FRACTIONS MODULE Part I

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FRACTIONS MODULEPart II.Basics of FractionsII. Rewriting Fractions in the Lowest TermsIII. Change an Improper Fraction into a MixedNumberIV. Change a Mixed Number into an ImproperFractionBMR.Fractions Part IPage 1

I.Fraction: BasicsIntroduction: This is the first of four parts on working with fractions. You’re going to review a fewdefinitions regarding fractions. Afterwards, you’re going to try to do some problems on your own. Therewill be 20 problems for you to practice. After you’re successful in doing the practice problems, try the shortquiz. The answers can be found at the end of each section.Definitions:The numerator is written above the fraction bar and the denominator is written under the fraction bar.Another way to look at defining a fraction is written as a part of the whole. The part is alwayswritten in the numerator. The whole is always written in the denominator.A) Example: What part of the bar is shaded?Step 1: Count how many pieces the bar contains.The whole bar is broken up into 6 pieces.Therefore the whole 6 pieces.Step 2: Count how many pieces of the bar is shaded.The part of the bar that is shaded is 5 pieces.Therefore, the part 5 pieces.Step 3: Put all the information from Step 1 and Step 2 together to get a fraction.The numerator is 5 and the denominator is 6.Answer:BMR.Fractions Part Iof the bar is shadedPage 2

B) Example: What part of the bar is not shaded?Step 1: The bar has how many pieces? 6This is the denominator or the whole.Step 2: The bar has how many pieces not shaded? 1This is the numerator or the part.Step 3: Write the information from Step 1 and Step 2 in fraction format.Answer:of the bar is not shaded.C) Example:a) What part of the bar is shaded?b) What part of the bar is not shaded?a) What part of the bar is shaded?Step 1: 12 piecesStep 2: 7 pieces are shadedStep 3:of the bar is shaded.b) What part of the bar is not shaded?Step 1: 12 piecesStep 2: 5 pieces are not shadedStep 3:BMR.Fractions Part Iof the bar is not shaded.Page 3

D) You Try:1. In the figure:a. What part of the figure is shaded?b. What part of the figure is not shaded?2. In the figure:a. What part of the figure is shaded?b. What part of the figure is not shaded?3. BONUS. In the figure:a. What part of the figure is shaded?b. What part of the figure is not shaded?Answers to D ”You Try” : 1a. 3/6 or 1/2, 1b. 3/6 or 1/2, 2a. 2/5, 2b. 3/5, 3a. 1 2/5, 3b. 3/5BMR.Fractions Part IPage 4

E) Identifying the Types of Fractions.Three Types of Fractions1. Proper Fraction2. Improper Fraction3. Mixed Number1) Proper FractionDefinition: A proper fraction is a fraction with a numerator that is smaller than thedenominator.Examples:,,,,2) Improper FractionDefinition: An improper fraction is a fraction with a numerator that is larger than thedenominator.Examples:,,,3) Mixed NumberDefinition: A number that is made up of the sum of a whole number and a proper fraction.Examples:BMR.Fractions Part I,,,Page 5

F) PRACTICE PROBLEMS. (20)Write a fraction that represents the shaded part of the figure.1)2)3)4)5)Identify what type of fraction for the )BMR.Fractions Part IPage 6

Answers to F “Practice Problems”: 1) ; 2) ; 3); 4) ; 5); 6) proper fraction; 7) mixed number; 8)proper fraction; 9)improper fraction; 10) improper fraction; 11) mixed number; 12) proper fraction; 13) improper fraction ; 14) mixed number; 15)mixed number; 16) proper fraction; 17) proper fraction; 18) mixed number; 19) mixed number; 20) improper fractioG) QUIZ. (5 questions)Write a fraction that represents the shaded part of the figure.1)2)Identify the type of fraction for the following:3)4)5)Answers to G “Quiz”: 1)BMR.Fractions Part I; 2) ; 3) improper fraction; 4) proper fraction; 5) mixed numberPage 7

II. Rewriting Fractions in Lowest Terms.This is the second of four parts on understanding fractions. You’re going to look at examples on how torewrite fractions in lowest terms. Afterwards, you’re going to try to do some problems on your own. Therewill be 20 problems for you to practice. After you’re successful in doing the practice problems, try the shortquiz. The answers can be found at the end of each section.A) Method 1: Prime FactorizationExample: Rewritein lowest terms.STEP 1: Find the prime factorization for 63.Recall that prime numbers are numbers that can only be divided by the number and one.The number 1 is not a prime number. Here is a list of a first ten prime numbers: 2, 3, 5, 7,11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29.Use a prime factorization tree to break down 63 into its prime numbers.633213(3 x 21 63; 3 is a prime number)7(3 x 7 21; 3 & 7 are prime numbers)The prime factorization of 63 3 x 3 x 7.STEP 2: Find the prime factorization for 81Use a prime factorization tree to break down 81 into its prime numbers.813273(3 x 27 81; 3 is a prime number)93(3 x 9 27; 3 is a prime number)3(3 x 3 9; 3 & 3 are a prime numbers)The prime factorization for 81 3 x 3 x 3 x 3STEP 3: Rewrite the fraction using the prime factorizations of both 63 and 81.BMR.Fractions Part IPage 8

STEP 4: Cancel like factors.STEP 5: Multiply the left over factors to get your new fraction reduced to lowest terms.B) Method 2: Guess and ReduceExample: Rewritein lowest terms.STEP 1: Guess what number can be divided into the numerator and then the denominator without aremainder.Since both numbers are even, guess 2.STEP 2: Divide numerator and denominator by 2.STEP 3: Guess what number can be divided into the numerator and then the denominator of thefraction in STEP 2 without a remainder.Try dividing each number by 3.BMR.Fractions Part IPage 9

C)You Try:a)Answers to C “You Try”:BMR.Fractions Part Ic)b)a)b)c)Page 10

D) PRACTICE PROBLEMS.Rewrite the following fractions in lowest )19)20)Answers to D “Practice Problems”: 1) ; 2) ; 3) ; 4) ; 5) ; 6) ; 7) ; 8) ; 9) ; 10) ; 11) ; 12) ; 13) ; 14) ; 15); 17); 18); 19); 16); 20)BMR.Fractions Part IPage 11

E) QUIZ.Rewrite the following fractions in lowest terms.1)2)3)4)5)Answers to E “ Quiz”: 1) ; 2) ; 3) ; 4) ; 5)BMR.Fractions Part IPage 12

III.Changing an Improper Fraction into a Mixed Number.Introduction: This is the third of four parts on understanding fractions. You’re going to look at someexamples on how to change an improper fraction into a mixed number. Afterwards, you’re going to try to dosome problems on your own. There will be 20 problems for you to practice. After you’re successful indoing the practice problems, try the short quiz. The answers can be found at the end of each section.A) Example 1: Changeinto a mixed number.Step 1: Rewrite the fraction as a division problem. The denominator becomes the divisor and thenumerator becomes the dividend.QuotientDivisor Dividend7 15Step 2: Divide 7 into 15.27 15–141(2 x 7 14)RemainderStep 3: Use the different parts of the division problem to construct the mixed number.The parts of a mixed number:The parts of the mixed number replaced with the parts of a division problem:The quotient is 2; the remainder is 1; and the divisor is 7. Substituting these values in the properplace, the end result is a mixed number.BMR.Fractions Part IPage 13

B) Example 2: Changeinto a mixed number.Step 1: Rewrite the fraction as a division problem. The denominator becomes the divisor and thenumerator becomes the dividend.QuotientDivisor Dividend6 27Step 2: Divide 6 into 27.46 27– 243(4 x 6 24)RemainderStep 3: Use the different parts of the division problem to construct the mixed number.The parts of a mixed number:The parts of the mixed number replaced with the parts of a division problem:The quotient is 4; the remainder is 3; and the divisor is 6. Substituting these values in the properplace, the end result is a mixed number.Step 4: Make sure the fraction part is in lowest terms.The fraction part isBMR.Fractions Part IPage 14

Need to reduce the numerator and denominator by the same value. The numerator and denominatorcan be divided by 3.Step 5: Rewrite the reduced mixed number.C) Example 3: Changeinto a mixed number.Step 1: Rewrite the fraction as a division problem. The denominator becomes the divisor and thenumerator becomes the dividend.QuotientDivisor Dividend8 56Step 2: Divide 8 into 56.78 56–560(7 x 8 56)RemainderStep 3: Use the different parts of the division problem to construct the mixed number.The parts of a mixed number:BMR.Fractions Part IPage 15

The parts of the mixed number replaced with the parts of a division problem:The quotient is 7; the remainder is 0; and the divisor is 8. Substituting these values in the properplace, the end result is a mixed number.Rewrite the mixed fraction as an addition problem.Simplify the fraction part: 0Do the addition.Answer: 7D)You try:a)Answers to D “You Try”:BMR.Fractions Part Ic)b)a)b)c) 6Page 16

E) PRACTICE PROBLEMS.Change the following improper fractions into mixed 18)19)20)Answers to E “Practice Problems”: 1); 13); 14)BMR.Fractions Part I; 15); 16); 2); 17); 3) ; 4); 18); 5); 6); 19); 7); 8); 9) ; 10); 11); 12); 20)Page 17

F) QUIZ.Change the following improper fractions into mixed numbers:1)2)3)4)5)Answers to F “Quiz”: 1)BMR.Fractions Part I; 2); 3); 4); 5)Page 18

IV.Changing a Mixed Number Into an Improper FractionTaken from Treff, A. & Jacobs, D.,Life Skills Mathematics,Media Materials, Inc. Baltimore, Maryland 1983, p 275.Introduction: This is the fourth of four parts on understanding fractions. You’re going to look at anexample on how to change a mixed number into an improper fraction. Afterwards, you’re going to try to dosome problems on your own. There will be 20 problems for you to practice. After you’re successful indoing the practice problems, try the short quiz. The answers can be found at the end of each section.A) Example: Write the following fraction as an improper fraction:REVIEW:STEP 1: Multiply the whole number by the denominator.STEP 2: Add the numerator to the product from STEP 1.STEP 3: Write the sum over the original denominator.FIRST RULE OF MULTIPLYING, DIVIDING, ADDING & SUBTRACTING FRACTIONS:CHANGE ALL MIXED NUMBERS INTO IMPROPER FRACTIONS.B)You Try:a)Answers to B “You Try”:BMR.Fractions Part Ic)b)a)b)c)Page 19

C) PRACTICE PROBLEMS.Change the following mixed numbers into improper 216)17)218)20)46)6Answers to “ Practice Problems”: 1) ; 2) ; 3) ; 4)15); 16); 17); 18) ; 19)BMR.Fractions Part I; 5)14)219); 6); 7); 8)3; 9) ; 10) ; 11); 12); 13); 14);; 20)Page 20

D) QUIZ.Change the following mixed numbers into improper fractions:1)12)3)34)25)Answers to D “Quiz”: 1) ; 2)BMR.Fractions Part I; 3); 4) ; 5)Page 21

Here is a list of a first ten prime numbers: 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29. Use a prime factorization tree to break down 63 into its prime numbers. 63 3 21 (3 x 21 63; 3 is a prime number) 3 7 (3 x 7 21; 3 & 7 are prime numbers) The prime factorization of 63 3 x 3 x 7

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