Topic 1: Definition Of Marketing, Marketing Management .

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Topic 1: Definition of marketing, marketingmanagement, concepts and process.1. IntroductionExchanging goods and services is one of the earliest activities of humans relating to otherhumans. This activity began very simply, by exchanging food, but over time it has changed agreat deal, both in how we understand it and in how it is done.Marketing is a particular way to conceive and perform the exchange of goods and services, orin other words, trade.Marketing is a specific way to carry out a commercial relationship, and consists of identifying,creating, developing and meeting demand; it is an organised process intended to create andretain customers.Marketing was first used in the United States in the early 20th century by companiesproducing mass market products; it gradually spread, and today can be found in manydifferent spheres (services, non-profits, political, social and public institutions, etc.).Marketing has been revolutionised in recent years with the arrival of new technologies: digitalmarketing. Technology paved the way for a more innovative, participatory and connected kindof marketing, with the traditional tools now supplemented by new ones (the internet, socialnetworks, mobile apps, data analysis, etc.).2. Marketing managementManaging the commercial activity of a company or institution, if marketing principles areapplied, is called marketing management.The goal of marketing management is to identify and satisfy customers’ needs throughmanaging stable relationships with them, and its basic task is to meet this goal as effectively aspossible.We define marketing management as the science of choosing target markets and creatingprofitable relationships.To do this, marketing management involves: Analysing the situation (the market, the competition, the environment, etc.).Planning the goals that you hope to reach.Designing strategies to reach the company’s goals.Putting these strategies into practice through planned actions.Topic 1 Definition of marketing, marketing management, concepts and process1

Organising the human and material resources available to perform the actions.Monitoring the results and making course corrections if necessary.The planning and execution of any marketing activity is based on four basic elements: thefamous 4 Ps of marketing.3. The marketing processThere are five stages in the marketing process: the market and customers’ needs/wantsDesigning a marketing strategy aimed at creating customer valueCreating a marketing programme/plan which provides better valueRetaining customers, building stable, profitable relationships which keep the customerhappy5. Capturing customer value to earn profitsWe analyse each of them in more detail below.3.1. Understanding the market and customers’ needsThe marketer’s first step is to understand customers’ wants and needs in the market. Let’s lookat some basic concepts of customers and the market.3.1.1. Customers’ needs, wants and demandsTopic 1 Definition of marketing, marketing management, concepts and process2

A need is the feeling of lacking something, a physiological or psychological statecommon to all human beings, regardless of ethnicity or culture.A want is how the desire to meet a demand is expressed, according to the personalcharacteristics of the individual, cultural, social and environmental factors, andmarketing stimuli.A demand is when a want becomes reality thanks to the resources available to theindividual.Need is unlimited, while resources are limited; for this reason, the purchaser willallocate them as they deem most appropriate. This is where marketing comes in,because it affects demand: it identifies, creates and develops demand, making itpossible for wants to become a reality.Companies and marketing professionals engage in a lengthy process to learn about andunderstand customers’ needs, wants and demands: They study the marketThey analyse customer dataThey observe how customers buy and interact, both physically and online.3.1.2. Offerings: products, services and experiencesNeeds and wants are satisfied by an offering: a given combination of products, servicesand/or experiences which the company offers on the market to satisfy a need or want.A company’s offerings consist of products: any material good, service or idea that hasvalue for the customer and can satisfy a need.Topic 1 Definition of marketing, marketing management, concepts and process3

Good: a physical object. It can be consumable (e.g., a drink) or durable (e.g., anappliance).Service: application of human or mechanical force to people, animals orobjects. Services are intangible, ephemeral, and cannot be stored (e.g., bankservices, legal representation, repairs, etc.).Idea: a concept, philosophy, opinion or image. Ideas are intangible (e.g., givingblood, or a political party’s manifesto).Marketing-oriented companies focus on the advantages and experiences offered bytheir products or services.3.1.3. Customer value and satisfactionIn any type of product or service, customers have a very wide range of offerings on themarket: a plethora of products and services which satisfy a given need. How can theychoose from so many offerings?Customers create expectations about the value and satisfaction of the variousofferings on the market and buy according to them. A satisfied customer: will buy againAn unsatisfied customer: will buy from a competitor and criticise the productto othersTherefore, marketing professionals must be very careful when establishing the level ofexpectation for their product: If they define very low expectations, they may satisfy those who are alreadybuying, but will not attract new customers.If they raise expectations too high, buyers may be disappointed.The value of a product or service for the customer, and the satisfaction they get fromit, are key components in developing and managing the customer relationship.3.1.4. Exchanges and relationshipsMarketing professionals are trying to elicit a reaction to a given offering on the market.Marketing happens when people decide to satisfy their needs and wants through anexchange relationship – in other words, through the act of obtaining a desired objectand/or service by offering something in return.Marketing consists of performing actions to create and maintain exchange relationshipswith target audiences in relation to products, services or ideas.Going further than attracting new customers, the goal is to keep them and have themincrease their exchanges with the company.3.1.5. MarketsTopic 1 Definition of marketing, marketing management, concepts and process4

The exchange concept brings us to another new concept, the market: the set of currentand potential buyers of a product or service.Marketing manages these markets to create stable relationships with these customers.3.2. Designing a customer-oriented marketing strategy and planWhen marketers know and understand the customers in a market, they can design acustomer-oriented strategy. To do this they must answer two fundamental questions: What customers are we going to cater to? What is our target market?What is the best way to serve those customers? What is our value proposition?First, the company must decide which customers it will focus on; it is not possible to serve allits potential customers well and, therefore, it must select the customers it can attend to wellwhile also making a profit. To make this selection the market must be divided intogroups/types of customer, known as market segmentation.Meanwhile, the company must decide how it will serve its target customers - in other words,how it will differentiate itself and position itself in the market.To establish its market position, a company must define its value proposition: the set ofbenefits or values it promises to provide for its customers to meet their needs. The valueproposition is what differentiates one brand from another.A clear, strong value proposition enables a company to gain a competitive advantage in itsmarket, because it offers something that others do not, or offers the same product or servicein a different way.To sum up, a company’s marketing strategy consists of defining which customers it will focuson and how it will create value for them.3.3. Creating a marketing planAfter deciding on their strategy, marketing professionals will develop their marketingprogramme or plan – in other words, turning their strategy into action.To carry out this plan, they use the tools which make up the marketing mix. These tools arethe famous 4 Ps of marketing: Product: the good or service being offered.Price: the value the company sets for the product.Placement: the system used to bring the product to the market.Promotion: communicating the benefits of the product (advertising, personalselling, point of sale promotion, etc.).Topic 1 Definition of marketing, marketing management, concepts and process5

To concretise its value proposition, a company will create an offering (product) which meets aneed; it will decide how much to charge for that offering (price), how to make the offeringavailable to its target consumers (placement) and how to communicate the offering to itstarget customers and convince them of its benefits (promotion).3.4. Retaining customers, building stable, profitable relationships which keep the customerhappyAll the steps in the marketing process lead to the most important element: building profitablerelationships with the customers.For this purpose, it is essential to manage customer relations: customer capture, retentionand development.The key to creating long-term relationships with customers is to create more value andsatisfaction for the customer, because a satisfied customer is a loyal one.Attracting and retaining customers is a hard task, because they usually have a large variety tochoose from. Normally, they will choose the offering with the greatest perceived value:customers assess the difference between the cost and benefit obtained, comparing it withcompetitors’ offerings.Consumer satisfaction depends on the perceived performance of the product in relation to thebuyer’s expectations.Topic 1 Definition of marketing, marketing management, concepts and process6

If the product performs worse than expected, the consumer will be dissatisfied.If the product performs according to expectations, the consumer will be satisfied.If the product exceeds expectations, the consumer will be very satisfied.Marketing-oriented companies work to keep their customers satisfied, because a highsatisfaction level can lead to greater loyalty and thus better returns for the company.3.5. Capturing customer value to earn profitsThe final stage of the marketing process consists of receiving value in exchange for theproduct supplied or service provided to the customer. This value may be in the form of sales,market share or current and future profits. Creating value enables companies to retaincustomers, increasing: Customer lifetime value: the customer’s future purchases of a product or servicethroughout their life.Good customer relationship management means ensuring the customer is delightedwith our products or services, because happy customers are loyal, and speak well ofthe company and its products to the people around them.Loyal customers spend more, while losing a customer means losing money. Customer share: a company’s share of all the purchases made by a consumer in itsproduct category. Companies can improve this share with various marketingtechniques: cross-selling, a wider range of products, or improving sales so customersbuy more products and services. Customer capital: the total discounted values throughout the life of all the company’scurrent and potential customers. Therefore, this is a measurement of the future valueof the company’s customer base. The more loyal the profitable customers of acompany, the greater its customer capital.The figure below illustrates the marketing process.Topic 1 Definition of marketing, marketing management, concepts and process7

Topic 1 Definition of marketing, marketing management, concepts and process8

Topic 2: Analysing the marketing environment1. PresentationThis chapter explains the first of the five stages of the marketing process: analysingand understanding the market and customers’ needs in an environment which is oftencomplex and changeable.Apart from the customer, there are many players who may work for or against thecompany’s interests (suppliers, competitors, intermediaries, etc.), as well as elementsin the environment which may present opportunities or threats (these elements maybe economic, cultural, technological, demographic, etc.).All these aspects can affect the company’s ability to attract customers and build astable relationship with them. Therefore, in order to develop an effective marketingstrategy, the company first needs to understand the environment in which it operates.2. The marketing environmentThe environment in which a company finds itself comprises non-marketing agents andforces which influence the ability of marketing management to build and maintainstable relationships with their target customers. For this reason, the company must bealert to new developments and changes in its environment, take them into account,adapt to them, and even lead such changes.Within the company, the marketer must monitor trends and changes for threats andopportunities, with the help of the appropriate tools (market research and marketingintelligence), and should also spend much of their time studying the environment oftheir company and their competitors.Both factors will enable them to anticipate new challenges and opportunities in themarket and be prepared to adapt their company’s marketing strategy.The marketing environment comprises the micro-environment and the macroenvironment.2.1. The micro-environmentAgents close to the company which influence its ability to serve its customers: thecompany itself, suppliers, marketing intermediaries, consumer markets, competitorsand stakeholders.Topic 2 Analysing the marketing environment9

Marketing will be successful if it builds effective relationships with the otherdepartments in the company, suppliers, and the other agents in the microenvironment, because all of them make up the company’s value-creating network.When designing the company’s marketing plan, the marketer must take into accountthe rest of the departments, which make up the internal environment and influencetheir decisions.Suppliers are important agents because they provide the company with the resourcesit needs to produce its goods and services. Hence, any problems with the suppliers canaffect the company, especially its marketing department.Marketing intermediaries help the company promote, sell and distribute its productsto customers; they include storage and physical distribution companies, as well asmarketing services (market research, advertising agencies, graphic design studios,etc.).To be successful, a company must offer its customers greater value and satisfactionthan its competitors. Therefore, as well as taking into account the customers’ needs,the marketing professional must achieve a strategic advantage over its peers.The marketing micro-environment is also influenced by stakeholders; by this we meanany group which impacts the company’s ability to reach its financial, media,governmental, civil, internal, general or local goals.Customers are the most important group of agents in the company microenvironment, as the entire organisation revolves around them and the goal ofestablishing successful relationships with them.While on the subject of customers, we must also refer to a broader concept, which willbe the context within which the marketing department operates: the market. Weunderstand “the market” to be the set of people, individuals or in organisations, whoTopic 2 Analysing the marketing environment10

need a given product or service, who want to buy it or may want to in the future, andwho have the financial and legal capacity to do so.From the marketing perspective, we refer to five types of customer markets: Consumer markets: individuals and households who acquire products orservices for personal consumption.Industrial markets: buying goods and services for use in their productionprocess.Reseller markets: buying goods and services to resell for profit.Government markets: public bodies which buy goods and services to producepublic services.International markets: buyers in other countries.2.1. The macro-environmentThe broader social forces which affect the micro-environment: demographic,economic, natural, technological, political and cultural factors. These factors make upthe opportunities and threats which a company may face. Some of them areunpredictable and uncontrollable, but others can be predicted and handled by skilledmanagement.Companies which can predict, understand and adapt to their environment can remainsuccessful, but those which cannot may find themselves in difficulties, even in the caseof major corporations.Demographic factors are relevant for marketing professionals because they refer toindividuals who make up the markets. Therefore, they must pay attention to trends,Topic 2 Analysing the marketing environment11

changes and developments which could affect their business: family structure,migrations, ageing population, etc.A functioning market requires individuals with purchasing power; the factors affectingconsumers’ purchasing power and spending patterns make up the economicenvironment. These factors have a major impact on buying habits and consumerspending.Natural factors refer both to the natural resources which companies need (forexample, their operation could be affected by a shortage of raw materials) and tounexpected natural phenomena which can affect them, such as natural or climatedisasters. The latter are unpredictable, but companies must be ready to deal withthem if they happen, both to avoid problems and to respond to any which mightrepresent an opportunity.Technology might be the force which has had the most impact on companies andmarketing in recent years. Technological factors are bringing major changes in themarkets, enabling the development of new products and creating new opportunities(credit cards, internet, mobile phones, telemedicine, online sales, smartphones, etc.)Meanwhile, the impact of new technologies has led to a new way of understandingmarketing: digital marketing involves the use of digital tools and resources to reachcustomers more directly and in a more personalised way.In many companies, marketing decisions are very much affected by changes in sociopolitical factors. These factors include legislation, government organisations andpressure groups.They are particularly relevant for companies operating in regulated markets (e.g.,pharmaceutical products, telecommunications, etc.), and to a lesser extent to all othercompanies, as they are all subject to some degree to legislation, new regulations dueto changes of government, changes due to unstable political situations, etc.Finally, companies may be affected by cultural factors, meaning the basic values,perceptions, preferences and behaviour of a society. Everyone grows up in a givensociety which shapes their belief system, basic values, needs and tastes, allcharacteristics which affect decision-making in marketing (for example, different familymodels, leisure activities or food in different countries).3. Managing the marketing environmentThere is a significant saying in marketing about companies and how they manage theirenvironment:“There are three types of company: those that make things happen, those that watchthem happen, and those that wonder what happened.”Topic 2 Analysing the marketing environment12

The first type is proactive: they develop strategies and take action to change theirenvironment, organise media events to get their message to the public, work toencourage legislation which lets them operate, etc., in other words, these companiesmanage the information they have about their environment, which enables them toanticipate events and adapt the environment to suit their interests.These companies and their products are the ones that usually create new industriesand markets (Amazon, Google, Facebook, Cabify, etc.).Meanwhile, the other two are reactive, merely watching and reacting when thingshave already happened, and in the worst-case scenario by the time they realise whathas happened they have no valid solutions.Topic 2 Analysing the marketing environment13

Topic 3: Managing marketing information1. PresentationTo design marketing strategies, we need to know and understand the market, and tohave relevant information on vital elements of it, such as consumers, products andcompetitors.Knowing these aspects means obtaining data. Therefore, we are now going to analysehow companies can obtain this information and, more importantly, how they manageit – in other words, how they gain knowledge about the market to enable them tomake the right decisions.2. The marketing information systemKnowledge of the market and consumers is vital for marketers, as it enables them todesign good marketing programmes and to make the right decisions.Information has no intrinsic value without analysis; the value is found in theknowledge we extract from it and how marketers use it for making decisions.These days it is easy to obtain market information; thanks to the new technologies,companies can obtain information from many sources. Consumers themselvesgenerate tonnes of data through their mobile phones, tablets, social networks, apps, ecommerce, videos, geolocation, etc.In fact, we have gone from market information being hard to find, to having too muchof it. Therefore, now the challenge is knowing how to extract the most relevantinformation and use it to produce useful knowledge.To manage this information, companies usually have a marketing information system:people and procedures which look for information needs, obtain the necessaryinformation and transform it into useful information for the company’s decisionmakers.Topic 3 Managing marketing information14

3. The process of the marketing information systemThe first step is to assess your information needs; it is important to make an honestanalysis of these needs in order to avoid casting your net too wide and ending up withan information overload.Once you have decided what information you need, the second phase begins:searching for that information. Marketers can obtain data from various sources: Internal databases: electronic collections of information on customers andmarkets obtained from sources of data on the company’s own network.Competitive intelligence: systematically monitoring, gathering and analysinginformation in the public domain on consumers, competitors and markettrends. This can be done by first-hand observation of consumers, interviews inthe sales network, comparative analysis of competitors’ products, monitoringsocial networks, talking to suppliers, etc.Commercial research: the systematic design, gathering, analysis andpresentation of information on a specific marketing situation/problem facingan organisation.When you have the information, the next phase is to extract value from it: informationanalysis. To analyse the information, marketers can rely on their own expertknowledge or use analytical models such as CRM or Big Data.Topic 3 Managing marketing information15

CRM: software which integrates customer information obtained from thecustomer’s points of contact with the company (purchases, sales staff,customer services, websites, etc.)Big Data: tools which can find patterns in large amounts of data.All the obtained and analysed information has no value until it is used for decisionmaking and, therefore, the marketing information system must bring this informationto executives, usually in the form of reports.4. Commercial researchAs well as internal information and data obtained through in-house resources,marketers usually need formal studies of specific situations and decisions, which iswhere commercial research comes into play.Commercial research is the systematic and objective search for and analysis ofinformation of relevance for identifying and solving a marketing situation orproblem.The information obtained by means of commercial research must meet severalrequirements: Reducing uncertaintyBeing a potential influence on decision-makingJustifying its costSome large companies have their own commercial research departments, but it ismore usual to outsource this task to specialist researchers.The commercial research process consists of several phases:1. Defining the goals of the research: identifying the problem and establishingthe desired goals of the research at the start of the process.2. Designing the research plan: defining the specific information to be searchedfor, designing a plan for gathering it efficiently, and deciding on the sample andresearch methodology to be used.3. Obtaining the information: selecting the information sources, defining how theinformation will be obtained (in person, by telephone, online), and selectingthe sample (its size and the sampling procedure).4. Interpreting the results: the researcher reviews the information obtained andthen analyses and interprets the data in order to draw conclusions.5. Drafting the report: the research process is reflected in a report to bepresented to the customer.Topic 3 Managing marketing information16

Commercial research involves two types of analyses: Quantitative: this provides figures and statistics and is used to answerquestions about potential market demand, sales quotas, prices and salesanalysis. It is usually conducted through surveys and panels. We use thismethodology when we want an answer to the question “How many people door think X?” Qualitative: used in analysis of trends, attitudes, perceptions and opinions. Themost frequent techniques are in-person or phone interviews and groupmeetings. We use this methodology when we want an answer to the question“What do people do or think, and why?”The research methodology you choose depends on whether representativeness ordepth is the priority; in other words, choosing between gathering data which can beextrapolated quantitatively to a research population, or finding explanations for thosedata.Marketing research usually draws conclusions on large groups of customers based onthe study of a small group, the sample; this is a segment of the population selected torepresent the entire population in the context of commercial research.The most important factor when selecting a sample is that it should be representative.Therefore, you should ask the following questions: The sampling unit: who will be interviewed?Topic 3 Managing marketing information17

Sample size: how many people?The method: how will the individuals in the sample be selected?Commercial research can be useful for a wide range of applications: General: market structure, market potential, market segmentation, consumerbehaviour, analysis of strategic plans, analysis of competitors’ strategies,market tests.Product: purchase and use, image, positioning, proof of concept, producttesting, sales model for new products.Price: pricing structure, price elasticity of demand, buyer’s price perception.Distribution: selection of distribution channels, location of points of sale,design and decoration of points of sale.Sales: performance, motivation and compensation of sales staff; sales areasand quotas.Advertising: message testing, selecting media, effectiveness of advertising,company image.5. Commercial research in small companiesAll companies, whether large or small, need information on customers and markets inorder to make decisions; they may not require a marketing information system orlarge-scale research, but there are many research techniques available for lowerbudgets: Observation at the point of saleInformal polling of small samplesOnline surveysSearching for information online: analysing the websites and social networkpresence of competitors, products and customers.Topic 3 Managing marketing information18

Topic 4: Customer behaviour1. PresentationThe goal of marketing is to attract consumers. To do this, marketers must understandcustomer behaviour very well.Consumer behaviour refers to the set of actions taken by a person or organisationfrom the emergence of a need to the purchase and use of the product, as well as thefactors influencing those actions.Therefore, we will focus on the “what, when and how” of customer buying decisions.Understanding these aspects will enable us to: Identify current and future needs more efficientlyImprove our ability to communicate with the customerEarn their trust and ensure their loyaltyPlan commercial actions more effectively2. The consumer behaviour modelPeople make many buying decisions over the course of a day. Influencing these buyingdecisions is the main focus of marketing. To understand our customer’s behaviourmodel, we need to answer the following questions: What do they buy?Who buys?Why do they buy?How do they buy?When do they buy?Where do they buy?How much do they buy?With the answers obtained, marketing professionals can design the most appropriateactions to attract customers and establish a relationship with them.There are many different factors influencing consumer behaviour and buyingdecisions: Cultural: these factors have the most influence. Culture means behaviour learnedat a basic level which affects the individual’s behaviour.Topic 4 Customer behaviour19

Social: an individual’s behaviour is influenced by many small groups. The groupswhich directly influence a person’s behaviour are called groups of belonging; thosewhich the individual refers to and aspires to join are reference groups. The family isthe most important

2. Marketing management Managing the commercial activity of a company or institution, if marketing principles are applied, is called marketing management. The goal of marketing management is to identify and satisfy customers’ needs through managing stable relationships with them, and its ba

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