EBOOK Docker From Code To Container - Sumo Logic

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EBOOKDockerFrom Codeto ContainerHow Docker Enables DevOps, ContinuousIntegration and Continuous Delivery

Table of ContentsO1Docker and DevOps - Enabling DevOps Teams Through Containerization02Taking Docker to Production with Confidence03How to Build Applications with Docker Compose04Docker Logging and Comprehensive Monitoring

01 Docker and DevOps - Enabling DevOps Teams Through ContainerizationDocker and DevOps –Enabling DevOps Teams Through ContainerizationBy Michael FloydSoftware containers are a form of OS virtualization where the runningThe instant startup and small footprint also benefits cloud scenarios.container includes just the minimum operating system resources,More application instances can fit onto a machine than if they werememory and services required to run an application or service.each in their own VM, which allows applications to scale-out quickly.Containers enable developers to work with identical developmentenvironments and stacks. But they also facilitate DevOps byencouraging the use of stateless designs.Composition and ClusteringFor efficiency, many of the operating system files, directories andThe primary usage for containers has been focused on simplifyingrunning services are shared between containers and projectedDevOps with easy developer to test to production flows for servicesinto each container’s namespace. This sharing makes deployingdeployed, often in the cloud. A Docker image can be created thatmultiple containers on a single host extremely efficient. That’s greatcan be deployed identically across any environment in seconds.for a single application running in a container. In practice, though,Containers offer developers benefits in three areas:containers making up an application may be distributed acrossmachines and cloud environments.1. Instant startup of operating system resources2. Container Environments can be replicated, template-ized andblessed for production deployments.3. Small footprint leads to greater performance with highersecurity profile.The magic for making this happen is composition and clustering.Computer clustering is where a set of computers are loosely ortightly connected and work together so that they can be viewed asa single system. Similarly container cluster managers handle thecommunication between containers, manage resources (memory,The combination of instant startup that comes from OS virtualization,CPU, and storage), and manage task execution. Cluster managers alsoand the reliable execution that comes from namespace isolationinclude schedulers that manage dependencies between the tasks thatand resource governance makes containers ideal for applicationmake up jobs, and assign tasks to nodes.development and testing. During the development process, developerscan quickly iterate. Because its environment and resource usage areDockerconsistent across systems, a containerized application that works onDocker needs no introduction. Containerization has been arounda developer’s system will work the same way in a production system.for decades, but it is Docker that has reinvigorated this ancienttechnology. Docker’s appeal is that it provides a common toolset,packaging model and deployment mechanism that greatly simplifiesThe instant startup and small footprint alsobenefits cloud scenarios.the containerization and distribution of applications. These“Dockerized” applications can run anywhere on any Linux host. But assupport for Docker grows organizations like AWS, Google, Microsoft,and Apache are building in support.3

01 Docker and DevOps - Enabling DevOps Teams Through Containerizationon DockerHub. Docker has also formed the Open Container InitiativeSoftware developers are challenged withlog files that may be scattered in a variety ofdifferent isolated containers each with its ownlog system dependencies.(OCI) to ensure the packaging format remains universal and open.Amazon EC2 Container ServiceIf you running on AWS, Amazon EC2 Container Service (ECS) is acontainer management service that supports Docker containersand allows you to run applications on a managed cluster of AmazonEC2 instances. ECS provides cluster management including taskTo manage composition and clustering, Docker offers Dockermanagement and scheduling so you can scale your applicationsCompose that gives you a way of defining and running multi-containerdynamically. Amazon ECS also eliminates the need to install anddistributed applications. (We’ll look at Docker Compose in-depth in amanage your own cluster manager. ECS allows you to launch andlater chapter.) Then developers can use Docker Swarm to turn a poolkill Docker-enabled applications, query the state of your cluster, andof Docker hosts into a single, virtual Docker host. Swarm silentlyaccess other AWS services (e.g., CloudTrail, ELB, EBS volumes) andmanages the scaling of your application to multiple hosts.features like security groups via API calls.Another benefit of Docker is Dockerhub, the massive and growingecosystem of applications packaged in Docker containers. Dockerhubis a registry for Dockerized applications with currently well overWith Change Comes New Challenges235,000 public repositories. Need a Web server in a container?While both DevOps and containers are helping improve softwarePull Apache httpd. Need a database? Pull the MySQL image.quality and breaking down monolithic applications, the emphasisWhatever major service you need, there’s probably an image for iton automation and continuous delivery also leads to new issues.The Sumo Logic App for Docker provides a complete overview of your Docker environment including container consumption, actions, traffic and network errors.4

01 Docker and DevOps - Enabling DevOps Teams Through ContainerizationSoftware developers are challenged with log files that may beA Model for Comprehensive Monitoringscattered in a variety of different isolated containers each with itsIn a later chapter, we’ll show how the Sumo Logic App for Docker usesown log system dependencies. Developers often implement their owna container that includes a collector and a script source to gatherlogging solutions, and with them language dependencies. As Christianstatistics and events from the Docker Remote API on each host. TheBeedgen notes later in this book, this is particularly true of containersapp basically wraps events into JSON messages, then enumeratesbuilt with earlier versions of Docker. To summarize, organizations areover all running containers and listens to the event stream. Thisfaced with:essentially creates a log for container events. In addition, the appcollects configuration information obtained using Docker’s Inspect Organizing applications made up of different components to runacross multiple containers and servers. Container security – (namespace isolation)API. The app also collects host and daemon logs, giving developersand DevOps teams a way to monitor their entire Docker infrastructurein real time. Containers deployed to production are difficult to updatewith patches. Logs are no longer stored in one uniform place, they are scattered ina variety of different isolated containers.Using this approach, developers no longer have to synchronizebetween different logging systems (that might require Java or Node.js), agree on specific dependencies, or risk of breaking code inother containers.If you’re running Docker on AWS, you can of course monitor yourcontainer environment as described above. But Sumo Logic alsoprovides a collection of Apps supporting all things AWS including outof-the-box solutions for Sumo Logic App for CloudTrail, AWS Config,AWS ELB, and many others, thus giving you a comprehensive view ofyour entire environment.5

02 Taking Docker to Production with ConfidenceTaking Docker to Production with ConfidenceBy Baruch Sadogurskyway or another. If you go to any software development or DevOpsSoftware Quality: Developer Tested,Ops Approvedconference and ask a big crowd of people “Who uses Docker?”, mostA typical software delivery pipeline looks something like this (and haspeople in the room will raise their hands. But if you now ask the crowd,done for over a decade!)Many organizations developing software today use Docker in one“Who uses Docker in production?”, most hands will fall immediately.Why is it, that such a popular technology that has enjoyed meteoricAt each phase in the pipeline, the representative build is tested,growth is so widely used at early phases of the development pipeline,and the binary outcome of this build can only pass through tobut rarely used in production?the next phase if it passes all the criteria of the relevant qualitygate. By promoting the original binary we guarantee that thesame binary we built in the CI server is the one deployed ordistributed. By implementing rigid quality gates we guarantee theaccess control to untested, tested and production-ready artifacts.Source: Hüttermann, Michael. Agile ALM. Shelter Island, N.Y.: Manning, 2012. Print.Caption goes here. This should be in either White or Sumo Black. It needs to stand out against the background.6

02 Taking Docker to Production with ConfidenceThe Unbearable Lightness of Docker BuildBut, what was that version again? Is it older or newer than the one ISince running a Docker build is so easy, instead of a build passingwas using last week?through a quality gate to the next phase You get the picture. Using fingerprints is neither readable nor it is REBUILT at each phase.maintainable, and in the end, nobody really knows what went into theDocker image.“So what,” you say? So plenty. Let’s look at a typical build script.Using fingerprints is neither readable normaintainable And what about the rest of the dockerfile? Most of it is just a bunchof implicit or explicit dependency resolution, either in the form of aptget, or wget commands to download files from arbitrary locations.For some of the commands you can nail down the version, but withothers, you aren’t even sure they do dependency resolution! And whatTo build your product, you need a set of dependencies, and the buildabout transitive dependencies?will normally download the latest versions of each dependency youneed. But since each phase of the development pipeline is built at aSo you end up with this:different time, you can’t be sure that the same version of each dependency inthe development version also got into your production version.But we can fix that. Let’s use:FROM ubuntu:14.04.Done.Or are we?Can we be sure that the Ubuntu version 14.04 downloaded indevelopment will be exactly the same as the one built for production?Rebuilding Docker images at each stage of the development cycle makes dependencyresolution difficult.No, we can’t. What about security patches or other changes that don’taffect the version number? But wait; there IS a way. Let’s use theBasically, by rebuilding the Docker image at each phase in the pipeline,fingerprint of the image. That’s rock solid! We’ll specify the baseyou are actually changing it, so you can’t be sure that the image thatimage as:passed all the quality gates is the one that got to production.Caption goes here. This should be in either White or Sumo Black. It needsto stand out against the background.7

02 Taking Docker to Production with ConfidencePromoting your Docker image as an immutable and stable binary through the quality gates to production is a better option.Stop rebuilding, start promotingHow do you build a promotion pipeline if you can only work with oneWhat we should be doing, is taking our development build, and ratherregistry?than rebuilding the image at each stage, we should be promoting it,as an immutable and stable binary through the quality gates“I’ll promote using labels,” you say. “That way I only need one Dockerto production.registry per host.” That will work, of course, to some extent. Dockerlabels (plain key:value properties) may be a fair solution for promotingSounds good. Let’s do it with Docker.images through minor quality gates, but are they strong enough toguard your production deployment? Considering you can’t manageWait, not so fast.permissions on labels, probably not. What’s the name of the property?Did QA update it? Can developers still access (and change) theDocker tag is a dragThis is what a Docker tag looks like:release candidate? The questions go on and on. Instead, let’s look atpromotion for a more robust solution. After all, we’ve been doing it foryears with Artifactory.The Docker tag limits us to one registry per host.8

02 Taking Docker to Production with ConfidenceVirtual repositories tried and trueVirtual repositories have been in Artifactory since version 1.0. Morerecently, we also added the capability to deploy artifacts to a virtualrepository. This means that virtual repositories can be a single entrypoint for both upload and download of Docker images. Like the figureon the top right.Here’s what we’re going to do: Deploy our build to a virtual repository which functions as ourdevelopment Docker registry Promote the build within Artifactory through the pipeline Resolve production ready images from the same (or even aDeploying to a virtual repository.different) virtual repository now functioning as our productionDocker registryThis is how it works:Our developer (or our Jenkins) works with a virtual repository thatwraps a local development repository, a local production repository,and a remote repository that proxies Docker Hub (as the first step inthe pipeline, our developer may need access to Docker Hub in orderto create our image). Once our image is built, it’s deployed through thedocker-virtual repository to docker-dev-local. See the center image onthe right.Now, Jenkins steps in again and promotes our image through thepipeline to production. See the bottom image on the right.The Docker image is promoted through the build, and deployed through thedocker-virtual repository to docker-dev-local.At any step along the way, you can point a Docker client at any of theintermediate repositories, and extract the image for testing or stagingbefore promoting to production.Once your Docker image is in production, you can expose it to yourcustomers through another virtual repository functioning as yourproduction Docker registry. You don’t want customers accessing yourdevelopment registry or any of the others in your pipeline. Only theproduction Docker registry. There is no need for any other repositories,because unlike other package formats, the point of a docker image isthat it has everything it needs.You can point a Docker client at any of the intermediate repositories.9

02 Taking Docker to Production with ConfidenceExposing your image to customers through another virtual repository functioning as your production Docker registry.So we’ve done it. We built a Docker image, promoted it through allphases of testing and staging, and once it passed all those qualitygates, the exact same image we created in development is nowavailable for download by the end user or deployed to productionservers, without risk of a non-curated image being received.What about setup?You might ask if getting Docker to work with all these repositories inJFrog Artifactory is easy to setup? Well, it’s now easier than ever withour new Reverse Proxy Configuration Generator. Stick with Artifactoryand NGINX or Apache and you can easily access all of your Dockerregistries to start promoting Docker images to production.10

03 How to Build Applications with Docker ComposeHow to Build Applications with Docker ComposeBy Faisal PuthuparackatApplication development for the cloud has always been challenging.the whole of your application stack, as well as track application output,Cloud applications tend to run on headless Linux machines, withetc. Setting up the Docker toolbox on Mac OSX or Windows is fairlylittle or no development tools installed. According to a recent survey,easy. Head over to https://www.docker.com/products/docker-toolboxmost developers either use Windows or Mac OS X as their primaryto download the installer for your platform. On Linux, you simply installplatform. Statistically, only 21% of all developers appear to use LinuxDocker and Docker Compose using your native packaging tools.as their primary OS. About 26% use Mac OS X, and the remaining53% of developers use various versions of Microsoft Windows. So fordevelopers who use Windows or Mac as their primary OS, developingAn Example Applicationfor Linux would require running a Linux VM to test their code. WhileFor the sake of this exercise, let’s look at a simple Python app thatthis isn’t difficult in itself, replicating this VM environment for newuses a web framework, with Nginx acting as a reverse proxy sittingteam members isn’t easy, especially if there are a lot of tools andin front. Our aim is to run this application stack in Docker using thelibraries that need to be installed to run the application code.Docker Compose tool. This is a simple “Hello World” application. Let’sstart off with just the application. This is a single Python script thatDocker For Developmentuses the Pyramid framework. Let’s create a directory and add theapplication code there. Here’s what the directory structure looks like:Docker is a container mechanism that runs on Linux and allows you topackage an application with all of its dependencies into a standardizedunit for software development. While it is meant to act primarily ashelloworldapp.pya delivery platform, it also makes for a nice standard developmentplatform. Recent versions of the Docker toolbox aimed at WindowsI have created a directory called helloworld, in which there’s a singleand Mac provide an easy path to running Docker in a VM whilePython script called app.py. helloworld here represents my checkedsimultaneously providing access to the host machine’s filesystemout code tree.for shared access from within the Docker containers running in theVM. For applications that require extraneous services like MySQL,This makes up the contents of my example application app.py:Postgres, Redis, Nginx, HAProxy, etc., Docker provides a simple wayto abstract these away into containers that are easy to manage anddeploy for development or production. This allows you to focus onwriting and testing your application using the OS of your choice whilestill being able to easily run and debug the full application stackusing Docker.Docker ComposeDocker Compose is an orchestration tool for Docker that allows youto define a set of containers and their interdependencies in the formof a YAML file. You can then use Docker Compose to bring up part or11

03 How to Build Applications with Docker ComposeLet’s break this down to understand what our docker-composeIt simply listens on port 5000 and responds to all HTTP requests withdefinition means. We start off with the line “version: ‘2’”, which tells“Hello World!” If you wanted to run this natively on your Windows orDocker Compose we are using the new Docker Compose syntax.Mac machine, you would need to install Python, and then thePyramid module, along with all dependencies. Let’s run this underWe define a single service called helloworld, which runs from an imageDocker instead.called helloworld:1.0. (This of course doesn’t exist. We’ll come to thatlater.) It exposes a single port 5000 on the docker host that maps toport 5000 inside the container. It maps the helloworld directory thatIt’s always a good idea to keep theinfrastructure code separate from theapplication code.holds our app.py to /code inside the container.Now if you tried to run this as-is, using “docker-compose up”, dockercould complain that it couldn’t find helloworld:1.0. That’s because it’slooking on the docker hub for a container image called helloworld:1.0.We haven’t created it yet. So now, let’s add the recipe to create thisIt’s always a good idea to keep the infrastructure code separatecontainer image. Here’s what the file tree now looks like:from the application code. Let’s create another directory here calledcompose and add files here to containerize this application.Here’s what my file structure now looks like. The text in boldcomposedocker-compose.ymlrepresents new files and ymlhelloworldhelloworldapp.pyapp.pyWe’ve added a new directory called helloworld inside the composeThis makes up the contents of the docker-compose.yml:directory and added a file called Dockerfile there. The following makesLet’s break this down to understand what our docker-composeup the contents of Dockerfile:definition means. We start off with the line “version: ‘2’”, which tells12

03 How to Build Applications with Docker ComposeThis isn’t a very optimal Dockerfile, but it will do for us. It’s derivedfrom Ubuntu 14.04, and it contains the environment needed to runour Python app. It has the Python interpreter and the Pyramid Pythonmodule installed. It also defines /code as the working directory anddefines an entry point to the container, namely: “python app.py”. Itassumes that /code will contain a file called app.py that will then beexecuted by the Python interpreter.We’ll now change our docker-compose.yml to add a single line thattells Docker Compose to build the application container for us ifneeded. This is what it now looks like:We’ve added a single line “build: ./helloworld” to the helloworld service.It instructs Docker Compose to enter the compose/helloworlddirectory, run a docker build there, and tag the resultant image ashelloworld:1.0. It’s very concise. You’ll notice that we haven’t added theapplication app.py into the container. Instead, we’re actually mappingthe helloworld directory that contains app.py to /code inside thecontainer, and asking docker to run it from there. What that means is thatyou are free to modify the code using the developer IDE or editor of yourchoice on your host platform, and all you need to do is restart the dockercontainer to run new code. So let’s fire this up for the first time.Before we start, let’s find out the IP address of the docker machine sowe can connect to our application when it’s up. To do that, type docker-compose up13

03 How to Build Applications with Docker Compose.You should see something like the RLRunningtcp://1ERRORS*virtualbox--- 4a9ac1adb7a2Removing intermediate container 0ce70f83245992.168.99.100:2376v1.11.0This tells us that the Docker VM is running on InsideStep 7 : RUN pip install pyramid--- Running in 0907fb066fceDownloading/unpacking pyramid.the Docker terminal, navigate to the compose directory and run:Cleaning up. docker-compose up--- 48ef0b2c3674Removing intermediate container 0907fb066fceYou’re running docker-compose in the foreground. You should seesomething similar to this:Step 8 : WORKDIR /code--- Running in 5c691ab4d6ec--- 860dd36ee7f6 docker-compose upRemoving intermediate container 5c691ab4d6ecBuilding helloworldStep 9 : CMD python app.pyStep 1 : FROM ubuntu:14.04--- b72889fa879c--- Running in 8230b8989501--- 7b6d773a2eaeStep 2 : MAINTAINER Your Name your-email@Removing intermediate container 8230b8989501somedomain.com Successfully built 7b6d773a2eae--- Running in d40e1c4e45d8Creating compose helloworld 1--- f0d1fe4ec198Attaching to compose helloworld 1Removing intermediate container d40e1c4e45d8Step 3 : ENV HOME /root And it stays stuck there. This is now the application running inside--- Running in d6808a44f46fDocker. Don’t be overwhelmed by what you see when you run it for the--- b382d600d584first time. The long output is Docker attempting to build and tag theRemoving intermediate container d6808a44f46fcontainer image for you since it doesn’t already exist. After it’s builtStep 4 : ENV DEBIAN FRONTEND noninteractiveonce, it will reuse this image the next time you run it.--- Running in d25def6b366b--- b5d310716d1fRemoving intermediate container d25def6b366bNow open up a browser and try navigating tohttp:// 5 : RUN apt-get -yqq update--- Running in 198faaac5c1bYou should be greeted by a page that says Hello World!--- fb86cbdcbe2eRemoving intermediate container 198faaac5c1bSo, that’s our first application running under Docker. To stop theStep 6 : RUN apt-get install -yqq python python-application, simply type Ctrl-C at the terminal prompt and Dockerdev python-pipCompose will stop the container and exit. You can go ahead and--- Running in 0ce70f832459Extracting templates from packages: 100%change the code in the helloworld directory, add new code or modifyexisting code, and test it out using “docker-compose up” again.Preconfiguring packages .Selecting previously unselected packageTo run it in the background:libasan0:amd64. docker-compose up -d14

03 How to Build Applications with Docker ComposeTo tail the container standard output: docker-compose logs -fThis is a minimal application. Let’s now add a commodity containernginxconf.dhelloworld.confto the mix. Let’s pull in Nginx to act as the front-end to our application.Here, Nginx listens on port 80 and forwards all requests tohelloworldhelloworld:5000. This isn’t useful in itself, but helps us demonstratea few key concepts, primarily inter-container communication. It alsoapp.pydemonstrates the container dependency that Docker Compose canhandle for you, ensuring that your application comes up before NginxThe following makes up the contents of compose/nginx/conf.dcomes up, so it can then forward connections to the applicationcorrectly. Here’s the new docker-compose.yml file:This tells nginx to listen on port 80 and forward all requests for / tohelloworld:5000. Although port 5000 is no longer being forwardedto by Docker, it’s still exposed on the helloworld container and isaccessible from all other containers on the machine. This is how theconnections now work:browser - machine) - nginx:80 - nginx-process - hellworld:5000As you can see, we’ve added a new service here called nginx. We’vealso removed the port’s entry for helloworld, and instead we’ve addeda link to it from nginx. What this means is that the nginx serviceCommodity Containers And Docker Hubcan now communicate with the helloworld service using the nameThe nginx container for this example comes from the official Nginxhelloworld. Then, we also map the new nginx/conf.d directory to /etc/image on the Docker Hub. This version uses Alpine Linux as its basenginx/conf.d inside the container. This is what the tree now looks like:OS, instead of Ubuntu. Not only is the Alpine Linux version smaller insize, it also demonstrates one of the advantages of dockerization—composerunning commodity containers without worrying about underlyingdistribution. I could swap it out for the Debian version tomorrowdocker-compose.ymlwithout breaking a sweat.helloworldIt’s possible that your cloud application actually uses cloud serviceslike Amazon’s RDS for the database, or S3 for the object store, etc. YouDockerfilecould of course let your local instance of the application talk to theservices too, but the latency and the cost involved may beg for a more15

03 How to Build Applications with Docker Composedeveloper-friendly solution. The easy way out is to abstract the accessThe volume is defined in the top level volumes section as mydata.to these services via some configuration and point the applicationIt’s then used in the volumes section of the db service and maps theto local containers that offer the same service instead. So instead ofmydata volume to /var/lib/postgesql/data, so that when the postgresAmazon’s RDS, spin up a MySQL container and let your applicationcontainer starts, it actually writes to a separate container volumetalk to that. For Amazon S3, use LeoFS or minio.io in containers,named mydata.for example.While our example only mapped code into the application container,Container Configurationyou could potentially get data out of the container just as easily. In ourdata volume example, we map a directory called logs to /var/log insideUnless you’ve created your own images for the commodity services,the postgres container. So all postgres logs should end up in the logsyou might need to pass on configuration information in the form ofdirectory, which we could then analyze using our native Windows/files or environment variables. This can usually be expressed in theMac tools. The Docker toolbox maps volumes into the VM runningform of environment variables defined in the docker-compose.yml file,the docker daemon using vboxfs, Virtualbox’s shared filesystemor as mapped directories inside the container for configuration files.implementation. It does so transparently, so it’s easy to use withoutWe’ve already seen an example of overriding configuration in the nginxany extra setup.section of the docker-compose.yml file.Docker is constantly evolving, and each version of the core DockerManaging Data, Configuration and LogsFor a real-world application, it’s very likely that you have someEngine, as well as the associated tools, are constantly improving.Utilizing them effectively for development should result in a dramaticimprovement in productivity for your team.persistent storage in the form of RDBMS or NoSQL storage. This willtypically store your application state. Keeping this data inside thecommodity container would mean you couldn’t really swap it out forReferencesa different version or entity later without losing your application data.Developer OS split statisticsThat’s where data volumes come in. Data volumes allow you to keepDocker toolboxstate separately in a different container volume. Here’s a snippet fromDocker Compose referencethe official Docker Compose documentation about how to usedata volumes:Caption goes here. This should be in either White or Sumo Black. It needsto stand out against the background.16

04 Docker Logging and Comprehensive MonitoringDocker Logging and Comprehensive Monitoring

To manage composition and clustering, Docker offers Docker Compose that gives you a way of defining and running multi-container distributed applications. (We’ll look at Docker Compose in-depth in a later chapter.) Then developers can use Docker Swarm to turn a pool of Docker hosts into a sin

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