Newspaper-Brokered Slave Trade Advertisements In North .

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Taylor, Jordan E. "Newspaper-Brokered Slave Trade Advertisements in North America,1704-1807." Journal of Slavery and Data Preservation 2, no. 2 r-Brokered Slave TradeAdvertisements in NorthAmerica, 1704-1807Dataset ArticleArticle AuthorsJordan E. TaylorDataset CreatorsJordan E. TaylorDescriptionThis dataset focuses on newspaper advertisements in which newspaper printers acted asbrokers in the sale of enslaved people. It extends from 1704, when the first long-runningnewspaper was published in North America, through 1807, after which the transatlantic slavetrade officially ended and gradual abolition schemes in the North meant that the internal slavetrade shifted slowly to the South. It contains more than 2,100 eighteenth-century NorthAmerican newspaper advertisements that document the possible trafficking of at least 3,000enslaved persons.JSDP (ISSN 2691-297X) 2: 2 (2021)

Enslaved: Journal of Slavery and Data Preservation - Newspaper-Brokered Slave TradeAdvertisments in North America - Dataset ArticleNewspaper printers in eighteenth-century America acted as crucial middlemen in the slavetrade, especially in northern cities. Every significant newspaper printer in early America (exceptfor those who operated in states where the slave trade was illegal) engaged in this practice ofbrokering the sale or rental of enslaved people, from North America’s earliest newspaper printer,John Campbell of the Boston News-Letter, to Benjamin Franklin of the Pennsylvania Gazette tothe many significant printers of the American Revolutionary era. Unlike “runaway”advertisements, which often documented the aspirations and experiences of a self-liberatedenslaved person, notices for the sale or purchase of enslaved persons were typically quiteabrupt and spare, often as short as “For sale, A Young Negro Woman, With three Children.Inquire of the Printer.”1This dataset documents newspaper printers’ involvement in the slave trade and, moreimportantly, provides useful evidence of particular transactions involving enslaved people.Because they were advertisements, they cannot fully document sales, as some advertisementslikely went unanswered. But they can demonstrate a buyer, seller, or renter’s aspirations for thetransfer of an enslaved person. These advertisements almost never identify an enslaved personby name, but usually provide a mix of information about an enslaved person’s age, health, andskills, alongside the terms of sale. They often echo the complex language of color andappearance from advertisements about self-emancipation that historian Sharon Blockdiscusses in Colonial Complexions.2The dataset sheds particular light on the northern slave trade, where a relatively small numberof enslaved people (compared to Caribbean or to the southern colonies/states of NorthAmerica) meant that the slave trade developed few economic institutions of its own, andnewspaper printers saw an opportunity to connect buyers and sellers. Indeed, in the northerncities, colonies, and states, the relatively limited number of enslaved people and transfers ofenslaved people could allow future researchers to harness this database to identify particularadvertisements with other documentation of enslaved peoples’ lives.This dataset is historiographically significant because it helps to document the extent and theparticular circumstances of the eighteenth-century American slave trade, as well as the degreeto which newspapers and newspaper printers served as mediators and brokers in the economyof slavery.3Dates of Data Collection2019-2020Dataset LanguagesEnglish1Independent Gazetteer (Philadelphia), July 14, 1792.Sharon Block, Colonial Complexions: Race and Bodies in Eighteenth-Century America (Philadelphia:University of Pennsylvania Press, 2018)3For a StoryMap related to this research, a24d34a08f1605e64c292e.2JSDP (ISSN 2691-297X) 2: 2 (2021)

Enslaved: Journal of Slavery and Data Preservation - Newspaper-Brokered Slave TradeAdvertisments in North America - Dataset ArticleGeographic CoverageNorth AmericaTemporal Coverage1704-1807Document TypesNewspapersSourcesAlbany CentinelAlbany GazetteAlbany RegisterAlexandria Daily AdvertiserAlexandria AdvertiserAlexandria TimesAmericanAmerican and Baltimore GazetteAmerican and Commercial Daily AdvertiserAmerican CitizenAmerican FarmerAmerican MercuryAmerican SpyAmerican TelegrapheAmerican Weekly MercuryApolloAugusta ChronicleAugusta HeraldBaltimore Daily IntelligencerBaltimore Evening PostBartgis's Maryland GazetteBoston Commercial GazetteBoston Evening-PostBoston GazetteBoston News-LetterBoston Post-BoyCarlisle GazetteCentinel of FreedomCentinel of LibertyCharleston CourierCharleston Evening GazetteCharleston Morning PostJSDP (ISSN 2691-297X) 2: 2 (2021)

Enslaved: Journal of Slavery and Data Preservation - Newspaper-Brokered Slave TradeAdvertisments in North America - Dataset ArticleCity GazetteColumbian CentinelColumbian HeraldColumbian MirrorColumbian MuseumCommercial AdvertiserConnecticut CourantConnecticut GazetteConnecticut JournalConstitutional GazetteCountry JournalDaily AdvertiserDaily Evening GazetteDelaware GazetteDiary or Loudon's RegisterEdward's Baltimore Daily AdvertiserEnquirerEssex GazetteEvening PostFarmers ChronicleFederal GazetteFederal IntelligencerFreeman's JournalGazette of the United StatesGenius of LibertyGeorgetown GazetteGeorgia GazetteGreenleaf's NY JournalGuardian of FreedomHudson GazetteIndependent ChronicleIndependent GazetteIndependent GazetteerIndependent JournalIndependent LedgerKentucky GazetteKnoxville GazetteLynchburg Weekly GazetteMaryland ChronicleMaryland GazetteMaryland HeraldMaryland JournalMassachusetts GazetteMassachusetts MercuryMassachusetts SpyJSDP (ISSN 2691-297X) 2: 2 (2021)

Enslaved: Journal of Slavery and Data Preservation - Newspaper-Brokered Slave TradeAdvertisments in North America - Dataset ArticleMercantile AdvertiserMiddlesex GazetteMinervaMirrorMirror of the TimesNational IntelligencerNew England CourantNew England Weekly JournalNew England ChronicleNew Jersey State GazetteNew York GazetteNew York JournalNew York MercuryNew-Jersey GazetteNew-Jersey JournalNew-London SummaryNew-York Daily GazetteNew-York Evening PostNew-York GazetteNew-York GazetteerNew-York JournalNew-York MercuryNew-York Morning PostNew-York PacketNew-York Weekly JournalNewport GazetteNewport MercuryNew-Hampshire GazetteNew Jersey JournalNorfolk and Portsmouth ChronicleNorfolk and Portsmouth HeraldNorfolk and Portsmouth JournalNorfolk GazetteNorwich PacketOtsego HeraldPatriotPennsylvania ChroniclePennsylvania Evening HeraldPennsylvania Evening PostPennsylvania GazettePennsylvania JournalPennsylvania LedgerPennsylvania MercuryPennsylvania PacketPeople's FriendJSDP (ISSN 2691-297X) 2: 2 (2021)

Enslaved: Journal of Slavery and Data Preservation - Newspaper-Brokered Slave TradeAdvertisments in North America - Dataset ArticlePetersburg IntelligencerPhiladelphia GazettePolitical BarometerPorcupine's GazettePoughkeepsie JournalProvidence GazetteRepublicanRepublican GazetteRepublican StarRichmond RecorderRights of ManRising SunRivington's NY GazetteerRoyal American GazetteRoyal Georgia GazetteSavannah RepublicanSouth Carolina State GazetteSouth-Carolina GazetteSouth-Carolina Independent GazetteSouthern CentinelState Gazette of South CarolinaStaunton EagleStewart Kentucky HeraldTelegraph and Charleston Daily AdvertiserTennessee GazetteTimesTrenton FederalistUlster GazetteUnited States ChronicleUtica GazetteVirginia ArgusVirginia ChronicleVirginia GazetteVirginia HeraldVirginia TelegrapheWashington FederalistWashington SpyWaterford GazetteWeekly RehearsalWestern AmericanThe newspapers utilized here were accessed via Readex's America's Historical Newspapersdatabase and Newspapers.com. Note that while many of these newspapers continuedpublication past 1807, this dataset only includes advertisements through that year. Somenewspapers were consulted for this project that are not included in the list above, or in theJSDP (ISSN 2691-297X) 2: 2 (2021)

Enslaved: Journal of Slavery and Data Preservation - Newspaper-Brokered Slave TradeAdvertisments in North America - Dataset Articledataset, because they did not return any relevant results. Most of those are newspaperspublished for only a short time.MethodologyI constructed this dataset by examining two digital databases of early American newspapers.Most useful was Readex’s America’s Historical Newspapers database, which includes themajority of early American newspaper issues. Additionally, the site Newspapers.com helped tofill gaps in the Readex database in the early years of the Pennsylvania Gazette and WilliamBradford’s New-York Gazette. Except for the titles in Newspapers.com (which has a limitedsearch functionality and which I examined issue-by-issue), I identified these advertisements bysearching for variants of the term “Enquire of the Printer” and “Apply to the Printer” that wereadjacent to terms such as “Negro,” “Indian,” “Black,” and “Slave.”The limitations of Optical Character Recognition (OCR) mean that I have inevitably missed someadvertisements. Without devoting years to combing through each issue of each newspaper, thiswas unavoidable. However, by comparing my OCR-driven text search of the Readex database tomy issue-by-issue analysis of the Pennsylvania Gazette and the New-York Gazette, I amconfident that my dataset contains the majority, if not the vast majority, of such advertisementsfrom 1704 through 1807.Most of these advertisements are fairly straightforward and contain relatively little transcribabledata. Whereas advertisements for self-emancipated enslaved people often documented anenslaved person’s aspirations, advertisements that seek out potential buyers often described anidealized enslaved person. Nevertheless, many of the advertisements contain some valuableinsight into the lives and experiences of particular enslaved people.Most of these advertisements described one or more enslaved person, their age, their genderor descriptor (Fellow, Child, Woman, Boy, Wench, etc.), their characteristics relevant to a sale(health, “likely,” “breed,” strength, special skills), as well as terms about the transfer (“To begiven away,” “Sold for no Fault, but for want of Employment,” “Has about nine years to serve,”“Cash will be paid”). I have transcribed these descriptors and variables as accurately as possiblein each column, though I have not transcribed the full text of each advertisement.The dataset I created contains columns for each of the descriptors of enslaved people containedin the advertisement. It also includes a date for the initial advertisement (I have not includedsubsequent iterations of the advertisements, which sometimes ran for several issues) as well asthe city and colony/state of publication and the name of the publication. The date is sequencedin YYYY-MM-DD format.Date of PublicationAugust 2021JSDP (ISSN 2691-297X) 2: 2 (2021)

Enslaved: Journal of Slavery and Data Preservation - Newspaper-Brokered Slave TradeAdvertisments in North America - Dataset ArticleUse PermissionsCC BY-NC-SA 4.0 Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 InternationalData LinksDataset Repository: Harvard Dataverse https://doi.org/10.7910/DVN/EJOJJOCite this ArticleTaylor, Jordan E. "Newspaper-Brokered Slave Trade Advertisements in North America,1704-1807." Journal of Slavery and Data Preservation 2, no. 2 t 2021 Jordan E. Taylor. This article is distributed under the terms of the CreativeCommons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0), whichpermits non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction provided the original creator andsource are credited and transformations are released on the same license. .0/.JSDP (ISSN 2691-297X) 2: 2 (2021)

Aug 24, 2021 · Newspaper-Brokered Slave Trade Advertisements in North America, 1704-1807 Dataset Article Article Authors Jordan E. Taylor Dataset Creators Jordan E. Taylor _ Description This dataset focuses on newspaper advertisements inwhich newspaper printers acted as brokers in the sale of enslaved people. It extendsfrom 1704, when the first long-running

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