How Is Energy Conserved

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How is energy conservedin a transformation?These women are competing in the sportof snowboard cross. They “fly” down anarrow course, filled with jumps, steepWatch the Untamed Science videosections, and ramps. Disaster looms atto learn more about energy.every turn. If they don’t crash into eachother or fall, then the first one across thefinish line wins.What do youthink makes these snowboarders go so fast?2EnergySCI17 SE06 IA C01 CO.indd 224/12/16 1:33 am

EnergyCHAPTER1Tennessee Academic Standards for Science6.PS3.1 Analyze the properties and compare sources of mechanical, electrical, chemical, radiant, andthermal energy.6.PS3.2 Construct a scientific explanation of the transformations between potential and kinetic energy.6.PS3.3 Analyze and interpret data to show the relationship between kinetic energy and the mass ofan object in motion and its speed.6.ETS1.2 Design and test different solutions that impact energy transfer.3SCI17 SE06 IA C01 CO.indd 324/12/16 1:33 am

CHAPTER1Getting StartedCheck Your Understanding1. Background Read the paragraph below and then answerthe question.Michael pulls his brother in a wagon. Suddenly, Michael’sdog jumps on his brother’s lap. Michael continues to pullthe wagon, but it is more difficult now. The added mass ofthe dog means that Michael has to generate more force toaccelerate the wagon to the same speed.Mass is a measure of theamount of matter in an object.A   force is a push or pull.The speed of an object is thedistance the object travels perunit of time. Why is it harder to pull the wagon with the dog in it?Vocabulary SkillIdentify Multiple Meanings Some familiar words may have differentmeanings in science. Look at the different meanings of the words below.WordEveryday MeaningScientific Meaningenergyn. the ability to be active or take partin a vigorous activityExample: She had enough energy torun for miles.n. the ability to do work or cause changeExample: The wind can move objectsbecause it has energy.powern. the ability to influence othersExample: The coach has a lot ofpower over his young athletes.n. the rate at which work is doneExample: A truck’s engine has morepower than a car’s engine.2. Quick Check Review the sentences below. Then circle the sentencethat uses the scientific meaning of the word energy. A puppy has too much energy to be inside the house all day. A wrecking ball has enough energy to knock down a building.4EnergySCI17 SE06 IA C01 CO.indd 424/12/16 1:33 am

Chapter PreviewLESSON 1 energy kinetic energy potential energy gravitational potential energy elastic potential energyRelate Cause and EffectCalculateHeight(m)600 Nkinetic energy400 Ngravitational potential energy600 N400 NLESSON 2 mechanical energy nuclear energy thermal energy electrical energy electromagnetic energy chemical energyIdentify the Main IdeaClassifyLESSON 3 energy transformation law of conservation of energyIdentify Supporting EvidenceInferCCC: Energy and Mattermechanical energyenergy transformation5SCI17 SE06 IA C01 CO.indd 530/01/17 9:09 am

Stuck at the TopSEP: Developing and Using ModelsPurpose To investigate the amount of potential energy a roller coaster needs to make it over a hillMaterials 6 feet of pipe insulation,Scenariocut lengthwise masking tape 2 balls with similar diameters anddifferent massesFIREFIGHTERS RESCUE CHILDREN STUCKON ROLLER COASTERInvestigators to Determine Cause of MalfunctionSOMERDALE, NJ – With its low prices andfamily-friendly atmosphere, Kenny’s AmusementPark has been a favorite summer tradition inNew Jersey for nearly 30 years. With attractionsincluding four roller coasters, bumper cars, anda water park, Kenny’s stands for good, oldfashioned thrills, excitement, and fun. But is itsafe?Around 5 p.m. on Monday evening,a 12-year-old boy and 8-year-old girl gotmore excitement than they expected. Theirfour-person car on the popular Whirlwind rollercoaster stalled on the tracks at the top of thehighest hill, leaving the frightened childrentrapped for nearly an hour as firefightersworked to rescue them.No one involved in the incident was hurt, butthe ride will remain closed until state inspectorscan determine what caused the car to stopon the tracks. When asked to comment onthe incident, Ken Smarmy, owner of Kenny’sAmusements, Inc., stated that the two small(Story continued on page B6)Ken Smarmy, owner of Kenny’s Amusement Park, told officials that the ride malfunctioned because thetwo children did not weigh enough to keep their car moving. He said that it is against park policy toallow partially empty cars to run on the track, and he fired the ride’s attendant immediately after theincident. However, some of Mr. Smarmy’s employees have accused him of ignoring complaints thatmany of the rides need repairs and better maintenance. Is it true that there was not enough weight inthe roller coaster car to keep it moving, or is that just Smarmy’s excuse?You and your partner are roller-coaster engineers. It’s your job to find out whether the children’sweight was the cause of the problem. Then, report your findings to the New Jersey inspectors.Procedure1. Making It to the Top A roller coaster car must have plenty of kinetic energy at the bottom ofthe first hill. Not only does the car need to climb to the top of the second hill, but it also must haveenough energy left over to keep moving along the track. Use the materials supplied by your teacherto design a model roller coaster that has one drop and a hill that is lower than the drop. Using theheavier ball, find a starting point on the drop hill that always allows the ball to make it over thesecond hill. Mark the starting point with masking tape.6SCI17 SE06 IA C01 SI.indd 630/01/17 9:18 am

Procedure (continued)2. A Lightweight Hypothesis When the boy and girl got stuck on the Whirlwind, they were theonly two people riding in a four-person car. Perhaps with only two small passengers, the car wasn’theavy enough. If you test a lightweight ball at the starting point you marked on your roller coaster,will it make it over the hill? (This is your hypothesis.)3. Why Do You Think So? A hypothesis is not a guess. A scientist bases a hypothesis onobservations or theory. State the reason(s) you think your hypothesis is correct.4. Try It Out Place the lighter ball at the start point and let it go. Test it two or three times. Use acomplete sentence to describe what happened.5. Evaluate Your Hypothesis Was your hypothesis supported by the results? Explain. (A hypothesisis never proven! It is either supported or not supported by the results of an experiment.)ConclusionLet’s see what you learned about kinetic and potential energy.1. What type of energy is the motion of an object?2. What type of energy does an object store internally?3. Which idea describes a change from potential energy to kinetic energy?4. Not all of a roller coaster’s energy transfers back and forth between potential energy and kineticenergy. According to the law of conservation of energy, however, the leftover potential energymust exist somewhere. Identify another form of energy that both potential and kinetic energy canbecome.The New Jersey Department of Community Affairs is responsible for the safety of carnival and amusementpark rides. Its roller-coaster inspectors are eager to see the results of your investigation. The directorwants to either make the Whirlwind roller coaster an adult-only ride, or further investigate the claims ofKen Smarmy’s employees. Write a report describing your results and explain what recommendation youwill make based on your results.7SCI17 SE06 IA C01 SI.indd 724/12/16 1:42 am

6.PS3.2, 6.PS3.3LESSON1What Is Energy?UNLO C KHow Are Energy, Work, and Power Related?What Are Two Types of Energy?FUN FACTWind FarmsDid you know that wind can beused to produce electricity? A windfarm is a group of very large windmills,or turbines, placed in a location thatgets a lot of wind. The energy of thewind causes the propellers of theturbines to spin. The turbines areconnected to generators. When theturbines are spinning, the generatorsproduce electricity. The amount ofelectricity produced depends on thesize of the propellers, the number ofturbines, and the strength of the wind.n below.Write your answer to the questioat are someAnalyze Costs and Benefits Whusing windadvantages and disadvantages ofenergy to create electricity?LazonbeDo the Inquiry Warm-UpHow High Does a Ball Bounce?How Are Energy, Work, andPower Related?Did you put a book in your backpack this morning? If so, then youdid work on the book. Recall that work is done when a force movesan object. The ability to do work or cause change is called energy.Work and EnergyWhen you do work on an object, someof your energy is transferred to that object. You can think of workas the transfer of energy. When energy is transferred, the objectupon which the work is done gains energy. Energy is measured injoules—the same units as work.8EnergySCI17 SE06 IA C01 L1.indd 824/12/16 1:35 am

VocabularySkillsReading: Relate Cause and EffectInquiry: Calculate energy kinetic energy potential energy gravitational potential energy elastic potential energyPower and EnergyYou may recall thatpower is the rate at which work is done.Sincethe transfer of energy is work, then power isthe rate at which energy is transferred, or theamount of energy transferred in a unit of time.Power Energy TransferredTimeDifferent machines have different amountsof power. For example, you could use eithera hand shovel or a snowblower, like the one inFigure 1, to remove snow from your driveway.Each transfers the same amount of energy when itmoves the snow the same distance. However, youcould move the snow faster using a snowblowerthan a hand shovel. The snowblower has morepower because it transfers the same amount ofenergy to the snow in less time.Assess Your UnderstandingFigure 1Powerthan theThe snowblower has more powervel.person with the hand shoanApply Concepts You could usethetoboxaelevator or the stairs to lifter?tenth floor. Which has greater powWhy?LabzoneDo the Lab InvestigationCan You Feel the Power?got it?I get it! Now I know that since the transfer of energy is work, then power isI need extra help with9SCI17 SE06 IA C01 L1.indd 924/12/16 1:35 am

What Are Two Types of Energy?Moving objects, such as the vehicles shown in Figure 2, have onetype of energy. A rock perched on the edge of a cliff or a stretchedrubber band has another type of energy.The two basic typesof energy are kinetic energy and potential energy. Whetherenergy is kinetic or potential depends on the motion, position, andshape of the object.Kinetic EnergyA moving object can do work when itstrikes another object and moves it. For example, a swinginghammer does work on a nail as it drives the nail into a piece ofwood. The hammer has energy because it can do work. The energyan object has due to its motion is called kinetic energy.Figure 2Kinetic EnergyThe kinetic energy of an objectdepends on its speed and mass.Use the diagram to answerthe questions.1. Interpret Diagrams Listthe vehicles in order ofincreasing kinetic energy.Factors Affecting Kinetic Energy The kinetic energy of anobject depends on both its speed and its mass. Suppose you are hitwith a tennis ball that has been lightly tossed at you. It probablywould not hurt much. What if you were hit with the same tennisball traveling at a much greater speed? It would hurt! The faster anobject moves, the more kinetic energy it has.Kinetic energy also increases as mass increases. Suppose a tennisball rolls across the ground and hits you in the foot. Compare thiswith getting hit in the foot with a bowling ball moving at the samespeed as the tennis ball. The bowling ball is much more noticeablebecause it has more kinetic energy than a tennis ball. The bowlingball has more kinetic energy because it has a greater mass.30 m/s2. Explain Describe anotherexample of two objectsthat have different kineticenergies. Explain why theirkinetic energies are different.1020 m/s20 m/sEnergySCI17 SE06 IA C01 L1.indd 1018/01/17 12:29 pm

Calculating Kinetic Energy You can use the followingequation to solve for the kinetic energy of an object.Kinetic energy 12 Mass Speed2For example, suppose a boy is pulling a 10-kg wagon at aspeed of 1 m/s.Kinetic energy of wagon 12 10 kg (1 m/s)2 5 kg m2/s2 5 joulesRelate Cause and EffectWhat has a greater effect onan object’s kinetic energy—doubling its mass or doubling itsspeed? Explain.Note that 1 kg m2/s2 1 jouleDo changes in speed and mass have the same effect on thekinetic energy of the wagon? No—changing the speed of thewagon will have a greater effect on its kinetic energy thanchanging its mass by the same factor. This is because speed issquared in the kinetic energy equation. For example, doublingthe mass of the wagon will double its kinetic energy. Doublingthe speed of the wagon will quadruple its kinetic energy.do themathA girl and her dog are running. The dog has a mass of 20 kg.The girl has a mass of 60 kg.Suppose both the dog and the girl run at a speed of12 m/s. Calculate both of their kinetic energies.Kinetic energy of dog Kinetic energy of girl Suppose the dog speeds up and is now running at a2speed of 4 m/s. Calculate the dog’s kinetic energy.Kinetic energy of dog 3 Draw Conclusions Are your answers to Questions 1 and 2reasonable? Explain.11SCI17 SE06 IA C01 L1.indd 1124/12/16 1:40 am

Potential EnergyReview Write the SI unitfor each quantity in the table.QuantitySI UnitForceHeightWorkMassEnergyAn object does not have to be moving tohave energy. Some objects have energy as a result of their shapes orpositions. When you lift a book up to your desk from the floor orcompress a spring by winding a toy, you transfer energy to it. Theenergy you transfer is stored, or held in readiness. It might be usedlater if the book falls or the spring unwinds. Energy that resultsfrom the position or shape of an object is called potential energy.This type of energy has the potential to do work.Gravitational Potential Energy Potential energy related to anobject’s height is called gravitational potential energy. Thegravitational potential energy of an object is equal to the workdone to lift it to that height. Remember that work is equal to forcemultipled by distance. The force you use to lift the object is equal toits weight. The distance you move the object is its height above theground. You can calculate an object’s gravitational potential energyusing this equation.Gravitational potential energy Weight Heightfigure 3Gravitational PotentialEnergyThe rock climbers havegravitational potential energy.Use the diagram toanswer the questions.1. Identify Circle the rockclimber with the greatestpotential energy. Calculatethis potential energy. Theheight to be used is at therock climber’s lowest foot.2.12CHALLENGE Where wouldthe rock climbers at the tophave to be to have half asmuch potential energy?For example, suppose a book has a weight of 10 newtons (N). Ifthe book is lifted 2 meters off the ground, the book has 10 newtonstimes 2 meters, or 20 joules, of gravitational potential energy.Height(m)600 N400 N600 N400 NEnergySCI17 SE06 IA C01 L1.indd 1224/12/16 1:40 am

Elastic Potential Energy An object has a different type ofpotential energy due to its shape. Elastic potential energy is theenergy associated with objects that can be compressed or stretched.For example, when the girl in Figure 4 presses down on thetrampoline, the trampoline changes shape. The trampoline now haspotential energy. When the girl pushes off of the trampoline, thestored energy sends the girl upward.figure 4Elastic Potential EnergyThe energy stored in a stretched object, such asthe trampoline, is elastic potential energy.Interpret Diagrams Rank the amount ofelastic potential energy of the trampoline fromgreatest to least. A ranking of one is thegreatest. Write your answers in the circles. Thenexplain your answers in the space to the right.LabzoneAssess Your Understanding1a. Identify The energy an object has due to itsmotion is called (kinetic/potential) energy.Stored energy that results from the position orshape of an object is called (kinetic/potential)energy.Do the Quick Lab Mass,Velocity, and Kinetic Energy.c. Apply Concepts What type of energy does acup sitting on a table have? Why?b. Summarize What are the two factors thataffect an object’s kinetic energy?got it?I get it! Now I know that the two basic types of energy areI need extra help with13SCI17 SE06 IA C01 L1.indd 1324/12/16 1:40 am

6.PS3.1Forms of EnergyLESSON2UNLO C KHow Can You Find an Object’s Mechanical Energy?What Are Other Forms of Energy?BLOGPosted by: LaurenLocation: Carlisle, MassachusettsThe first hurricane that I ever sawwas a big one! The storm hadweakened by the time it arrivedin Massachusetts, but the windwas still so powerful it easily flungaround our lawn chairs. The treesbent and swayed in the wind. When it wasover, branches were scattered across our lawn.The wind even ripped up a tree, blocking ourroad. The storm did a lot of damage, but wewere lucky to be safe inside while watchingthis awesome force of nature.n.Write your answer to the questiostormWhat is some evidence that the?rgyeneLauren described hadLazonbeDo the Inquiry Warm-UpWhat Makes a Flashlight Shine?How Can You Find an Object’sMechanical Energy?What do a falling basketball, a moving car, and a trophy on a shelfall have in common? They all have mechanical energy. The form ofenergy associated with the motion, position, or shape of an object iscalled mechanical energy.14EnergySCI17 SE06 IA C01 L2.indd 1424/12/16 1:44 am

VocabularySkillsReading: Identify the Main IdeaInquiry: Classify mechanical energy nuclear energy thermal energy electrical energy electromagnetic energy chemical energyCalculating Mechanical EnergyAn object’smechanical energy is a combination of its potential energy andits kinetic energy. For example, the basketball in Figure 1 hasboth potential energy and kinetic energy. The higher thebasketball moves, the greater its potential energy. The faster thebasketball moves, the greater its kinetic energy.You can findan object’s mechanical energy by adding together the object’skinetic energy and potential energy.Mechanical energy Potential energy Kinetic energySometimes an object’s mechanical energy is itskinetic energy or potential energyonly. A car moving along a flatroad has kinetic energy only.A trophy resting on a shelfhas gravitational potentialenergy only. But both havemechanical energy.Potential energy 20 JKinetic energy 2 JMechanical energy BFigure 1Mechanical EnergyAThe basketball has mechanical energybecause of its speed and position abovethe ground.Calculate Solve for the mechanicalenergy of the basketball at point Aand point B.Potential energy 12 JKinetic energy 10 JMechanical energy Draw Conclusions Why does the ball’sgravitational potential energy increase frompoints A to B?15SCI17 SE06 IA C01 L2.indd 1524/12/16 1:44 am

Mechanical Energy and WorkAn object withmechanical energy can do work on another object. In fact, youcan think of mechanical energy, like all forms of energy, as theability to do work. For example, a basketball does work on the netas it falls through the hoop. The net moves as a result. The moremechanical energy an object has, the more work it can do.Machines can transfer mechanical energy from one object toanother. If you use a crow bar as a lever to pry up a heavy stone,your arms apply mechanical energy to the lever, and the levertransfers that mechanical energy to the stone.applyit!3 CHALLENGE The bowling ballin the photo has a mass of7.0 kg. A candlepin bowlingball has a mass of about 1.0 kg.Does the 7 kg ball always havethe greater mechanical energy?Explain.2 How should you throw theball to maximize the amount ofwork it does on the pins?The bowling ball does work onthe pins when it hits them.1 Why can the ball do work?LabzoneAssess Your Understanding1a. Define Mechanical energy is the form ofenergy associated with the, or,of an object.Do the Quick Lab DeterminingMechanical Energy.c. Infer If an object’s mechanical energy is equalto its potential energy, how much kineticenergy does the object have? Explain.b. Calculate   At a certain point the kinetic energyof a falling apple is 5.2 J and its potentialenergy is 3.5 J. What is its mechanical energy?got it?I get it! Now I know you can find an object’s mechanical energy byI need extra help with16EnergySCI17 SE06 IA C01 L2.indd 1624/12/16 1:44 am

What Are Other Formsof Energy?So far, you have read about energy that involves the motion, p osition,or shape of an object. But an object can have other forms of kineticand potential energy. These other forms are associated with theparticles that make up objects. These particles are far too smallto see with the naked eye.Forms of energy associated withthe particles of objects include nuclear energy, thermal energy, electrical energy, electromagnetic energy, and chemical energy.Nuclear EnergyAll objects are made up of particles calledatoms. The region in the center of an atom is called the nucleus. Atype of potential energy called nuclear energy is stored in an atom’snucleus. Nuclear energy is released during a nuclear reaction. Onekind of nuclear reaction, nuclear fission, occurs when a nucleussplits. A nuclear power plant uses fission reactions to produceelectricity. Another kind of reaction, nuclear fusion, occurs whenthe nuclei of atoms join together. Nuclear fusion reactions occurconstantly in the sun, releasing huge amounts of energy. Only a tinyportion of this energy reaches Earth as heat and light.Identify the Main IdeaUnderline the main idea underthe red heading Nuclear Energy.Thermal EnergyThe particles that make up objects areconstantly in motion. This means that they have kinetic energy.These particles are arranged in specific ways in different objects,so they also have potential energy. The total kinetic and potentialenergy of the particles in an object is called thermal energy .Figure 2Nuclear EnergyControlled nuclear fission reactions occur at some powerplants. Nuclear fusion reactions occur in the sun.Compare and Contrast Use the Venn diagram tocompare and contrast nuclear fission and nuclear fusion.Nuclear FissionBothNuclear Fusion17SCI17 SE06 IA C01 L2.indd 1724/12/16 1:44 am

Figure 3Forms of EnergyMany objects in this restauranthave more than one form ofenergy.Circle threeobjects. Describe two forms ofenergy each object has.18The higher the temperature of an object, the more thermalenergy the object has. For example, suppose you heat a pot of water.As heat is applied to the water, the particles in the water move fasteron average. The faster the particles move, the greater their kineticenergy and the higher the temperature. Therefore, a pot of water at75 C, for example, has more thermal energy than the same amountof water at 30 C.Temperature is not a direct measure of an object’s total thermalenergy. The thermal energy of an object also depends on theamount of matter (mass) in the object. Different materials can holddifferent amounts of thermal energy. So, thermal energy dependson what an object is made of. Thermal energy also varies with thestate of matter. For example, a pot of liquid water at 0 C has muchmore thermal energy than the same amount of water frozen intoice at 0 C.Thermal energy always moves from a warmer object to a coolerobject. That is why you can warm your cold hands in front of a fire.The amount of thermal energy it takes to raise the temperature ofan object depends on the object’s mass, material, and size.EnergySCI17 SE06 IA C01 L2.indd 1818/01/17 12:32 pm

Electrical EnergyWhen you receive a shock from a metaldoorknob, you experience electrical energy. The energy of electriccharges is electrical energy. Depending on whether the chargesare moving or stored, electrical energy can be a form of kinetic orpotential energy. Lightning, batteries, and electrical lines are formsof electrical energy.Electromagnetic EnergyThe light you see is one typeof electromagnetic energy. Electromagnetic energy , also calledradiant energy, is a form of energy that travels through space inwaves. The source of these waves is vibrating electric charges.These waves do not require a medium, so they can travel through avacuum, or empty space. This is why you can see the sun and stars.Microwaves and X-rays are also types of electromagnetic energy.Other forms of electromagnetic energy include ultraviolet rays,infrared (or heat) waves, and radio waves. Cell phonessend and receive messages using microwaves.Chemical EnergyChemical energy is in food,matches, and body cells. Chemical energy is potentialenergy stored in chemical bonds. Chemical bonds arewhat hold atoms together. Often when these bondsare broken, this stored energy is released. For example,bonds are broken in your cells and release energy foryour body to use.Vocabulary Identify MultipleMeanings Review the multiplemeaning words in the GettingStarted section and completethe sentence. During a lightningstorm, electric charges movebetween the clouds and theground, releasing storedLabzoneDo the Quick LabSources of Energy.Assess Your Understanding2a. Explain Why do the particles of objectshave both kinetic and potential energy?b.The energy you get from eatinga peanut butter and jelly sandwich is in theform ofenergy.got it?I get it! Now I know the forms of energyassociated with the particles of objectsincludeI need extra help with19SCI17 SE06 IA C01 L2.indd 1924/12/16 1:44 am

6.PS3.2, 6.ETS1.2LESSON3Energy Transformationsand ConservationUNLO C KHow Are Different Forms of Energy Related?What Is the Law of Conservation of Energy?FIELD TRIPWrite your answer to the questionbelow.How do you think energy istransformed in the Drop Tower?Science Day at the Amusement ParkDuring science days at Great America Amusement ParkTMin Santa Clara, California, the park becomes a giantlaboratory! Here is how one investigation might work.You choose a ride like the Drop Tower, which drops you68 meters in less than four seconds, or the Fire Fall,which contains a series of vertical twists and turns. Youobserve how your speed and height change during theride. Then you use your observations to learn abouttransformations between potential and kinetic energy.LabzoneDo the Inquiry Warm-UpWhat Would Make aCard Jump?How Are Different Forms ofEnergy Related?What does flowing water have to do with electricity? In a hydroelectric power plant, the mechanical energy of moving wateris transformed into electrical energy.All forms of energy canbe transformed into other forms of energy. A change from oneform of energy to another is called an energy transformation.Some energy changes involve single transformations, while othersinvolve many transformations.20EnergySCI17 SE06 IA C01 L3.indd 2018/01/17 12:47 pm

VocabularySkillsReading: Identify Supporting EvidenceInquiry: Infer energy transformation law of conservation of energySingle TransformationsSometimes, one form of energyneeds to be transformed into another to get work done. Forexample, a toaster transforms electrical energy to thermal energyto toast your bread. A cell phone transforms electrical energy toelectromagnetic energy that travels to other phones.Your body transforms the chemical energy in food to themechanical energy you need to move your muscles. Chemicalenergy in food is also transformed to the thermal energy your bodyuses to maintain its temperature.Identify SupportingEvidenceUnderline the energytransformation that mustoccur for you to talk on yourcell phone.Multiple TransformationsOften, a series of energytransformations is needed to do work. In a car engine, a series ofenergy conversions occurs. Electrical energy produces a spark. Thethermal energy of the spark releases chemical energy in the fuel.The chemical energy in the fuel originated with nuclearreactions within the sun that reached Earth as electromagneticenergy. Plants transformed the energy in sunlight into chemicalenergy, which was stored in the fossilized remains of livingorganisms that made up the fuel. As the fuel burns, it expandsas it is broken down into smaller particles. The expansion of thefuel produces pressure on parts of the car. The increased pressureeventually causes the wheels to turn, transforming chemical energyinto mechanical energy.applyit!Your body also transformsA series of energy transformations must occur foryou to ride your bike. Write the forms of energyinvolved in each transformation.energywhen you ride your bike.Plants transformenergyintoenergy intoenergy.intoYour body transformsReactions occur withinthe sun to transformenergyenergyenergy intoto maintain your bodyenergy.temperature.21SCI17 SE06 IA C01 L3.indd 2124/12/16 1:45 am

Kinetic and Potential Energy The transformationbetween potential and kinetic energy is one of the most commonenergy transformations. For example, when you stretch a rubberband, you give it elastic potential energy. If you let it go, the rubberband flies across the room. When the rubber band is moving, ithas kinetic energy. The potential energy of the stretched rubberhas transformed to the kinetic energy of the moving rubber band.Transformations between kinetic and potential energy can alsooccur in any object that rises or falls. A falling object, a pendulum,and a pole vault are all examples of these transformations.Falling Object A transformation between potential and kineticenergy occurs in the ball in Figure 1. As the height of the balldecreases, it loses potential energy. At the same time, its kineticenergy increases because its speed increases. Its potential energy istransformed into kinetic energy.Pendulum A pendulum like the one in Figure 2 swings backand forth. At the highest point in its swing, the pendulum has no movement. As it swings downward, it speeds up. The pendulumis at its greatest speed at the bottom o

Which idea describes a change from potential energy to kinetic energy? 4. Not all of a roller coaster’s energy transfers back and forth between potential energy and kinetic energy. According to the law of conservation of energy, however, the leftover potential energy must exist somewhere. Identify another form of energy that both potential .

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scramble 160 18 other manipulations 15 (36) 0 Opposite cell line 18 160 scramble 18 160 other manipulations 0 15 (36) This design was repeated twice, once for the conserved instances and once for motif matches ignoring conservation (which could overlap the conserved instances). Some sequences were not included for technical

An Evolutionarily Conserved Prion-like Element Converts Wild Fungi from Metabolic Specialists to Generalists Daniel F. Jarosz,1,2,7 Alex K. Lancaster,1,3,4,7 Jessica C.S. Brown,1,5,8 and Susan Lindquist1,5,6,* 1Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA 2Departments of Chemical and Systems Biology and of Developmental Biology, Stanford University

The ISO 14001 Standard has been through a number of revisions since it was first published in 1996. ISO Standards are reviewed every five years to establish if a revision is required in order to keep them current and relevant. The current Standard, ISO 14001:2015, responds to the increasing need for management systems to be integrated by using “Annex SL”, a common format for management ISO .