Industrial Battery Comparison - IEEE Region 5

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Industrial BatteryComparison

Safety Precautions2 MSDS Sheets identify chemical hazards Use double insulated tools No smoking or open flames Avoid arcing near the battery Wear personal protective equipment Avoid wearing metal objects Ensure battery area ventilation is operable Neutralize static buildupSaft proprietary information – Confidential

SAFT, now proud part of the TOTAL Group*SAFT DEVELOPS AND MANUFACTURES ADVANCED-TECHNOLOGY BATTERY SOLUTIONSFOR MULTIPLE APPLICATIONSON A GLOBAL SCALE Diversified base of industries35% Broad portfolio of technologies(Ni-based, Primary Lithium and Lithium-ion)NorthAmerica32%Europe33%Asia, MEA,Latam Leadership positions on 75-80% ofrevenue base (Industrial Standby, Metering,Aviation, Rail, Defense, Satellites)* SAFT is part of TOTAL new division, “Gas, Renewables & Power”, since September 1st, 2016100years of history3 921M*revenue FY 2017*Using an exchange rate of 1.249.7%invested in R&DSaft proprietary information – Confidential 4,100people 3,000customers

Leading Oil & Gas companies rely on SaftInternational & National Oil and Gas Companies4Saft proprietary information – Confidential

51Battery Basics2Battery History3Chemistries and Construction4Battery Comparison5Choosing the Right TechnologySaft proprietary information – Confidential

BATTERY BASICS6Saft proprietary information – Confidential

Battery CompositionA battery is an electrochemical energy storage device.Energy Storage 7ElectrolyteActive Material Saft proprietary information – Confidential

Stationary Battery Cell ComponentsSubstrateBones of the battery.Physical structure inside the batterythat houses the active materials.(May or may not be made of thesame material as the activematerial)Active MaterialThe muscles of the battery.The material that does all the workstoring and releasing energy.8Saft proprietary information – Confidential

Stationary Battery Cell ComponentsElectrolyteThe life blood of the battery.Carries energy between the plates.(May help with energy storage insome battery types)Case (Jar)Skin of the battery.Keeps all the important bits inside!!9Saft proprietary information – Confidential

Stationary Battery AssemblyBattery System ConfigurationsCapacity Increase Voltage IncreaseCells in series increase voltageCells in parallel increase capacity11Saft proprietary information – Confidential

Battery Failure modesTwo Basic Failure ModesBattery Type AFails open circuitHi!Open: No current pathBattery Type BFails short circuitShort: Healthy cells provide power12Saft proprietary information – Confidential

Battery Terms1 hourAh – Ampere-hours Battery’s rating of capacity1 amp 1 amp/hourRated capacity of a battery Continuous amps available for a set time period, to a certain end of dischargevoltage, at a stated temperatureNi-Cd Example: 100Ah 20A for 5 Hours down to 1.00 Volts/cell at 77 F5 hours100 AH Ni-Cd Battery 20 ampsPower Instantaneous (V x I) Example: Switchgear Tripping current, instantaneous power requirement.Energy Power x Time 13Example: Continuous current loads for many hours.Saft proprietary information – Confidential

BATTERY HISTORY14Saft proprietary information – Confidential

Battery Basics - HistoryThe Early Days of BatteriesGaston Plante 180215Waldemar JungnerFrench PhysicistInvented the first rechargeable(secondary) lead-acid batteryin 185918361859186818881899 1901Swedish ChemistInvented the first rechargeablenickel-cadmium battery in 18991932Saft proprietary information – Confidential1947196019701990

SAFT History Founded in 1918 by Victor Herald Originally Société des Accumulateurs Fixes et de Traction (S.A.F.T.) Roughly translates to "Stationary and Traction Battery Company"1802161836185918681888189919011932Saft proprietary information – Confidential1947196019701990

Battery Basics - HistoryTraditional Battery Improvements 1970’s: the development of valve regulatedlead-acid batteries 1980’s: Saft introduces “ultra low”maintenance nickel-cadmium batteries 2010: Saft introduces maintenance-free*nickel-cadmium batteries The term maintenance-free means thebattery does not require water during it’sentire service life (20 years under Saft’srecommended conditions)1836171859186818881899190119321947Saft proprietary information – Confidential196019701990 2010

Battery Basics - HistoryThe future of batteries – Lithium-ion 1976: Exxon researcher – Whittinghamdescribed lithium-ion concept in Sciencepublication entitled “Electrical Energy Storageand Intercalation Chemistry” 1991: Sony introduced the first Li-ion cell(18650 format) 1992: Saft introduced its commerciallyavailable Li-ion cell1836181859186818881899190119321947Saft proprietary information – Confidential196019701990 2010

CHEMISTRIES &CONSTRUCTION19Saft proprietary information – Confidential

Lead-Acid Basics Plates – Substrate: Pure lead or lead alloy gridPositive Active Material: Lead oxideNegative Active Material: Sponge lead Electrolyte - Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) 1.205 - 1.275 Specific Gravityand participates in the electrochemical storage reaction PH 2 Nominal volts per cell 2.0 Inter-cell connection links - usually lead plated copper Different Grid Alloys – Selenium, Calcium, Antimony Failure mode: OPEN CIRCUIT Total Reaction20- Saft proprietary information – Confidential

Flooded Lead-Acid Pasted PlateBasic Specification Jars - Styrene AcryloNitrile (SAN) or PolyCarbonate (PC), Flame Retardant - ABS Lid-opaque, PC Jar-clear Construction: Plante, Manchester, Faure (Pasted Plate), Tubular Design Life - 20 years Service life - 12 – 15 yrs, depending on environment, design, application21Saft proprietary information – Confidential

Lead acid electrodes designPasted platesTubular platesPlante lead plate Negative plateLead grid22Saft proprietary information – Confidential

Valve Regulated Lead-Acid BatteriesVRLA or Recombination Technology Immobilized electrolyte Absorbed (AGM)– Fiberglass mat saturated with acid Gel Cells– Silicon gel saturated with sulfuric acid– Gas path from positive to negative Positive internal pressure Recombination process is highly efficient due tolow electrolyte content Charging energy is converted to heat Thermal management is critical Grid corrosion results in hydrogen evolution Typically have FR (Flame Retardant) jars23Saft proprietary information – Confidential

VRLA (continued)Advantages No water additions High energy density Low initial costDisadvantages Multiple failure modes Dry out Thermal runaway Negative strap corrosion Sudden death OPEN CIRCUIT Highly susceptible to ripple current Shorter life than vented cells Design Life:1-11 years Service Life: typically 3 – 7 yearsTypical Applications Telecommunications, UPS, Emergency Lighting24Saft proprietary information – Confidential

25Sudden DeathSaft proprietary information – ConfidentialDry OutHighLCCSulfationCorrosionHigh TemperatureStorageRipple CurrentThermal RunawayVRLA Battery Failure Modes: Summary

Nickel-Cadmium Basics Plates – Substrate: Nickel-plated SteelPositive Active Material: Nickel hydroxideNegative Active Material: Cadmium Electrolyte Potassium Hydroxide (KOH) PH 11 Electrolyte is alkaline and does not corrode the plates orparticipate in the electrochemical reaction. It is actually apreservative of the plates. Nominal volts per cell 1.2 Failure Mode: SHORT CIRCUIT Different plate types: Pocket, Fiber, Sintered, Plastic Bonded(PBE) 26Total Reaction -Saft proprietary information – Confidential

Nickel Cadmium FeaturesAdvantages Most rugged battery type. All steel plate construction Resistant to: Electrical abuse, overcharging / over-discharging Physical abuse, extreme temperatures, shock & vibration Withstand temperature excursions from -40 C to 70 C Fast recharge with no adverse effects Impervious to ripple (a VRLA killer) Low maintenance Low total cost of ownership Design and service Life 25 yearsDisadvantages High initial cost compared with lead-acid Installed footprint can be larger than lead acid in some applications27Saft proprietary information – Confidential

Nickel Cadmium Pocket Plate (traditional design)28Saft proprietary information – Confidential

29Saft proprietary information – Confidential

Maintenance Free (Recombinant) NiCdMaintenance-free L and M types Qualified IEC 62259 for Ni-Cd with gas recombination (over 97%) Electrolyte is still liquid and abundant inside.High tech maintenance-free concept Maintenance-free No requirement to add any water throughout service life underrecommended operations30 Decrease the operational cost and reduce the maintenance manpower Can be stored filled and charged up to 2 yearsSaft proprietary information – Confidential

High Performance NiCad Batteries (S/PBE)Sintered plate (Positive Plate)Plastic Bonded Electrode (Negative Plate)Highest Performance NiCad High Energy Density High Power High charge acceptance at low voltageIdeal for Engine Starting and SwitchgearApplicationsLow Maintenance10 – 13 Year topping up interval Single Cell / Compact Design31Saft proprietary information – Confidential

Sintered Plate TechnologyPerforated & nickelplated steel strip32Electrochemicalimpregnation withactive materialSaft proprietary information – ConfidentialNickel powder is sinteredonto the strip to form ahighly porous andconductive structure.

Plastic Bonded Plate TechnologyPerforated & nickelplated steel strip33Pasting and drying of activematerial embedded intoorganic binderSaft proprietary information – Confidential

BATTERYCOMPARISON34Saft proprietary information – Confidential

Technology Physical ComparisonWhat to look for:Technologies being compared Nickel-Cadmium Vs Flooded Lead-Acid (VLA)Sizing ResultsComparison parameters 35FootprintVolumeTotal weight (battery racking)PriceSaft proprietary information – Confidential

Sizing ParametersParametersMin. Voltage:105 VdcMax. Voltage:140 VdcNom. Voltage:36Load Profile125 VdcDesign Margin:1.15Aging Factor:1.25Temperature (max):30 CTemperature (min):15 CLoadDuration1:5A8hr2:300 A1 min*Step*For Nickel-Cadmium theminimum performance step is 1sec Vs. 1 min for Lead-Acid(Coup de Fouet).The “tripping load” can occur inunder one second bursts.Saft proprietary information – Confidential

Sizing ResultsNickel-Cadmium37Vented Lead-AcidNominal Capacity:130 AhNominal Capacity:350AhTotal WxDxH59" x 28" x 68"Total WxDxH83" x 28” x 71"Total Weight: 1,652 lbsTotal Weight: 4,461 lbsInstalled Energy:16.3 kWhInstalled Energy:43.8 kWhSaft proprietary information – Confidential

Footprint ComparisonLi-ionNi-CdVLATechnology W (in)38D (in) Area (in²)Ni-Cd59281,652VLA83282,324Saft proprietary information – Confidential

Volume ComparisonTechnology W (in)39D (in)H (in)Ni-Cd592868VLA832871Saft proprietary information – Confidential

Total Weight ComparisonTechnology40Weight (lbs)Ni-Cd1,652VLA4,461Saft proprietary information – Confidential

Price ComparisonTechnology Initial Price41Ni-Cd 26kVLA 14kSaft proprietary information – Confidential

CHOOSING THERIGHT TECHNOLOGY42Saft proprietary information – Confidential

Considerations High Temperature Low Temperature Longer Life Low Maintenance Storage Space – Weight Vibration / Shock Cost of Failure43Saft proprietary information – Confidential

High Temperature – Shortens LifeLead Acid Life is cut 50% for every 15 Fover 77 FNickel Cadmium Life is cut 20% for every 15 Fover 77 FNormal Service Life 44VRLA 3 - 10 yearsFlooded Lead 12 – 15 yearsNi-Cd 25 yearsSaft proprietary information – Confidential

Low Temperature – Reduces PerformanceAvailable Capacity120%110%Sintered/PBE nickel-cadmium100%90%Lead Acid80%70%60% Pocket Plate nickel-cadmium50%-40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60Temperature CNickel cadmium can operate to – 50C, no danger of freezing. Lead Acid can Freeze45Saft proprietary information – Confidential

Life Cycle Curve120% 10% Life Ni-Cd cells loose about 1% capacity per year of life, they can continue serviceafter 25 years with no catastrophic failure and will not fail in open circuit. When lead acid cells fail, they fail abruptly Graph shows ideal environment, maintenance and operating parameters.46Saft proprietary information – Confidential

MaintenanceWhy is it important? Secure and protect the battery investmentRequired for some applications (NERC/FERC)Predict failuresEasy warranty claimsMust consider: Total cost of ownershipSite location and accessibilityMaintenanceProceduresVisual inspectionPilot cell readingFloat voltage – batteryFloat voltage – cellsWatering47IEEE 450 IEEE 1188IEEE 1106Lead AcidVRLANickel mi-annually3-6 MonthsNever / replace1.8 – 20 YearsSaft proprietary information – Confidential

StorageHow often do you hear, “The site is not ready.” Once filled, Lead Acid needs refreshing charge every 3-6 months Nickel Cadmium Pocket Plate (SBLE/SBM/SBH) can be stored for 6 monthsto 1 year (filled and charged) or many years dry and discharged. Sintered Plastic Bonded Electrode (SPH) Cells can be stored dischargedfor many years. Uptimax are supplied filled and charged and can be stored for 2 years inthis condition. Consider the battery’s DATE CODE! On-site commissioning is recommended for all batteries48Saft proprietary information – Confidential

Cost of failure Battery cost in relation to protected equipment cost is negligible. Loss of power could result in loss of thousands to millions of dollars oreven loss of life. Lead Batteries even when monitored and maintained can beunpredictable as to when they will fail. Lead cells usually fail as anopen circuit. One lead-acid cell failure will take out whole battery. Nickel Cadmium have very gradual capacity loss. Ni-Cd cells failas a short circuit. The battery will still function with loss of severalcells.49Saft proprietary information – Confidential

Further References50 IEEE1106 – Recommended practice for Installation, Maintenance, Testing, andreplacement of Vented Nickel-Cadmium Batteries IEEE1115- Recommended Practice for Sizing Nickel-Cadmium batteries forstationary applications IEEE 450 – Recommended practice for Maintenance, Testing and replacementof Vented Lead-Acid Batteries IEEE484 – Recommended practice for Installation of Vented Lead-Acidbatteries IEEE485 – Recommended Practice for Sizing Lead-Acid batteries for stationaryapplications IEEE1188 - Recommended practice for Installation, Maintenance, Testing, andreplacement of Valve Regulated Lead-Acid BatteriesSaft proprietary information – Confidential

Additional Saft ResourcesLunch and Learns- Battery Sizing and Selection- Advanced Nickel Cadmium Concepts- Advanced Lithium-Ion Concepts- Battery Chargers and other DC System ComponentsGuide Specifications for ConsultantsFactory Battery Maintenance TrainingThank You . . . Questions?51Saft proprietary information – Confidential

IEEE 1188 VRLA IEEE 1106 Nickel Cadmium Visual inspection Monthly Monthly Quarterly Pilot cell reading Monthly Monthly Quarterly Float voltage – battery Monthly Monthly Quarterly Float voltage – cells Quarterly Semi-annually Semi-annually Watering 3-6 Months Never / replace 1.8 – 2

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