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Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering 2015 Vol IIWCE 2015, July 1 - 3, 2015, London, U.K.Implementing Successful Total ProductiveMaintenance (TPM) in a Manufacturing PlantIgnatio Madanhire, and Charles MbohwaAbstract — This study examines the impact of TotalProductive Maintenance (TPM) implementation on anorganization in terms of productivity and quality levels. Thehuman resource aspect was investigated to assess motivation ofoperators through training to reduce set up times, change overstoppages, defects rate and resource wastage on the shop floor.Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) implementation case studywas evaluated in addressing these short comings in aconfectionary manufacturing plant.Index Terms — TPM, waste, autonomous, maintenance, multiskilling, lossesI. INTRODUCTIONTsurvive in this global marketplace, companies shouldrespond to the rapidly changing stakeholder expectations,which include a growing awareness of the connection betweenmaintenance and quality performance [1]. The extent to whichequipment failure affects safety and the environment, andincreasing pressure to achieve high plant availability inresponse to the market, and to contain costs; all of which arepoignantly pertinent to Zimbabwe today.In a highlycompetitive market, companies resort to various tactics to stayalive. The five performance objectives used by companies tostay competitive and maintain their market share are speed,pricing, dependability, flexibility and quality [2]. Thus, thereis now need to measure the efficiency of business operationsand discuss how to increase it.OTo achieve quality in all facets of manufacturing operations,implementation of Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) isrequired [3]. TPM seeks to put together best practices forcapital-intensive continuous batch production processes toimprove equipment efficiency and material yield [5]. In theend the overall equipment efficiency (OEE) will lead to afirm’s improved productivity and competitiveness [4].Manuscript received February 27 2015Ignatio Madanhire is with the University of Johannesburg, School ofEngineering Management, Faculty of Engineering and The BuiltEnvironment, Auckland Park 2006, South Africa ORUniversity of Zimbabwe, Department of Mechanical Engineering,P O Box MP167, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe (phone: 263712 453 451; e-mail: [email protected] eng.uz.ac.zw).Charles Mbohwa is with the University of Johannesburg, School ofEngineering Management, Faculty of Engineering and The BuiltEnvironment, Auckland Park 2006, South Africa (email: [email protected])ISBN: 978-988-14047-0-1ISSN: 2078-0958 (Print); ISSN: 2078-0966 (Online)II. BACKGROUNDThe focal point of the study was to find a balance betweenthe machines that the operator uses, the operator himself andthehuman resource strategy used to facilitate this balance Thequestion to be addressed is how a human resource strategy canbe used together with Total Productive Maintenance (TPM)towards TQM improvement.TPM concept is based on the notion that productivity can beimproved if operators perform daily inspections, lubrication,parts replacement, troubleshooting, accuracy checks and soforth on their equipment with the aim of “keeping one’s ownequipment in good condition by oneself”. In this way, themachine reliability is greatly improved [6].The resultant de-motivation in the operator workforce hasbeen suggested to be responsible for the observed poor housekeeping, high defect rate, associated frequent breakdowns andunplanned work stoppages in the case study plant. To addressthese challenges, a human resources based maintenanceapproach is required to provide employees with confidencewhich in turn will be imparted towards overallequipment/machine efficiency and profitability as put acrossin the Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) philosophy [11].In all this, higher level of production effectiveness is attainedin terms of cost effectiveness, safety, employee motivation,product quality, reduced defects rate and market positioning inorder fulfillment [10].III. TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE (TPM) REVIEWTPM is defined as productive maintenance carried out byemployees through small group activities. Thus to say TPMsucceeds not because of its engineering techniques butbecause of its reliance on training and team empowerment [9].It addresses the maintainability of the machine that ultimatelyleads to improved productivity. It also captures the need toproduce the technical and skill training needed to meet thesophistication of operation and maintenance arising fromequipment automation, and to foster worker proficiency in theplant [8]. The goals of TPM include the maximizing of overallequipment efficiency (OEE) in a multiple model, small lotproduction system that eliminates equipment failures, defectsand accidents. General improvements in quality andproductivity and the creation of a more positive atmosphere inthe workplace are also central to TPM philosophy [6].The history of TPM is traced back to the 1960’s in Japanwhen it was developed from preventive maintenance. TheJapan Institute of Plant Engineers (JIPE) realized that it was anew maintenance system tailor made for Japanese corporateWCE 2015

Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering 2015 Vol IIWCE 2015, July 1 - 3, 2015, London, U.K.culture. After defining and systematizing it, the institute setout to spread the word to the industry [7].The rapid spread throughout the Japanese industry and theworld, of TPM was a testimony of guaranteed dramaticresults. As its implementation visibly transformed theworkplace, and raised the level of knowledge and skill in bothproduction and maintenance workers.A. Effectiveness of TPM in achieving TQMWhen implemented, the effectiveness of TPM can achievezero breakdown and zero defects. Once breakdown anddefects are eliminated, equipment operation rates improve,costs are reduced, inventory can be minimized, and as aconsequence, labour productivity is increased. Such resultscannot be achieved over-night, typically three years arerequired from the introduction of TPM to achieve prizewinning results [5].In the early stages of TPM, companies that are practicingTPM must bear the additional expenses of restoring equipmentto its proper condition as well as educating personnel aboutthe equipment [2]. The actual costs depend on the initialquality of equipment and the technical expertise andexperience of maintenance staff. As productivity increases,however, these costs are quickly recouped. That is why TPMis often referred to as a “profitable” initiative [8]. The powerof TPM consists of continuous improvement, application oftechnology and people motivation to achieve Total QualityManagement.The effectiveness of TPM in supporting TQM is inachieving efficiency by eliminating losses resulting fromequipment failure, set up and adjustment, minor stoppages,process scrap and defects, and reduced yield.B. Improvement Activities to avoid major LossesEliminating loss due to failures: Machine efficiencydeterioration is major reason for failures in the plant. Thisproblem can be addressed through exposing hidden flaws bystopping the machines in a planned manner before defectsoccur and to deal with the flaws properly. Measures have to betaken to handle this include: establish the basic condition(clear, lubricate, tighten), maintain the basic operatingcondition, restore all deterioration functions at the originallevel, improve the design weakness of the machinery; andstrengthen operation and maintenance skills [10].Eliminating loss due to defects and rework: Steps have tobe taken as well to eliminate loss due to defects and rework ofproducts by classifying the manifestation of problems andclarify their particulars. This can be followed by analysing themanifestations physically. And from this all factors that areconnected with the manifestation, and causes are identifiedindividually. Then, if possible corrections are made as part ofa unified whole [11].C. Autonomous MaintenanceOperator skill development strengthens the communicationand cooperation between the production and maintenancedepartments. Thus autonomous maintenance is about machinemaintenance, and focuses on a TPM activity such asimprovement, education and training [10]. It is implementedgradually in well-defined steps such as cleaning, takingISBN: 978-988-14047-0-1ISSN: 2078-0958 (Print); ISSN: 2078-0966 (Online)measures at source of problem, making inspection routines,improving work organization and tidiness.As these steps are taken, over an agreed and achievable timespan, operators will develop skills which enable them to play agreater role in ensuring optimum availability of machines.Activities of autonomous maintenance are aimed at inhibitingequipment deterioration and to detect problems [5]. Some ofthese problems, like cleaning and lubrication can be easilycorrected by the operator, whereas more complicatedproblems can be handled by a skilled technician.D. Overall Equipment Efficiency (OEE)Overall Equipment efficiency (OEE) as a statisticalmeasurement of the efficiency of a machine, it is a key metricof TPM. Correct OEE percentage typically indicates whether amachine is running at optimum capacity and producing qualityoutput or experiencing unnecessary downtime. It is acomprehensive indicator of a plant condition that takes intoaccount operating time, performance and quality. It can beused to judge the efficiency with which the plant is being usedto add value [8].Most companies have some kind of gauge system on theirequipment that measures quantities such as time, unitsproduced, and sometimes even the production speed. Theseare appropriate parameters to monitor if the focus is only onwhat is coming out of the machine. TPM takes a slightlydifferent approach. Besides what is coming out of themachine, the focus is also on what could have come out, andwhere the loss in effectiveness occurs. Overall EquipmentEfficiency (OEE) offers a simple but powerful measurementtool to probe information on what is actually happening [9].OEE measurement formulae [2]Availability (A) – is the total percentage of time for which aspecific machine will be available/scheduled for productionpurposesA Loading time – downtimeLoading timePerformance rate (P) – is the percentage of units producedper time frame of maximum rated production speed. It isdetermined by how much waste is created through running atless.P Theoretical cycle time x processed amountOperating timeQuality Rate (Q) – this determines the percentage ofsellable units produced per time frame. It focuses onidentifying time that was wasted by a product that does notmeet the quality standards. It is quite obvious that the higherthe reject rate, the poorer the performance of the equipment.Q Processed amount - defects amountProcessed amountWCE 2015

Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering 2015 Vol IIWCE 2015, July 1 - 3, 2015, London, U.K.E. World Class ManufacturingWorld class manufacturing (WCM) refers to a quest forcontinual improvement of quality and to achieve customersatisfaction. It is one that fulfils customer demand for highquality, low costs, short lead times and flexibility [7]. This is aconcept that the manufacturing company needs in order to becompetitive with other companies in its related field. If WCMis a destination, then Total Productive Maintenance is avehicle, which should drive companies towards WCM. TPMis the first known successful model, which addresses machineefficiency and maintainability of those machines. It wasobserved that once this practice is maintained, the organisationcan increase machine efficiency and hence productivity [1].had a human resource department that deals with personnelissues across the firm, however team integration was notvisible to handle TPM related productivity issues. Thus lowTQM level was witnessed in terms of quality deployment. Theresearch study evaluated the impact of TPM when practisedtogether with an innovative human resource element to yieldpositive results. The sweets manufacturing line within theconfectionary plant was singled out for the study, to compareTPM results with previous period performance. Interviewswere conducted with the managers, supervisors, operators andtechnicians on gathering key information and aspects to beaddressed by TPM and achieve acceptable levels of TQM.F. Man / Machine RelationshipThe overall purpose of any man-machine systems is toprovide a certain function, product or service as an output withreasonable costs, even under conditions of disturbancesinfluencing man, machine or both. The main goals of a manmachine system are expected levels of performance, costs,reliability and safety [3].People are the most important component of a firm’s TQMthrust and the manner in which they are managed, treated andrespected will have a bearing on their performance and theturnover and financial viability of a firm. Growing evidencestrongly suggest that without the effective management ofpeople, the full potential benefits of technology cannot becompletely realised.Qualities of work life programs, quality circles and labourmanagement teams are all forms of participation that allowemployee to have direct input into the production process.Likewise, information sharing programs, formal grievanceprocedure, and profit and gain sharing plans help to increasethe probability that employee participation efforts will beeffective because such programs will provide a formalmechanism for employer-employee communication on workrelated issues [3]. Specifically, a formal job design programand enhanced selectivity will help ensure employee-job fit andthe provision of formal training will enhance the knowledge,skills, and ability of both new and old employees [7].The use of effective human resource management practicesenhances firm’s performance, extensive recruitment, selectionand training procedure, formal information sharing, attitudesassessment, job design, grievance procedure and labourmanagement participation programs, performance appraisal,promotion and incentive compensation systems that recogniseand reward employees on merit, have all been widely linkedwith valued firm outcome [9]. It is in this regard that TPMinitiative, becomes a vehicle through people to make progressto achieve higher level of productivity.The study was based on Candy (Pvt) which is a division ofa multinational firm that manufactures several products thatincludes chocolates and sweets, and it employs 205 people. Itcurrently uses an estimated base denominator activity, whencalculating the resource capacity overhead absorption rate,which is based on expected sales volume when generating theannual production budget. Thus the focus is on the projectedsales compared to the actual capacity of the business’sresources. This approach ignores spare capacity and, moreimportantly product costs and how it affects productivity. Thecompany was also in the processes of implementing a 5S’ssystem on all production operations to eliminate waste in itsmanufacturing processes shown in Fig 1 to achieve higherlevels of TQM in the plant.IV. METHODOLOGYThe plant survey was done and structured so as to improveoperations through Total Productive Maintenance (TPM)implementation, with main focus on machine operations,management support, skills-training for operators, and humanresource input for its success. TPM is concerned more withmore equipment efficiency and, hence need for analysingprevailing maintenance system. The case study organisationISBN: 978-988-14047-0-1ISSN: 2078-0958 (Print); ISSN: 2078-0966 (Online)V. CASE STUDY REVIEWFig 1 Sweet making process flowThe firm introduced key performance indicators (KPI’s) asit sought to improve high productivity to maximize theutilisation of available plant and equipment. Thus, there was aneed to measure the efficiency of business operations anddiscuss how to increase it. Hence adoption of Total ProductiveMaintenance (TPM) to introduce a collection of best practisesavailable to improve their batch production process to highequipment efficiency and material yield.VI. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONData was collected from the TPM role players involved inmanufacturing through an extensive survey process whichincluded various kinds of questionnaires coupled withpersonal interviews as well telephonic follow-ups. The keymanagement areas looked at were:o Skill acquisition and trainingo Decision making, problem solving and job designo Recruitment, selection and promotiono Performance appraisalsWCE 2015

Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering 2015 Vol IIWCE 2015, July 1 - 3, 2015, London, U.K.oManagement support system in the form ofmotivation and incentive compensation system thatrecognizes and rewards employee on merit.A. Skill Acquisition and TrainingIt was indicated that the operators were happy with thecontent and scope of TPM to improve operations. The reasoncited in the open-ended questionnaire is that the operatorswere able to apply the knowledge they acquired from trainingadequately without further assistance from management.Training was required as a multi-skilling aspect to enableoperator-based maintenance. This was going to inculcate asense of pride in staff members, as they would feel that theyare part of the organisation and not people just to sell theirlabour to the company.Management was also called to support staff members whostrive to improve their education outside the company throughprovision even of financial assistance to institutions of higherlearning. However, some members of management did not seethe value of training as employees did not seem to improveafter they had attended the training session.There was great emphasis for operator training requirementon the job. On the job training was viewed as important sinceit exposed the operator to new skills within a workingenvironment, without losing useful man-hours of work.The company did not recruit operators with a high level ofeducation, and it had to promote the same operators fromwithin the company to assume more responsibilities. Hence itfaced a challenge in providing high-level technical training tosome of these employees.In view of the low level TQM standards, the main thrust ofTPM trainers’ early work involved improvements to routinemaintenance and work practices. They worked with electedindividual production teams to identify all areas of themachines that had to be lubricated, cleaned, adjusted orotherwise regularly maintained. A picture of a clean and well–maintained machine is shown in Fig 2 below.Fig 2 Typical automated manufacturing sweet wrapping machineThe TPM practice required that operators identify places onthe machine where there was an oil leakage, dirty area, a placewhere there was an abnormal noise or vibration. These areaswere labelled so that they could be clearly identified byeveryone.Then each team prepared comprehensive workinginstructions that clearly set out responsibilities and operationsISBN: 978-988-14047-0-1ISSN: 2078-0958 (Print); ISSN: 2078-0966 (Online)routines. Not only did this release the plant technicians toundertake other more complex work, but also ensured that theday-today condition of the plant was greatly improved. Thisled to operations teams owning the routine tasks as well asmachines they operate on and this resulted in greatimprovements in productivity.Overall EquipmentEffectiveness (OEE) improved as a result of the TPMactivities.The skill transfer allowed technicians to pass over the skillsto operators. Over time these operators were be able tooperate and fix those machines releasing technicians to domore challenging jobs like designing machines, re-engineeringas well as concentrating on research and development.TPM training being a continuous process, hours were setaside to train operators on TPM skills. Weekly meetingsinvolving all two shifts where held. Problem solving was donein the form of ‘root-cause-analysis’ using a combination ofmore experienced operatives

in the Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) philosophy [11]. In all this, higher level of production effectiveness is attained in terms of cost effectiveness, safety, employee motivation, product quality, reduced defects rate and market positioning in order fulfillment [10]. III. TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE (TPM) REVIEW