Articlepubs.acs.org/IECRSelective Extraction of Metals from Chloride Solutions with theTetraoctylphosphonium Oleate Ionic LiquidDries Parmentier, ,‡,† Tom Vander Hoogerstraete,§,† Sybrand J. Metz, Koen Binnemans,§and Maaike C. Kroon*,‡ Wetsus, Centre of Excellence for Sustainable Water Technology, Oostergoweg 7, 8911 MA Leeuwarden, The NetherlandsSeparation Technology Group, Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Eindhoven University of Technology, DenDolech 2, 5612 AZ Eindhoven, The Netherlands§Molecular Design and Synthesis, Department of Chemistry, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200F, box 2404, 3001 Heverlee, Belgium‡S Supporting Information*ABSTRACT: The solvent extraction behavior of a series of metal ions (Li , Na , K , Mg2 , Ca2 , Mn2 , Fe3 , Co2 , Ni2 , Cu2 ,Zn2 , In3 , La3 , Nd3 , Sm3 , Dy3 , Er3 , Yb3 ) from an aqueous chloride feed solution by the nonﬂuorinated fatty acid-based ionicliquid (IL) tetraoctylphosphonium oleate [P8888][oleate] has been investigated as a function of the pH. The possibility to extractmetal chlorides from an aqueous stream via the anion or cation of the hydrophobic, low-viscous water-saturated [P8888][oleate]IL has been exploited. [P8888][oleate] can be considered as a bifunctional or binary IL. At high pH values (pH 5), all metals areextracted via the oleate anion, whereas some transition metals are extracted at high HCl concentrations and thus low pH values asanionic chloro complexes in combination with [P8888] cations. A diﬀerence of one pH unit is observed between the extractioncurves (%E as a function of the pH) of the transition metals and those of the rare earth metals. Rare earths are not extracted atlow pH values, whereas some transition metals (Fe, Mn, Co, Zn, Cu, In) are extracted. This makes [P8888][oleate] a promisingextractant for the separation of transition metals from rare earths. It is also shown that this bulky and long-chained IL has a verylow viscosity due to the uptake of water. diminish the extraction eﬃciency.9 Other hydrophobic and lowviscous ILs are often prepared by using ﬂuorinated anions suchas hexaﬂuorophosphate (PF6 ) or bis(triﬂuoromethylsulfonyl)imide (Tf2N ). Besides the instability of the PF6 anion towardhydrolysis,5a ﬂuorinated anions also have a high persistency innature. All these properties make ﬂuorine-based ILs not as“green” as ﬁrst assumed.Functionalized ionic liquids (FILs) are ILs that have aspeciﬁc functionality built into their structure. This is a metalbinding functional group in metal extraction systems.10 In thesearch for biocompatible, nontoxic FILs, we recentlysynthesized several nonﬂuorinated fatty acid-based ILs. Longchained tetraalkylphosphonium or tetraalkylammonium entitieswere selected as cations. These hydrophobic ILs have beenapplied for the extraction of several transition metals andshowed excellent extraction eﬃciencies.11 The bulky andhydrophobic cations prevent loss of the IL to the waterphase. Another advantage of the fatty acid-based ILs is that theanion of the IL is not lost during acidic stripping andregeneration, because protonation of the oleate anion to oleicacid does not alter the immiscibility with water. The conjugatedacids of some IL anions, such as in phthalate12 and βdiketonates,10c,13 are (partly) water miscible or volatile whichlimits the reuse of these ILs.INTRODUCTIONAlthough metals are essential for our economy, their supply isoften at risk. Therefore, the metallurgical industry is more andmore focusing on the recycling of metals.1 Separation andpuriﬁcation of metal ions is often performed by liquid liquidextraction (solvent extraction).2 In this process, the metal isextracted from an aqueous phase by a hydrophobic organicextractant. However, conventional liquid liquid extractionsystems make use of organic solvents, which are often toxicand ﬂammable. Ionic liquids (ILs) are proposed as a substituentfor volatile organic solvents.3 ILs are composed of organiccations and
Copper(II) chloride dihydrate, manganese(II) chloride dihy-drate, nickel(II) chloride hexahydrate, iron(III) chloride tetrahydrate, lithium chloride, and sodium chloride were supplied by Boom BV. Dysprosium(III) chloride, zinc(II) chloride, cobalt chloride hexahydrate, indium(III) chloride, and magnesium chloride were supplied by Sigma-Aldrich .
Advance Extraction Techniques - Microwave assisted Extraction (MAE), Ultra sonication assisted Extraction (UAE), Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE), Soxhlet Extraction, Soxtec Extraction, Pressurized Fluid Extraction (PFE) or Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE), Shake Flask Extraction and Matrix Solid Phase Dispersion (MSPD) . 2.
Metals vs. Non-Metals; Dot Diagrams; Ions Metals versus Non-Metals Dot Diagrams Metals are on the left side. Non-metals on the right. Metals tend to lose electrons. Non-metals gain them tight. Dot Diagrams (sometimes known as Lewis dot diagrams) are a depiction of an atom’s valence elect
Metals and Non-metals CHAPTER3 In Class IX you have learnt about various elements.You have seen that elements can be classified as metals or non-metals on the basis of their properties. n Think of some uses of metals and non-metals in your daily life. n What properties did you think of while categorising elements a
For example, metals can react with many non-metals: e.g. calcium chlorine calcium chloride (Note: When naming a compound the ending of the non-metal is changed to ide) Metals can also react with air (oxygen), water and acids. Some metals
Metals Metals make up the largest class of chemical elements in the Periodic Table. Approximately three quarters of elements are metals. Most metals are silvery in colour, have a characteristic lustre, and are solid (rather than liquid or gaseous). Most metals are also
Table of Contents 1199 19.3: Mixed Groups 19.1: Metals 19.2: Nonmetals Properties of Metals In the periodic table, metals are elements found to the left of the stair-step line. 19.1 Metals Properties of Metals Metals usually have common properties they are good conductors of he
follows here is a brief overview of how flowsheet data are used in pinch analysis. Data extraction is covered in more depth in "Data Extraction Principles" in section 10. 3.1 Data Extraction Flowsheet Data extraction relates to the extraction of information required for Pinch Analysis from a given process heat and material balance.
All in all, the DNA extraction labs are very workable. Try some and then decide if you would like to modify any to fit your needs better. Good luck!! Onion DNA Extraction Wheat Germ DNA Extraction Lima Bean Bacteria DNA Extraction Yeast DNA Extraction Thymus DNA
(Yang et al., 2007), extraction of major catechin and caffeine from green tea using different solvents (Perva-Uzunalić et al., 2006), solvent extraction of catechin from Korean tea (Row and Jin 2006), extraction of bioactive compounds from green tea using aqueous extraction (Komes et al., 2010). In addition, comparison of the hot and cold .
for jewelry and coinage. Other precious metals like platinum and silver also occur naturally in metallic form, often alloyed with other metals Extraction can be very difficult, with . only tiny concentrations present in most deposits. Precious metals are extremely rare — typically
SOME PROPERTIES OF METALS, NONMETALS AND SEMI-METALS - Worksheet - Metals, non-metals and semi-metals Question 1 Read each question and make a circle around the letter A, B, C, or D that is the correct answer. 1.1 Which of these i
Learning Target: Identify properties of metals, nonmetals and metalloids Don’t forget your color-coded periodic table It identifies the Groups Periods Main Group Elements It also classifies elements as Metals: Alkali metals Alkaline Earth metals Transition metals Lantha
Our solar system 2% metals Planetary nebula returns 3% metals Before our Sun? Previous star: 1% metals Planetary nebula returns 2% metals And before that? Previous star: 0.5% metals . the core contracts, heating up before it can burn the next fuel. Late str
Nov 19, 2015 · Alkali Metals 1 s1 ending Very reactive Alkaline Earth Metals 2 s2 ending Reactive Transition Metals 3-12 (d block) ns2, (n-1)d ending Somewhat reactive, typical metals Inner Transition Metals f block ns2, (n-2)f ending Somewhat reactive, radioactive Halogens 17 s2p5 endi
The alkali metals are very reactive The Alkali metals easily lose one electron. They form 1 ions in ionic compounds. The alkali metals even react violently with water to make H 2 gas and [OH]- ions. The [OH]- are a base and this is where the alkali metals get there name from, as alkali means
Selective Breeding of Farm Animals Is selective breeding good for animals? - 1 Page 2 Many meat chickens go lame. This is a result of selective breeding for meat. The chicken in the picture above has been bred to grow fast. He has been bred to put on a lot of meat. Unfortunately, his joints have not developed as fast as his muscle.
#363, Triple Selective Herbicide; Total Solutions Triple Threat #350, Selective Herbicide #1 . #360, Selective Herbicide #3 . #8363, Total Solutions Triple Threat Foaming Selective Herbicide (aerosol) . Q: Wh at d o w e w an t t o k i l l ? A : So m e Pl an t
Chapter 2 – Selective Catalytic Reduction 2-2 2. SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION 2.1 Introduction Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) has been applied to stationary source fossil fuel–fired combustion units for emission control since the early 1970s and is currently being used in Japan, Europe, the United States, and other countries.
oresins from selected spices. SC-CO 2 extraction has been compared with conventional extraction methods in terms of selectivity, and possibility of manipulating the composition of the extract. State of the art in a rapidly developing field of supercritical fluid extraction of spices is summa-rized in the following text.
The ENVI DEM Extraction Module is used to quickly and easily create spatially accurate DEMs from geospatial imagery. DEM DEM Extraction Module Find and extract specific objects of interest from all types of imagery with the ENVI Feature Extraction Module (ENVI FX). FX Feature Extraction