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ZIMBABWEMINISTRY OF PRIMARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATIONCOMBINED SCIENCESYLLABUSFORMS 1 – 42015 - 2022Curriculum Development UnitP. O. Box MP 133MOUNT PLEASANTHARARE All Rights Reserved2015COMBINED SCIENCE.indd 126/10/2016 10:28:50 AM

Combined Science (Form 1 - 4) SyllabusACKNOWLEDGEMENTSThe Ministry of Primary and Secondary Education would like to acknowledge contributions made by the followingtowards the development and production of this syllabus: The National Science Syllabus PanelZimbabwe School Examinations Council (ZIMSEC)Government DepartmentsMinistry of Higher and Tertiary Education, Science and Technology DevelopmentUNICEFUNESCOiCOMBINED SCIENCE.indd 226/10/2016 10:28:50 AM

Combined Science (Form 1 - 4) SyllabusTABLE OF CONTENTSACKNOWLEDGEMENTSi1.0 0 PREAMBLE. 11.1 0 INTRODUCTION. 11.2 0 RATIONALE.11.3 0 SUMMARY OF CONTENT. 11.4 0 ASSUMPTIONS. 11.5 0 CROSS- CUTTING THEMES. 12.0 0 PRESENTATION OF THE SYLLABUS.13.0 0 AIMS. 14.0 0 SYLLABUS OBJECTIVES. 15.0 0 METHODOLOGY AND TIME ALLOCATIONS. 26.0 0 TOPICS. 27.0 0 SCOPE AND SEQUENCE . 38.0 0 COMPETENCY MATRIX. 109.0 0 ASSESSMENT.86iiCOMBINED SCIENCE.indd 326/10/2016 10:28:50 AM

Combined Science (Form 1 - 4) Syllabus1.0 PREAMBLE1.1 INTRODUCTIONThis syllabus covers four years of Secondary Education, Forms 1 – 4. The syllabus provides an understanding in Combined Science and a suitablepreparation for the study of science related fields.It aims to equip learners in their diverse needs withscientific skills of long term value in an increasingly technological world. A learner- centred practicalapproach to the subject is adopted to develop scientific thinking and application of acquired knowledge and skills.1.2 RATIONALEThis syllabus develops learners’ basic scientificskills in Physics, Chemistry and Biology. It develops knowledge, understanding and practical application of basic scientific concepts and principlesas well the ability to handle information and criticalthinking. Learners will gain practical experienceand leadership skills through individual and groupexperimental work1.3 SUMMARY OF CONTENTThe Combined Science learning area covers basicconcepts in Biology, Chemistry and Physics. Thesyllabus covers science concepts such as observing, recording, measuring, presentation, interpretation of data and analysis. It also imparts practicalskills such as handling of apparatus, chemicals,plant and animal specimens safely and confidently.1.4 ASSUMPTIONSIt is assumed that learners have: knowledge of the content of the Science andTechnology syllabus offered in Junior School engaged in science experiments engaged in project and cooperative work used measuring instruments such as rulers,thermometers, clocks and balances1.5 CROSS- CUTTING THEMESIn order to foster competency development for further studies, life and work, the following cross-cutting priorities have to be taken into consideration inthe teaching and learning of Combined Science: Gender Children’s rights and responsibilities Disaster risk management Financial literacy play store Health issues Heritage studies Collaboration Environmental issuesSocio-cultural beliefs2.0 PRESENTATION OF THE SYLLABUSThis Form 1 to 4 Combined Science syllabus ispresented as a single document which consists ofthe preamble, rationale, summary of content, assumptions, cross cutting themes, aims, objectives,topics, methodology, time allocation, scope andsequence, competency matrix and assessment.The content is divided into Biology, Chemistry andPhysics sections.3.0 AIMSThe aims of the syllabus are to enable learners to:3.1 provide an opportunity to develop desirablescientific literacy3.2 promote critical thinking, creativity and problem solving skills that apply to real life situations3.3 develop scientific practical skills, accuracy,objectivity, integrity, enquiry and team work3.4 develop attitudes relevant to science suchas self-initiative, self-managing and enterprising3.5 relate scientific practices to sustainable useand extraction of value from our natural resources3.6 participate in the technological developmentof Zimbabwe and the global world.4.0 SYLLABUS OBJECTIVESLearners will be able to:4.1 apply scientific principles in solving problems and in understanding new situations4.2 describe observations, record results, interpret and draw conclusions from experiments4.3 demonstrate knowledge of scientific terms,laws, facts, concepts, theories and phenomena4.4 demonstrate knowledge and understanding in relation to scientific and technologicalapplications with their social, economic andenvironmental implications4.5 demonstrate relevant attitudes to sciencesuch as accuracy and precision, objectivity,integrity, enquiry initiative, team work and inventiveness4.6 demonstrate knowledge and understanding of scientific instruments and apparatusincluding techniques of operations and aspects of safety4.7 use different forms of data presentation togive rational explanations of scientific phenomena1COMBINED SCIENCE.indd 126/10/2016 10:28:51 AM

Combined Science (Form 1 - 4) Syllabus4.84.94.104.114.124.13plan, organize and carry out experimentalinvestigationsdraw scientific diagrams in two dimensionsapply scientific principles, formulae andmethods to solve qualitative and quantitativeproblemsapply scientific principles, methods and techniques in value addition and beneficiation ofour natural resourcesuse appropriate methods of recycling and/ordisposing wastescommunicate scientific information logicallyand concisely.5.0 METHODOLOGY AND TIMEALLOCATION5.1 MethodologyEmphasis should be placed on providing learnerswith practical experience so that they appreciatescience as an active and exciting study. Principles of individualisation, concreteness, totality andwholeness, self-activity and stimulation shouldunder pin the implementation of teaching/learningmethods in this learning area. The following methods are suggested: Experiments Demonstration Problem solving Field trips Games Cooperative learning/Group work Simulations Case studies/Research Question and Answer Discussions Surveys, Interviews and Report writing Concept mapping Visual tactile Individualisation NutritionRespiratory systemTransport systemsReproduction in plants and animalsHealth and diseases6.2 CHEMISTRY: MatterAcids, Bases and SaltsOxidation and ReductionIndustrial ProcessesOrganic Chemistry6.3 PHYSICS: MeasurementsForceEnergyMagnetismElectricity5.2 Time allocationFor adequate coverage of the syllabus, a timeallocation of 8 periods of 35 minutes per week isrecommended. Double periods are recommended to accommodate practical work. The class sizeshould not exceed 35 learners. At least 2 educational tours per year are recommended.6.0 TOPICS6.1 BIOLOGY: Laboratory rules and safety Cells and levels of organization2COMBINED SCIENCE.indd 226/10/2016 10:28:51 AM

COMBINED SCIENCE.indd 37.1.3 Nutrition Similarities anddifferences of plantand animal cellsDiet Plant and animal cell structureIntroduction tolaboratoryapparatus 1PhotosynthesisDigestive system inhumansTypes of variation:continuous anddiscontinuousForm 2 Laboratory rules andsafety 7.1.1 LaboratorySafety andapparatus7.1.2 Cells andlevels oforganizationForm 1SCOPE AND SEQUENCEBIOLOGYTOPIC7.07.1 Human diet:balanced dietDeficiencydiseasesFood testsEcosystemsForm 4Factors affecting rate of photosynthesisConditions necessary for photosynthesisTeeth and digestion Structures andfunctions ofspecialized cellsUse of a microscopeForm 3Combined Science (Form 1 - 4) Syllabus326/10/2016 10:28:52 AM

COMBINED SCIENCE.indd 47.1.6REPRODUCTIVESYSTEMSTransport systems7.1.5TOPICRespiratory systems7.1.4 Reproduction in plants: flowerstructure, pollination,fertilization, seed dispersalHuman reproductiveorgansPubertyOsmosis anddiffusionComponents ofblood2Gaseous exchange inalveoli Transpiration: factorsaffecting rate oftranspirationMeasurement oftranspirationPlasmolysisTurgidityBlood circulationStructure of the seedGerminationMale and femalereproductive systemsSex cellsFertilisation,pregnancy, placentaand child careMenstrual cycleFORM 3 Detailed structure of a wind and an insect- pollinated flower Functions of Humanreproductive organs Root and stemstructureWater and ion uptakeHeart structureand associatedblood vessels Respiratory organsBreathing mechanism FORM 2Respiratory gasesFORM 1 Respiration:aerobic andanaerobicrespiration Asexual andsexualreproduction inplantsInheritanceMethods ofcontraceptionContraceptivesAdaptations ofplants to reducetranspirationStructure of bloodvesselsFORM 4 Combined Science (Form 1 - 4) Syllabus426/10/2016 10:28:52 AM

COMBINED SCIENCE.indd 57.2.1 SEPARATIONTOPIC7.2 vaporation FORM 1 3Applications tionFORM 2Distillation,Fractionaldistillation FORM 3 PaperchromatographyFORM 4Combined Science (Form 1 - 4) Syllabus526/10/2016 10:28:53 AM

7.2.2 MATTERCOMBINED SCIENCE.indd 6States of matterKinetic theoryPeriod table:identification ofelementsMetals and nonmetalsElementsmixtures andcompounds Groups andperiods 4Concentrations ofsolutions Nuclide notationNames andgroups ofelementsMole concept,empirical andmolecularformulaeconcentration Periodic table ElectronicconfigurationsStructure ofatoms Reactivity seriesFactors affectingrate of reaction Combined Science (Form 1 - 4) Syllabus626/10/2016 10:28:53 AM

COMBINED SCIENCE.indd 7 7.2.4INDUSTRIALPROCESSES7.2.5 OXIDATION ANDREDUCTION Rusting: factorsProduction ofpeanut butterIdentification ofacids and bases:litmus paper testFORM 17.2.3 ACIDS, BASESAND SALTSTOPIC 5Chemicalreactions:combustionProduction ofsoapAcid- basereactionsFORM 2Extraction of ironElectroplating Electrolysis reactions ofmetal acid,acid base ,acid carbonate Fractionaldistillation ofliquidpreparation ofsalts pH scale FORM 3Alloy formationContact process Haber processTitration of baseswith acids FORM 4Combined Science (Form 1 - 4) Syllabusi726/10/2016 10:28:53 AM

COMBINED SCIENCE.indd 87.3.4 ENERGY7.3.3 FORCETypes of forceMeasurement Types of energyEnergy conversions of forceEffects of force S.I unitsPhysical quantities7.3.2 MEASUREMENT Tallies, tables, bargraphsForm 17.3.1DATA PRESENTATIONTOPIC7.3 PHYSICSProperties of lightSound energy 6Calculations on work Law of conversion of energyLeversResultant force convection, conductionand radiationHeat transfer:diesel enginesPetrol andWeight and massmachines: inclinedplane, pulleys, leversand gearsPumps TelecommunicationsHeat transferapplications: solarwater heater andsolar cookerFluid systems Principles ofpressureDerived quantitiespie charts, linegraphs,interpretation andanalysis Density of liquids Physical quantities, accuracy and precisionpie charts, line graphs,interpretationForm 4 Form 3 Moments of forceDensity ConversionsPrefixesstraight line graphs Form 2Combined Science (Form 1 - 4) Syllabus826/10/2016 10:28:53 AM

7.3.5 MAGNETISMAND ELECTRICITYCOMBINED SCIENCE.indd 9Magnets, poles,fields, compassStatic electricity:chargesCurrent electricity:conductors andinsulatorsCircuit components Measurement ofelectricity 7Circuit symbols anddiagramsAttraction andrepulsionProperties ofmagnets Electrical power andenergy Resistance ResistorsOhm’s Law Lightning Generator effect ElectroscopeMotor effect Electromagnetism Domestic electricityElectrical safetyPower generationCombined Science (Form 1 - 4) Syllabus926/10/2016 10:28:54 AM

COMBINED SCIENCE.indd 108.1.1LABORATORYSAFETY ANDAPPARATUSTOPIC8.1 BIOLOGYFORM 1explain laboratory rulesidentify laboratoryapparatusdemonstrate use oflaboratory apparatus Learners will be able to:OBJECTIVES8.0 COMPETENCY , test tube,crucible,evaporation dish,tripod stand, wiregauze, Bunsenburner, spiritburner, spatula,funnel 8Laboratory rules CONTENTtaking readings fromlaboratory apparatussuch as measuringcylinder, balancesdiscussing and drawinglaboratory apparatus discussing laboratoryrules SUGGESTED ACTIVITIESAND NOTESMultimedia &Braille/Jawssoftwarelaboratoryapparatus SUGGESTEDRESOURCESCombined Science (Form 1 - 4) Syllabus1026/10/2016 10:28:54 AM

COMBINED SCIENCE.indd 118.1.3 NUTRITION8.1.2 CELLS ANDLEVELS OFORGANISATIONTOPICdefine balanced dietlist component of balanceddietname functions ofnutrients list similarities anddifferences between plantand animal cells describe the structure of aplant and an animal cell Learners will be able to:OBJECTIVES 9Functions ofnutrientsCarbohydrates,proteins, fats,vitamins, fibre,mineral salts andwaterAnimal cell: cellmembrane,cytoplasm,nucleus Plant cell: cellmembrane, cellwall, cytoplasm,nucleus,permanentvacuole CONTENTUsing bio viewers andhand lenses to observeand draw cells Discussing functions ofnutrientsNaming different kindsof foods and identifyingtheir nutrients( avoid using humanblood or cheek cells) SUGGESTED ACTIVITIESAND NOTESE-learningpackages Hand lens Food samplesOnion ICT tools &Braille/Jawssoftware Charts oncollection of foodsModels of cells Charts on cells SUGGESTEDRESOURCESCombined Science (Form 1 - 4) Syllabus1126/10/2016 10:28:54 AM

COMBINED SCIENCE.indd 128.1.5 y components ofblood stating the functionstest for oxygen gas describe the test forcarbon dioxide gas describe water movementin plantsIdentify respiratory gases State the percentagecomposition of air Learners will be able to:OBJECTIVES10Components ofbloodDiffusion Osmosisoxygen Carbon dioxideOxygen andcarbon dioxide Nitrogen 78%,oxygen 20%,carbon dioxide0,03%, raregases, watervapour less in air CONTENTDemonstrating watermovement in a plantusing potassiumpermanganate/methylene blue/coloured solutionObserving components Using glowing woodensplint for oxygen test Blowing into lime wateror bicarbonate indicatorComparing oxygen ininhaled and exhaled airexperiment Discussing thecomposition of air SUGGESTED ACTIVITIESAND NOTESInverted jar ,candle, watertrough use of pottedplantsICT tools &Braille/JawssoftwareBioviewer, bioset Glowing woodensplint Limewater/bicarbonateindicatorInternet Model of breathingsystem, SUGGESTEDRESOURCESCombined Science (Form 1 - 4) Syllabus1226/10/2016 10:28:55 AM

COMBINED SCIENCE.indd 138.1.7 HEALTHAND DISEASES8.1.6REPRODUCTIONIN PLANTS ANDHUMANSTOPICstate importance ofmaintaining personalhygienelist ways of disposing litter/ state signs of puberty describe a healthy persondescribe pollination andfertilization describe structure of asimple flower of each componentLearners will be able to:OBJECTIVES11Importance ofpersonal hygieneand food hygiene Signs of puberty,such as breasts,beard,menstruation,growth of pubichair, widening ofpelvic girdle, voicedeepening State of beingmentally, sociallyand physicallywellOvule, ovary ,fruit Pollen grainsFlowers, carpel,stamensFunctions of thecomponents CONTENTCleaning of classroomsCarrying simpledisinfection of drains Discussing the state of ahealth personEmphasis on premenstrual symptomssuch as period painBroomsMopsEMA resource Disinfectants ICT tools &Braille/JawssoftwareICT tools &Braille/Jawssoftware SimulationsComputerModels of humanbeing FlowersCharts on flowersSUGGESTEDRESOURCESObserving a flower using hand lens/ bio viewers of blood on slidesSUGGESTED ACTIVITIESAND NOTESCombined Science (Form 1 - 4) Syllabus1326/10/2016 10:28:55 AM

TOPICCOMBINED SCIENCE.indd 14 describe methods oftransmission of diseaseswaste, stating theiradvantages anddisadvantagesLearners will be able to:OBJECTIVESwater, food,vectors, contactBurying, recycling,burning12Malaria - vectorBilharzia - vectorEbola - contactCholera – water CONTENT Discussing methods ofdisease transmissionDiscussing cleaning of atoiletPicking and buryingwastesSUGGESTED ACTIVITIESAND NOTES Print mediapersonSUGGESTEDRESOURCESCombined Science (Form 1 - 4) Syllabus1426/10/2016 10:28:55 AM

COMBINED SCIENCE.indd 158.2.1SEPARATIONTOPIC8.2 CHEMISTRY State methods ofseparating mixturesLearners will be able to:OBJECTIVES tionCONTENT ICT tools ESCarrying out experiments to illustrate methods of separatingSUGGESTED ACTIVITIESAND NOTESCombined Science (Form 1 - 4) Syllabus1526/10/2016 10:28:55 AM

COMBINED SCIENCE.indd 168.2.2 MATTERTOPICidentify the three state ofmatterdescribe the arrangementof particles in solids,liquids and gasesdescribe properties ofsolids, liquids and gases interms of kinetic theory ofmattersdescribe the factors thataffect solubilityidentify mixtures, elementsand compoundsidentify metals and nonmetals on periodic table Learners will be able to:OBJECTIVESproperties ofsolids, liquids andgasesKinetic theoryParticlearrangement insolids, liquids andgasesParticle ds discussing particlearrangement in solids,liquids and gasesdissolving potassiumpermanganate crystals/copper sulphate crystalsin water 14mixing of iron andsulphur , sand and maizecarrying out experimentson heating ice block,candle wax,naphthalene, iodinecrystalscompressing a gas insyringe identifying the threestates using salt, waterand air SUGGESTED ACTIVITIESAND NOTESCommon elements of the periodic table.solids, liquids andgases CONTENTsalt, water, stones,syringe, beakers,ice, candlesnaphthalene flakesiodine crystalsmodelsPeriodic Tablesiron filingsSulphur powdersand, maizebeakersspatulassalt/sugarwater SUGGESTEDRESOURCESCombined Science (Form 1 - 4) Syllabus1626/10/2016 10:28:56 AM

COMBINED SCIENCE.indd 178.2.3 ACIDS ANDBASESTOPICidentify acids and basesusing red and blue litmuslist properties of acids andbases Learners will be able to:OBJECTIVES 15Acids and basesCONTENTdipping litmus paper inHCL, NaOH,H2O,CuSO4,tap wateridentifying elements onthe Periodic Table heating iron and sulphur grainsSUGGESTED ACTIVITIESAND NOTESRed/blue litmusSolutions(acidsand base) SUGGESTEDRESOURCESCombined Science (Form 1 - 4) Syllabus1726/10/2016 10:28:56 AM

COMBINED SCIENCE.indd 188.2.6 ORGANICCHEMISTRY8.2.5 OXIDATIONAND REDUCTION8.2.4 INDUSTRIALPROCESSESTOPICidentify forms of f

3 Combined Science (Form 1 - 4) Syllabus 1 7 .0 SCOPE AND SEQUENCE 7.1 BIOLOGY TOPIC Form 1 Form 2 Form 3 Form 4 7.1.1 Laboratory Safety and apparatus • Laboratory rules and safety • I ntroduction to laboratory apparatus 7.1.2 Cells and levels of organiz ation • Plant and animal cell structure • Similarities and differences of plant and ...