All About Ignition Coils BERU - Your Ignition Experts

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Ignition TechnologyDiesel Cold-Start TechnologySensorsAll aboutignition coilsTechnical InformationBeruparts.euBERU is a registered trademark of BorgWarner

TA B LE OF CONTENTSTABLE OF CONTENTSTRUSTED TECHNOLOGY3THE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINE5Operation of ignition coils in the spark-ignition engineRequirements placed on a modern ignition coils56IGNITION COILS DESIGNAND MODE OF OPERATION7Ignition technology terminologySpark energyHow many ignition sparks does an engine need?799IGNITION COILS TYPESAND SYSTEMSCanister-type ignition coilsElectronic distributor ignition coilsDouble spark ignition coilsIgnition coil railsPlug top- / pencil- / Smart- coilsIGNITION COIL – PRODUCTIONThe new BERU high-tech production systemTested qualityGenuine article and fakesIn focus: solder connection,contacts, power transmissionIn focus: casting compound andimpregnation qualityWORKSHOP TIPSReasons for replacementPropper removal / installationSpecial tool for ignition coil replacementSpark plug connector greaseTesting and checkingStep-by-step defect OGYOVER 400 IGNITION COILSTYPES FOR MORE THAN 12.500DIFFERENT VEHICLE TYPESBERU Ignition Coils are developed, tested and builtin Western Europe, Asia and Mexico by BorgWarnerto the OE specifications and quality standards. BERUoffers a large range of Ignition Technologies for petrolengines.BorgWarner supplies OEM's with ignition coils fornearly all significant European volume applications.The company currently offers a range of over400 ignition coils to the maintenance and repairmarkets – needless to say in original equipmentquality. Today the market penetration of the rangein VW vehicles is 99%, in BMW Group vehicles96%, in the VW Group as a whole 95% – andtoday the range is being continuously extended inaccordance with market requirements.BERU QUALITY 16161818 1920 21 21222223242526 Products are designed byBorgWarner in close cooperation withcar manufacturersProducts are developed according tothe specifications of the automotiveindustryManufacturing according to ISOstandardsProducts are subjected to specialBERU testsManufacturing according to up todate production methodsBERU Ignition Coils areengineered and manufacturedat BorgWarner3

THE SPARK IG NIT IO N ENG INEFewer emissions, lower fuel consumption,higher ignition voltage, restricted space inthe drive unit and engine compartment: Thedesign demands on modern ignition coils areconstantly increasing. Although the task ofspark-ignition engines remains the same: thefuel / air mixture must be ignited at the righttime with the optimum ignition energy so thatcomplete combustion occurs. To reduce fuelconsumption and emissions and to increasethe efficiency, engine technologies areconstantly developed further – and thus alsothe BERU ignition systems.In particular, BorgWarner runs its ownR&D departments at its Ludwigsburg,Germany plant and in Asia, in whichignition technologies are driven forward incooperation with the international automotiveindustry. Thus BERU ignition coils are beingprecisely adapted to the requirements ofmodern spark-ignition engines such asturbocharging, downsizing, direct injection,lean mix, high exhaust gas recirculation ratesetc. In the process, we are able to fall back ona whole century of valuable experience as anignition technology expert.THE SPARKIGNITION ENGINEOPERATION OF IGNITIONCOILS IN THE SPARKIGNITION ENGINEOE BUSINESSBorgWarner (manufacturer of BERU products) has an internationalreputation for delivering innovative ignition solutions that meetoriginal equipment (OE) manufacturer standards.BorgWarner is delivering OE Ignition Coils, also for recentapplications such as those displayed (depending on the engine),which are delivered to the aftermarket via Federal-Mogul Motorpartsunder the BERU brand. Audi A1 1.2 (05-2010 ),A3 1.2-1.8 (08-2000 05-2013) Seat Ibiza II/III/IV 1.2-2.0 (05-2000 ) VW Golf IV/V/VI 1.2-2.0 (08-1997 12-2013) BMW X3 2.0-3.0 (01-2004 ) Citroën C4 1.4-1.6 (07-2008 ) Ford Kuga 2.0 (09-2014 ) Mini 1.4-1.6 (09-2006 10-2016) Optimum ignition of the compressed fuel / air mixturehas been one of the greatest challenges for designerssince the early days of engine construction. In thecase of ignited sparked engines, this conventionallyoccurs in sequence with the compression cycle by anelectrical spark from the spark plug. So that the voltagecan make the jump between the electrodes, a chargemust first be accumulated by the vehicles' low voltageelectrical system, then stored and finally discharged atthe spark plug at the ignition timing.This is the job of the ignition coil as an integral part ofthe ignition system.An ignition coil must be exactly attunedto the respective ignition system. Therequired parameters include: The spark energy, which is available tothe spark plug The spark current at the time of thespark discharge The combustion duration of the spark atthe ignition plug The ignition voltage under all operatingconditions The spark count at all speedsPeugeot 208 1.4-1.6 (03-2012 ),3008 1.6 (06-2009 ) Volvo S40 1.6 (01-2005 12-2012) Mercedes-Benz G-Class 3.2 - 5.5 (07-1997 )Spark-ignition engines with turbocharger or direct fuel injection require higher spark energies. The highvoltage connection between ignition coil and spark plug must be functional and safe. This is where BERUcomes in with high-quality ignition cables with suitable contacts or high-voltage ignition coil connectors.45

TH E SPARK IGNITION E NG I NEIGN ITION C OIL S D E S IGN A ND MO DE O F O PERAT IO NSIGNITION COILS DESIGNAND MODE OF OPERATIONIGNITION TECHNOLOGYTERMINOLOGYTHE DEMANDS PLACED ON A MODERNIGNITION COILIgnition coils in the ignition systems of modern cars generate voltages of upto 45,000 V. It is essential that misfiring – and as a consequence incompletecombustion – is avoided. It is not only that the vehicles' catalytic convertercould be damaged. Incomplete combustion also increases emissions andthus environmental pollution.Ignition coils are – regardless of the system (static high voltage distribution,rotating high voltage distribution, double spark coil, single spark coil) –electrically, mechanically and chemically highly stressed components of thespark-ignition engines. They must perform faultlessly under a wide varietyof installation conditions (on the body, engine block or directly on the sparkplug in the cylinder head) over a long service life.Ignition coils:electrical, mechanical, thermal, electrochemical requirements. Temperature range -40 C to 160 CSecondary voltage to 45,000 VPrimary current 6 to 20 ASpark energy 40 mJ up to approx. 90 mJ (at present) or 120 mJ (future)with same coil sizeVibration range to 55 gResistance to gasoline, oil, brake fluidAs soon as the primary coil circuit closes, a magneticfield is generated in the coil. Induced voltage isgenerated in the coil by self induction. At the timeof ignition, the coil current is switched off by theignition output stage. The instantaneously collapsingmagnetic field generates a high induction voltagein the primary winding. This is transformed on thesecondary side of the coil and converted in the ratio of"number of secondary windings to primary windings".A high voltage flashover occurs at the spark plug,which in turn leads to ionization of the spark gapand thus to a flow of current. This continues until thestored energy has been discharged. As it jumps, thespark ignites the fuel/air mixture.Ignition coils work on the transformer principle. Theybasically consist of a primary winding, a secondarywinding, the iron core and a housing with isolationmaterial, nowadays two-component epoxy resin.Plug shaft ignition coils aremounted deep in the enginecompartment and mustwithstand extreme thermalloads.On the iron core of individual thin steel sheets two coilelements are applied e.g.: The primary winding is made of thick copperwire with approx. 200 windings (diameter approx.0.6mm),The secondary winding is made of thin copper wirewith approx. 20,000 windings (diameter approx.0.063 mm)The maximum voltagedepends on: EThe ratio of the numberof windings from thesecondary winding toprimary windingThe quality of the iron coreThe magnetic fieldN1N2U1 E Laminated iron core (magnetic)N1 Windings primary side100–250 windingsN2 Windings secondary side10,000–25,000 windingsU1 Primary voltage (batteryvoltage) 12–14.7 VU2 Secondary voltage25,000–45,000 Vl1 Primary current 6–20 Al2 Secondary current 80–120 mAU2l1Primary coill2Secondary coilSchematic diagram:structure of an ignition coil67

IGN I TION COILS DE S I GN AND M ODE OF OPE RATI O N SIGN ITION C OIL S D E S IGN AND MO DE O F O PERAT IO NSSPARK ENERGYControlonoffCharging timeIgnition timeCharge startCut-off timeTimeEnergy storage: During currentsupply to the coil, energy is beingstored in the magnetic field. Poweron, coil is charged (primary circuit isclosed, secondary circuit is open).At a specified ignition point thecurrent is interrupted.An important performance criterion for ignition coils istheir spark energy. This determines the spark currentand the spark combustion duration at the sparkplug electrodes. The spark energy of modern BERUignition coils is 50 to 100 millijoules (mJ).1 millijoule 10-3 J. Ignition coils of the latestgeneration have spark energies of up to 120 mJ.This means that there is a risk of fatal injuries fromtouching these high voltage parts! Please notethe safety regulations of the respective vehiclemanufacturer.Primary currentIgnition timingInduced voltage: Every change incurrent in an inductance (coil) induces(creates) a voltage. Secondary highvoltage builds up.HOW MANY IGNITION SPARKSDOES AN ENGINE NEED?Current ramp up timeSpark count F rpm number of cylinders2For example:4-cyl. 4-stroke engine, speed 3,000 rpmSecondary voltageSpark count 3,000 4 6,000 sparks / minActivation sparkBreakdown voltageOperating voltageHigh voltage: As in a transformer, theachievable voltage is proportional tothe primary / secondary winding ratio.The spark flashover occurs when theignition voltage has been reached(breakthrough).Secondary currentMax. secondary currentCombustion duration8Ignition spark: After the high voltageflashover on the spark plug, thestored energy is discharged in thespark channel (primary circuit isopen, secondary circuit is closed).2For a driven distance of 300.000km, withan average speed of 60km/h, an engine isperforming 5000 hours. This is corresponding to450 million sparks/ignition coil.Ignition coil specifications / characteristicsI1Primary current6–20 AT1Charging time1.5–4.0 msU2Secondary voltage25–45 kVTFuSpark duration1.3–2.0 msWFuSpark energy10–60 mJ for "normal"engines, up to 120 mJfor "DI" enginesIFUSpark current80–115 mAU1Primary voltage (battery voltage)12–14.7 V0,3–0,6 OhmU2Secondary voltage25,000–45,000 V5–20 kOhmN1Number of primary windings100–250N2Number of secondary windings10.000–25.0009

IGN I TION COILS T Y PE S AND SYST E M SIGN ITION CO ILS T YPES AND SYST EMSThe range of ignition coils from BERUembraces over 400 ignition coil types forall current technologies: from the canistertype coils for older cars through ignitioncoils with integrated electronics for carswith mechanical ignition distributorsand double-spark ignition coils (for Fiat,Ford, Mercedes-Benz, Renault, VWand others) to rod or pencil-coil ignitionNowadays canister-type ignition coilsare only installed in classic cars. Theseare for vehicles with rotating high voltagedistribution and contact breaker control.coils (plug-shaft ignition coils), which aredirectly mounted on the spark plug. Inthe case of the VW brand, the marketpenetration of BERU ignition coils reaches99%. Moreover, the company producescomplete ignition coil rails in which severalindividual ignition coils are combined in acommon casing (rail).Contact-controlled ignition systemIn older ignition systems, the output stage wasmounted as a separate component in the enginecompartment on the vehicle body or – in the case ofrotating high voltage distribution – in or on the ignitiondistributor. The introduction of static high-voltagedistribution and the development of microelectronicsmade it possible to integrate the output stage into theignition coil. This results in numerous advantages: Diagnostic possibilitiesIon current signalInterference suppressionPower cut-offCurrent limitationThermal cut-offShort circuit recognitionHigh voltage stabilizationIgnition coilBatterySpark plugSwitchElectronic ignition systemCouplingPrimaryCANNISTER TYPEIGNITION COILSELECTRONIC DISTRIBUTORIGNITION COILSDiode (switching spark suppression)SecondaryIGNITION COILS TYPESAND SYSTEMSInterferencesuppressionresistanceSpark plugExternal high voltageconnectionPowersemiconductorInsulating coverInternal high voltageconnection via springloaded contactHousingClosing timeIn a contact-controlled ignition system, the closing time is thetime in which the contact breaker is closed. In an electronicallycontrolled ignition system, the closing time is the time in whichthe primary current is switched on.BERU distributor ignition coilwith built-on output stagefor vehicles with mechanicalignition distributor.Coil layers withinsulation paperTriggering by contact breaker. In this casethe voltage is centrally generated by anignition coil and is mechanically distributedby an ignition distributor to the individualspark plugs. This kind of voltage distributionis no longer used in modern motormanagement systems.10Mounting bracketDOUBLE-SPARK IGNITION COILSMagnetic shellplateDual-spark ignition coils produce for every two spark plugs/twocylinders each an optimum ignition voltage in different cylinders.The voltage is distributed so thatPrimary winding Secondary winding Casting compoundInsulatorIron coreDouble-spark ignition coil.The air/fuel mixture of a cylinder is ignited at the end ofcompression stroke (ignition time) (primary sparks - powerfulignition spark),The other cylinder's ignition spark jumps in the exhauststroke (secondary sparks – low energy).Double spark ignition coils generate two sparks per crankshaftrotation (primary and secondary spark). No synchronization withthe camshaft is required. However, double spark ignition coils areonly suitable for engines with even numbers of cylinders. Thusin vehicles with four cylinders and six cylinders, two and threedouble spark ignition coils respectively are installed.11

IGN I TION COILS T Y PE S AND SYST E M SIGN ITION CO ILS T YPES AND SYST EMSCylinder 3 C Ignition coil tower CPos. sparkDouble spark ignition coils2 x 2 for four cylindersDouble spark ignition coil for2 x 2 spark plugs. For example,for: Volkswagen, Audi.Cylinder 2 BIgnition coil tower BNeg. sparkIGNITION COIL RAILSCylinder 1 AIgnition coil tower ANeg. sparkIn an ignition coil rail (ignition module), multipleignition coils – depending on number ofcylinders – are arrayed in a common housing(rail). However, these coils are functionallyindependent and operate like single sparkignition coils. The design advantage is that fewerconnecting cables are required. One compactplug connection is sufficient. Moreover, themodularity of the ignition coil rail helps make theentire engine compartment more 'elegant', moreclearly arranged and uncluttered.Cylinder 4 D Ignition coil tower DPos. sparkDouble-spark ignition coilI360 KwCyl. 1PowerExhaustIntakeCompressionCyl. 2ExhaustIntakeCompressionPowerCyl. 3CompressionPowerExhaustIntakeCyl. 4IntakeCompressionPowerExhaustIIPoint of time1234PLUG TOP- / PENCIL- / SMART- COILSIgnition cycle: 1 - 3 - 4 - 2Static high-voltage distribution:ignition cable set consisting of two cableswith spark plug connectors. The ignition coil ismounted on the other two spark plugs.Ignition coil rails or ignitionrails are commonly used in 3or 4-cylinder engines.Double spark ignition coils 3 x 2 for six cylindersIgnition coils are mounted on the spark plugs forcylinders 2, 4 and 6. For example, for: Mercedes-BenzM104.Single spark ignition coils – also known as plug shaft/connector ignition coils, rod or pencil coil or smartplug-top-coil ignition coils – are directly mounted on the spark plug. Normally no ignition cables are requiredfor this (with the exception of double spark ignition coils), whereby high-voltage connectors are required. Inthis design, each spark plug has its own ignition coil, which is located directly above the spark plug insulator.This design enables particularly filigree dimensions.Modular, compact, light smart plug-top-coil ignition coils of thelatest generation are especially suited with their space-savinggeometry for modern downsized engines. Even though they aremore compact than larger ignition coils, they generate greatercombustion energy and higher ignition voltage. Innovativeplastics and the extremely safe connection technology of thecomponents inside the ignition coil body also ensure an evengreater reliability and durability.Single spark ignition coils can be used in engines with both evenand uneven numbers of cylinders. However, the system must besynchronized via a camshaft sensor. Single spark ignition coilsgenerate one ignition spark per power stroke. Ignition voltagelosses are the lowest of all ignition systems due to the compactdesign of the single spark coil / spark plug unit and the absenceof ignition cables. Single spark coils enable the largest possiblerange of ignition angle adjustment. The single ignition coil systemsupports monitoring of misfiring in the ignition system on both theprimary and secondary side. Any problems that occur can thusbe saved in the control unit, rapidly read out in the workshop viaOBD and specifically rectified.1213

IGN I TION COILS T Y PE S AND SYST E M SIGN ITION CO ILS T YPES AND SYST EMSFor activation of spark suppression in the secondarycircuit, single spark ignition coils require a highvoltage diode.Ignition coilsControl unitSpark plugsWhen the primary circuit is activated, a magneticfield builds up around the primary coil. Thisincrease in magnetic field strength is sufficientto induce the undesired activation voltage ofaround 1.5 kW in the secondary winding. Thiscan enable a weak activation spark to jumpthe ignition electrodes, which under somecircumstances can result in the fuel / air mixtureigniting at a completely incorrect time.BatteryThe activation spark is suppressed in all 3systems (rotating high-voltage distribution,double ignition coil, single ignition coil):10R 2 kΩ – 20 %151Design of single spark ignition coilSingle spark ignition coils generate one ignitionspark per power stroke; therefore they must besynchronized with the camshaft.Primary connectorGround pinPrimary windingSecondary winding4LpLsRpRsDiode31No special measures are required in rotatinghigh-voltage distribution systems: The sparkingdistance between the distributor rotor andthe dome electrode of the distributor capautomatically suppresses activation sparks.In the case of static high-voltage distribution withdouble spark ignition coils, the spark plugs areconnected in series,that is the activation sparkmust jump the electrodes of both spark plugs.Only half of the activation voltage (1.5 kV: 2 0.75kV) of the secondary winding is applied acrosseach spark plug – a voltage which is too low togenerate an activation spark.In the case of static high-voltage distribution withsingle spark ignition coils, no activation sparkis produced as the high voltage diode in thesecondary circuit blocks the discharge of theactivation voltage. Note: the polarities of terminals1 and 15 may not be reversed as otherwise thehigh-voltage diode will be destroyed.Activation sparkonoffBreakdownvoltage15High-voltage kVIgnition lockWiring diagram for single spark ignition coil1050tActivationvoltage-2-4Ignition sparkActivation sparkRotating high-voltage distributionDistributor capelectrodeHighvoltagePre-spark preventsactivation sparkRotorCore with air gapsStatic high-voltage distributionwith single spark ignition coilStatic high-voltage distributionwith double spark ignition coilHigh-voltage diodefor activation ofspark suppressionSpark plug 115Interfencesuppressionresistance2Secondary circuit154a4aSpark plugActivationvoltageU 1.5 kVU2U2Cylinder 1Contact spring1Single spark ignitioncoils, for example forAudi, Porsche, VW14Silicone high-voltagespark plug connctorBlocking diode4bThe voltage of 750 V is tolow to allow an activationspark to arise.1415

IGN I TION COILS T Y PE S AND SYST E M SIGNIT IO N CO IL – PRO DUCT IO NIGNITION COIL – PRODUCTIONThe winding of primary andsecondary coils .THE BORGWARNER HIGH-TECHPRODUCTION SYSTEM FORPLUG-TOP IGNITION COILSEvery year several million ignition coils which are developedin partnership with the automotive industry, roll offcomputer-controlled, sophisticated production lines inBorgWarner production facilities.The individual components arechanneled into the line at therespective stations.16 is executed and monitored bycomputers.This is where the primary and secondarycoils are fully automatically assembled.The secondary wire is embedded in thecasting resin by vacuum casting.One of the most important steps in theproduction sequence: final inspection ofthe ignition coil.17

IGN I TION COIL – PR ODUCT I ONTESTED QUALITYBERU ignition coils meet the highest quality standards and ensure operationalsafety even under extreme operating conditions. In addition, even duringthe development phase and of course during production, the coils undergonumerous QA tests, which are indispensable for ensuring long-term functionand performance.Already in the development phase, BERU engineers precisely modify coilsfor the specific vehicle application in close cooperation with the vehiclemanufacturers. They pay special attention to electromagnetic compatibility,which is the subject of exhaustive test series in the company R&D center inLudwigsburg, Germany, in order to exclude a priori faults or restrictions ofcommunication and safety systems in the vehicle.IGNIT IO N CO IL – PRO DUCT IO NIN FOCUS: SOLDER CONNECTION,CONTACTS, POWER TRANSMISSIONOriginal:Printed circuit board with bus barconnections enables auto-matedproduction processes and optimumprocess control and, thus, consistentquality.Optimum soldered connections.When the development phase is completed, the BERU ignition coils are thenproduced according to the highest standards – and once more undergonumerous QA test. All the company's production facilities are DIN ISO 9001certified. In addition, all BorgWarner production facilities in Germany arecertified according to QS 9000, VDA 6.1 and ISO TS 16949 and according tothe ISO 14001 environment certificate. BERU applies the most stringent qualitystandards in its selection of suppliers.Original:Exactly placed and welded bus bars andcomponents fixed straight into the housingin the original BERU part – a sign of qualityand durability.GENUINE ARTICLE AND FAKESCopies of ignition coils are often cheap – but they are also cheaply made. Forreasons of costs and due to a lack of know-how, manufacturers of such cheapproducts cannot match the quality standards, which BERU offers.Most copies are made of low-quality materials and are cobbled together froma large number of individual components. They do not have the electricalproperties and thermal load capacity of original ignition coils. Specifically inthe case of coils with integrated electronics, copies only work properly in a fewengine versions. Furthermore, theyare often produced without reliable quality checks. For this reason, if suchcounterfeit goods are installed, costly sequential damage is to be expected.Copy:There are various foreign bodies in thecoil, which is evidence of questionable production quality. Depending thelocation, material and thickness, these maysubsequently result in short circuits andcoil failure. Also noticeable: a slipped orincorrectly inserted component.Solder splashesWhat is so dangerous about this is that even specialists cannot easily detectsuch defects with the naked eye. For this reason BERU has closely examinedoriginal and bogus parts below.Poor soldered connections18Copy:Wires running in every which way,distorted contact fields in the high-voltageconnection, crooked coil bodies andboards: premature failure of the ignition coilis only a matter of time.19

IGN I TION COIL – PR ODUCT I ONIN FOCUS: CASTING COMPOUND ANDIMPREGNATION QUALITYOriginal:BERU ignition coil with even castingcompound. The filling material has beenpoured into the ignition coil housing undervacuum, thus preventing the formation ofair bubbles.Copy:The high-voltage cable and iron coremust have a secure distance from thehigh voltage. In this case the high-voltagecable is too close to the iron core. Possibleconsequences are high voltage flashoverand thus total failure of the ignition coil.Copy:Ignition coil housing and high-voltage cablehave been filled with gravel to save onexpensive casting compound. Air bubbleshave formed in the gaps, the impregnationquality suffers, especially in the highvoltage section: If air collects in thesecondary winding, it will become ionized– this means the air becomes conductiveand in effect corrodes the coil housinguntil a ground potential is reached. This willresult in a short circuit or flash-over andfailure of the ignition coil.Copy:Separation between primary andsecondary coil bodies due to unoptimizedmaterial pairings. This can result in leakagecurrents and disruptive discharge at theprimary coil and thus lead to failure of theignition coil.20W O RKSHO P T IPSWORKSHOP TIPSREASONS FORREPLACEMENTBERU ignition coils are designed to last fora car's entire life cycle. Notwithstanding this,there is always a need for replacements inpractice. Usually this is not due to the ignitioncoils themselves but to problems in adjacentcomponents or to improper installation /removal.Old or subsequently installed substandardignition coils or spark plug connectorsoften turn out to be responsible forsupposed ignition coil defects.Defect ignition cables / ignition coil connectorsThe plug of the retrofitted,low quality ignition cablehas broken due to clearlyvisible material faults(massive cavities / airinclusions).Ignition coil that is nolonger functional due toadjacent substandardcomponents. It wassent in to BERU forexamination.Corroded ignition coilconnection that wasripped out of the coilhousing when the ignitioncable plug was removed.The cause was a badlyfitting, low quality plugthat led to corrosion andhence to fusion with theignition coil.Contaminated surroundingsIgnition coils, which due to their installationposition frequently come into contact withspray water or road salt are especially atrisk. This exposure is exacerbated by theuse of engine cleaning with high pressuresprays. As a result seals can be destroyedand contacts corroded.Ignition coils that are directly mounted on thebulkhead are especially exposed. The possibleconsequence is oxidation of the contacts.21

W O RKSHOP TIPSW O RKSHO P T IPSPlug shaft ignition coils are mounteddeep in the engine compartment andmust withstand extreme thermal loads.PROPER REMOVAL / INSTALLATIONCoils in the immediate vicinity of the catalytic converter orexhaust manifold / cylinder head are exposed to high thermalloads. The same problem arises with plug-shaft ignition coils:The installation space is extremely limited and offers hardly anyengine cleaning cooling. These extreme loads can in the longterm mean that even the best quality ignition coil can fail undercertain circumstances.In order to ensure that the transmission of high voltage is safeand reliable, the plug-shaft ignition coils are very firmly attachedto the spark plugs. Due to the resulting high temperatures, thereis a risk of the spark plug fusing with the ignition coils' siliconeplug. It is therefore essential that BERU plug grease (order no.0 890 300 029) is used when a spark plug is changed. Thisensures that plugs are also easily removed.SPECIAL TOOL FOR IGNITION COILREPLACEMENTBecause the plug-shaft ignition coils, are mounted on the spark plugsdue to the slim built, it is very difficult to remove them because of thefirm attachment of the SAE contact and the shield of the hexagonof the spark plug. Practical experience shows that when incorrectlyremoved, the ignition coil frequently breaks in two.Only the spark plug was to beexchanged. Because of thewrong removal tool, now the coilhas to be replaced as well.BERU offers workshop professional three special ignition coil pullersfor Volkswagen Group applications that are especially adapted to thegeometry of ignition coil heads. Depending on the respective design,the ignition coil housing may be flat, square or oval. The ignition coilpullers not only make it possible to extract current ignition coils butalso previous models with similar head forms.BERU special tools from left toright: ZSA044 (order no. 0 890300 044), ZSA043 (order no.0 890 300 043), ZSA042 (orderno. 0 890 300 042).22Formation of longitudinal cracks on coilbody due to incorrect and excessivetightening torque of 15 Nm instead of thecorrect 6 Nm.Crack formation on the ignition coilinsulation due to strain during installation.SPARK PLUG CONNECTOR GREASEThe problem: After replacing the spark plugs, misfiring occurs intermittently – acrossthe entire speed range. The cause is voltage flash-overs at the spark plug neck,caused by a leaking, damaged or embrittled spark plug connector.The solution: Before the spark plug is installed, apply a thin layer of BERU connectorgrease (order no. 0 890 300 029) to the (smooth or fluted) spark plug neck. Important:always check the spark plug connector and, if required, replace. Especially in the caseof single and double spark ignition coils with mounted connectors, it is recommendedto replace the connector along with the spark plugs – as the latter often becomeembrittled in the sealing area of the spark plug and thus become leaky.The hairline cracks are clearly visibly bypressing the spark plug connector.Scorch mar

Spark-ignition engines with turbocharger or direct fuel injection require higher spark energies. The high voltage connection between ignition coil and spark plug must be functional and safe. This is where BERU comes in with high-quality ignition cables with suitable contacts or high-voltage ignition coil connectors. 5 OPERATION OF IGNITION

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