, 42VLots of different TransientsPositive and Negative TransientsEmission and Immunity TestsLots of Voltage FluctuationExtremely detailed in test setup:Harness height and lengthSeparationTest FixtureLoad SimulatorVery long test time14
Automotive Conducted EMC SetupEUT is set to be in operation mode(s)Test FixtureLoad simulator15EUT example:Climate ControlConsole
EMC Standards in Automotive IndustryManufacturers (OEM)International BodiesISOIEC / CISPRNo so difficultRegional Requirement2004/104/EC (e-mark)SAE (SAE J1113-11, SAE J1113-12)JASOGB/T16Much morecomplicatedBMWDaimler ChryslerFiatFordGeneral olkswagen.More!
ISO Standards on Automotive ElectronicsISO 7637-2: Conducted Transient on power line7 testsISO 7637-3: Conducted Transient no non power line4 testsISO 16750-2: Environmental conditions and testingfor electrical and electronic6 out 10 tests are voltage fluctuationISO 10605: ESDLots of the test casesare introduced andmodified in OEMStandardsUsually in a moreharsh wayAll these tests simulate typical electrical environment in a full vehicle17
Conducted Transient Immunity&Voltage Fluctuation18
OEM standards refer to ISO but differentDifferent automotive standards require different transient pulses. Therequirements are different in: AmplitudeImpulseFrequencyPulse energyTest method, test setupWhat are the causes of differences?19 Wiring harnessComponentsGeneratorsetc.
Conducted Immunity Tests SummaryISO7637-2Pulse 1Pulse 2aPulse 3aPulse 3bPulse 4Pulse 5aPulse 5b20FordES-XW7T-1A278-ACCI 210CI 220Pulse A1Pulse A2Pulse B1Pulse B2Pulse CPulse DPulse EPulse FPulse GCI 230CI 250CI 260Waveform AWaveform BWaveform CWaveform DWaveform ECI 270Nissan28401NDS02EQ/TE 01EQ/TE 02EQ/TE 03EQ/TE 04EQ/TE 05EQ/IC 01pulse 1pulse 2EQ/IC 02pulse 3apulse 3bEQ/IC 03EQ/IC 04EQ/IC 05EQ/IC 06VolkswagenTL 82066Pulse 1Pulse 2Pulse 3Pulse 4Pulse 4bPulse 5bPulse 6
Test Purpose of ISO 7637-2Test Pulse 1This test is a simulation of transients due to supplydisconnection from inductive loads; it applies to aDUT if as used in the vehicle, it remains connecteddirectly in parallel with an inductive load.(1)DUTInductive LoadBattery21
Test Purpose of ISO 7637-2Test Pulse 1 VariantFordES-XW7T-1A278-ACCI220 pulse E (12V only)ISO 7637-2Nissan28401NDS02EQ/IC 01 Pulse1 (12V only)VolkswagenTL 8206624V22
Test Purpose of ISO 7637-2Test Pulse 2aPulse 2a simulates transients due tosudden interruption of currents in adevice connected in parallel with theDUT due to the inductances of thewiring harness.Switch off LampDUTLoad23Battery
Test Purpose of ISO 7637-2Test Pulse 2a VariantFordES-XW7T-1A278-ACCI220 pulse F (12V only)ISO 7637-2Nissan28401NDS02EQ/IC 01 Pulse 2a (12V only)VolkswagenTL 820662424V
Test Purpose of ISO 7637-2Test Pulse 2bPulse 2b simulates transients from dc motors acting as generators after the ignition isswitched offIt is more like a voltage fluctuation test. Most car manufacturers had withdrawn thisbecause it is covered by other voltage fluctuation testsIgnition SwitchDUTDC MotorBattery25
Test Purpose of ISO 7637-2Test Pulse 3a/3bPulse 3 occurs as the result ofswitching processes. Thecharacteristics of this pulse areinfluenced by distributedcapacitance and inductance of thewiring harness.3aDUT3b26Battery
Test Purpose of ISO 7637-2Test Pulse 3a/3b VariantMost manufacturers bring these tests into their own EMC standards except FordGeneral MotorGMW3097Nissan28401NDS02EQ/IC 02 Pulse 3a/3bPulse widthtd 100nsVolkswagenTL 82066 Pulse 3a/3b27
Test Purpose of ISO 7637-2Test Pulse 4Pulse 4 is the voltage reduction caused byenergizing the starter motor circuits of theinternal combustion enginesDUTBattery28M
Test Purpose of ISO 7637-2Test Pulse 4All manufacturers requires Starting Profile test but in more complicated wayNissan28401NDS02 EQ/IC 05Resistant to starting profile29VolkswagenTL 82066 Pulse 4/4b
Test Purpose of ISO 7637-2Test Pulse 4 VariantVery Complicated Starting Profile testsThis test is to bedone at -40ºC orbelow30FordES-XW7T-1A278-AC CI230Power CyclingNissan28400NDS02Momentary power source voltagedrop resistant
Test Purpose of ISO 7637-2Test Pulse 5a/5b5aPulse 5 is a simulation of a load dump transientoccurring in the event of a discharged batterybeing disconnected while the alternator isgenerating charging current with other loadsremaining on the alternator circuit at thismomentMotor5bDisconnectBattery LeadDUTAlternatorGenerating Charging CurrentBattery31
Test Purpose of ISO 7637-2Test Pulse 5a/5b variantAll manufacturers requires Load Dump test but almost all of them are specified indifferent waysThis pulse generate high energy and often destructiveFordES-XW7T-1A278-ACCI220 pulse GPulse 5aPulse 5b32Nissan28401NDS02EQ/IC 03 Pulse 5a/5bVolkswagenTL 82066 Pulse 5bOnly applicable to 42V systemRi 3Ω
Test Purpose of ISO 7637-2Test Pulse 5a/5b85VPulse 5a400ms13.5V0VPulse 3a-100VPulse 1-150V33
Manufacturer EMC Standards TestsFord ES-XW7T-1A278-AC CI220Pulse A1Pulse A2Pulse CThese pulses are caused by actual mechanical relay with defined circuitry34
Manufacturer EMC TestsNissan28401NDS02EQ/IC 04 : Resistance to power supply micro-interruptions35
Manufacturer EMC TestsSiemens VDOFuel Pump Transient test for IPC36
Pulse Generation SystemTypical SetupPhotograph Courtesy of CVC37
Teseq Pulse Generation SystemTeseq Conducted Immunity SystemAutomotive ElectronicsTransientsNSG5500NSG5600PA 5840VoltageFluctuation38ISOSAEJASOBMWDaimler ChryslerFiatFordGeneral olkswagenEtc.
Conducted Transient Emissions39
ISO 7637-2 EmissionAutomotive EMICISPR12, 25 – Continuous InterferenceISO 7637-2 - Transient due to switching processISO 7637-2Must do testTest procedure is straight forwardLots of details in test setupLots of mal-practice in the market40
ISO7637-2 Emissions Test LayoutAN“Slow Pulse” Setup41DUTAN“Fast Pulse” SetupCable lengths, 50 -0/ 10 mm above GND plane, disturbance voltageshall be measured as close to the DUT terminals as possibleDUT
ISO 7637-2 Emissions Test LayoutApplicationWiringHarnessFor applications where the DUT isfar from the switch, the setupshould have the AN between theswitch (simulating the wiringharness) and the DUT.“Slow Pulse Setup”Millisecond range or slowerOscilloscopeSwitchTest SetupDUTBatterySource42Artificial NetworkSimulates Wiring HarnessImpedance
ISO 7637-2 Emissions Test LayoutApplicationWiring HarnessFor applications where the DUT isnear the switch, the setup shouldhave the AN before the switch“Fast Pulse Setup”nanosecond-to-microsecond rangeOscilloscopeArtificial NetworkSimulates Wiring HarnessImpedanceTest Setup43BatterySourceSwitchDUT
Emissions Relay or Electronic Switch?When to use a relay and when the electronic switch:RelayVoltages over 400VUsually must be approved by OEMPoor Repeatability, Slow/ChatteringMust be replacedShould be production relay from thevehicle containing the DUTElectronic SwitchLess than 400VFast and RepeatableVoltage Drop Must be AccountedFor U 1V at 25 A44Potter & BrumfieldBosch
Differences: AN(LISN) defined inISO7637-2 & CISPR25ISO 7637 and CISPR 25 Artificial Network are NOT the sameCISPR 25Differences Between ISO 7637 and CISPR25 Artificial Networks45
How to measure?Test procedure is quiet straight forward but has to bedone manuallySearch for the worst cases (highest amplitude) by:Changing the switch on/off timeChanging the switching repetition46
Typical Measurement ResultVery Heavily Inductive 450 V47Mixed R/L Load 20 VMuch more severe pulses from DUTs with high inductance
ISO7637-2 Emissions LimitsFordES-XW7T-1A278-ACCE410 Limits 100V, -150VOnly use Fast Pulse setup48
Volkswagen TL 82066Maximum permissible transient emissionOnly use Fast Pulse setup49
Nissan 28401NDS02 EQ/MC 01Measurement of conducted transient emission50
Nissan 28401NDS02 EQ/MC 01Measurement of conducted transient emissionComplicated Measurement Setup51
Teseq Transient Emission SystemPhotograph Courtesy of HKPCDetectable switchArtificialNetworkControl unitAES 550052
www.teseq.comJeffrey TsangJeffrey.firstname.lastname@example.orgThank you!Your Teseq partner:Hong KongDenetron InternationalLimited 852 2 707 email@example.com
Automotive Conducted EMC DC 12V, 24V, 42V Lots of different Transients Positive and Negative Transients Emission and Immunity Tests Lots of Voltage Fluctuation Extremely detailed in test setup: Harness height and length Separation Test Fixture Load Simulator Very long test time. 15 Automotive Conducted EMC Setup EUT is set to be in operation mode(s) Test Fixture Load simulator EUT example .
The onset of immunity against MD has been shown from 4 days of age. NO IMMUNITY GAP The immunity gap between waning of passive immunity and the onset of active immunity. During this period, birds are unprotected against IBD virus infection. vvIBDv or variant Active immunity Passive immunity Age AB titre Protective level Classical IBD vaccination
Active Immunity Immunity develops over time as a result of the body's contact with antigens Causes B cells to secrete the antibodies for the antigen Memory Cellsprovide long lasting immunity Natural Active Immunity Occurs when you are naturally exposed to antigen Acquired Active Immunity Occurs when you are injected with .
Types of Immunity Humoral immunity antibody -mediated immunity Provided by antibodies present in body fluids Cellular immunity cell -mediated immunity Targets virus -infected cells, cancer cells, and cells of foreign grafts _ _ _
immunity) Inherited immunity to certain diseases, born with genetic information that provides immunity to certain diseases. Acquired Immunity: Received during a person's lifetime, achieved naturally or artificially. Naturally Acquired Immunity: Own body produced antibodies ( also called active immunity- generally long lasting).
IEC 61000-4-11 Voltage Dips/Short Interruptions Immunity N/A Notes: 1. Harmonic Current Emissions, Voltage Fluctuations Emissions, Burst Immunity, Conducted RF Immunity, Surge Immunity, Voltage Dips/Short Interruptions Immunity tests were not performed as EUT is DC powered equipment and all I/O cables are less then 3.0m in length. .
immunity - active and passive. Active immunity Active immunity is protection that is produced by an individual's own immune system and is usually long-lasting. Such immunity generally involves cellular responses, serum antibodies or a combination acting against one or more antigens on the infecting organism. Active immunity can be acquired by
Protective immunity against viral infections involves humoral immunity and cell-mediated immunity (Fig. 1). Humoral immunity is provided by B lymphocytes which produce antibodies which may neutralize virus by bind-ing virus and preventing its entry into host cells. Cell-mediated immunity includes macrophages and CD8 sues. Productive T cell .
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