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MARCH 1973/FIFTY CENTSo u arCC,,1INCLUDINGtonicsElectronics WorldUNDERSTANDING NEW FM TUNER SPECSCRYSTALS FOR CBBUILD:.ÁLow Cóst Digital Clock','Thé Light.Probé 1;:s.*Stage Lighting for thé AmateurPoROCK\ MUSIC AND NOISE POLLUTIONHOW WE HEAR THE WAY WE DOTEST REPORTS:Dynacó FM -51-ti.Whárfedale W60E Speaker System'SSI. 4 -Channel AdapterCourier"Gladiator"CB 4Tr. 19016 YDB& K 501Á, SemiconduarÉo-AID 000MQ3an.18101-,'CI1ELaf1tl-S60g9t00ID N3a1Y-9?1139ibY0111101/WOE

Lmake learningElectronics at homefast and fascinatinggive you pricelessconfidence.Some NRI firsts in training equipmentII-.if"'f-T j.Ir fiiestto give solid state 25" color TV, 5" wideband oscilloscope, color bar generator and otherprofessional equipment engineered specifically foreducation. You work directly on the receiver as youbuild it, discovering the practical aspects of TV servicing as you create a handsome new color console.Only NRI includes an attractive woodgrain cabinetwithout extra charge.SatSi4j1to give you a unique, exciting digitalcomputer with memory built especially for home training. You learn organization, trouble shooting, operation, programming as you build and use it. Performsthe same functions as commercial computers. Lessonsstress computer repair. You conduct a hundred experiments, build hundreds of circuits. A solid-stateVTVM is included among ten training kits.

NRI's "discovery" method is the result of overhalf a century of leadership simplifyingand dramatizing training at homeThe FIRSTS described below are typical of NRI's half century of leadership in Electronics hometraining. When you enroll as an NRI student, you can be sure of gaining the in -demand technicalknowledge and the priceless confidence of "hands-on" experience sought by employers inCommunications, Television -Radio Servicing and Industrial and Military Electronics. Everything aboutNRI training is designed for your education . from the much -copied, educator -acclaimedAchievement Kit sent the day you enroll, to "bite -size" well -illustrated, easy to read texts programmedwith designed -for -learning training equipment.YOU GET YOUR FCC LICENSE OR YOUR MONEY BACKThere is no end of opportunity for the trained man in Electronics. You can earn 6 or more an hour inspare time, have a business of your own or qualify quickly for career positions in business, industry,government. And if you enroll for any of five NRI courses in Communications, NRI prepares youfor your FCC License exams. You must pass or NRI refunds your tuition in full. No school offers amore liberal money-back agreement. The full story about NRI leadership in Electronics training is inthe new NRI Catalog. Mail postage -free card today. No salesman is going to call.NATIONAL RADIO INSTITUTE, Washington, D.C. 20016 on Canada writ NRI Rep., 330 Progress Ave. Scarborough, Ont.)APPROVED UNDER NEW GI BILLIf you have served since January 31, 1955,or are in service, check GI line on postage-free card.designed from chassis up for your education'tm--.-!"--).!,o,*4fv,oStto give you true-to-life experiences as acommunications technician. Every fascinating stepyou take in NRI Communications training, includingcircuit analysis of your own 25 -watt, phone/cwtransmitter, is engineered to help you prove theoryand later apply it on the job. Studio equipmentoperation and troubleshooting become a matter ofeasily remembered logic.MARCH 1973I1ffir1Xofirstto give you completely specializedtraining kits engineered for business, industrial andmilitary Electronics. Shown above is your own training center in solid state motor control and analogcomputer servo -mechanisms. Telemetering circuits,solid-state multi -vibrators, and problem -solvingdigital computer circuits are also included in yourcourse.3

MARCH 1973VOLUME 3 NUMBER NICS MAGAZINEElectronics WorldFEATURE ARTICLES2.8ROCK MUSIC AND NOISE POLLUTIONCanitSidneySilverL.cause permanent hearing damage?37THE NEXT COMMUNICATIONS SATELLITE?47SOLDER & SOLDERING60 ANATOMYCliffordL.BarberOF A LIGHTNING BOLTDavidL.HeisermanAl! cbcut Thor spectacular electrical show.646588100103ELECTRONICS CROSSWORD PUZZLEJohn D. RichardUNDERSTANDING UPDATED FM TUNER SPECSZENITH'S 1973 COLOR LINE John T. FryeCRYSTALS FOR CB & HAM COMMUNICATIONHOW WE HEAR THE WAY WE DOLeonard FeldmanR.R.FreelandFrank M. Kenney e,oitory perception and stereo perspective.CONSTRUCTION STORIES33HEADLIGHT OPERATED GARAGE DOOR OR LIGHT SWITCHLOW-COST IC SIGNAL GENERATOR Emerson M. Hoyt3435STAGE LIGHTING FOR THE AMATEUR42BUILD A44MILLIVOLTER4650MAKE A SQUAWK BOX TOY FOR 3STOPPING ENGINE RUN-ON Karl O. andLIGHT PROBEMargisonRalph TennyLOW-COST DIGITAL CLOCKZIFFDAVIS PUBLISHING COMPANYEditorial and Executive OfficesOne Park Avenue, New York, New York 10016212 679.7200William Ziff, PresidentW. Bradfcrd Briggs, Executive Vice PresidentHershel B. Sarbin, Senior Vice President and SecretaryPhilip Sine, Financial Vice President and TreasurerPhillip T. Heffernan, Vice President, MarketingFrank Pomerantz, Vice President, Creative ServicesArthur W. Butzow, Vice President, ProductionEdward D. Muhlfeld, Vice President, Aviation DivisionIrwin Robinson, Vice President, Travel DivisionGeorge Morrissey, Vice PresidentSydney H. Rogers, Vice PresidentSidney Holtz, Vice PresidentLawrence Sporn, Circulation Director4E.Forrest MimsDoes your car keep running after the ignition51StevenisBennett A. LoftsgaardRichard K. Johnssonoff?Earl LarsenPOPULAR ELECTRONICS Including ELECTRONICS WORLD,March, 1973, Volume 3, Number 3. Published monthlyat One Park Ave., New York, NY 10016. One year subscription rate for U.S., U.S. Possessions and Canada, 6.00; allother countries, S7.00. Second class postage paid at NewYork, N.Y. and at cdditional mailing offices. Authorizedas second class mail by the Post Office Department,Ottawa, Canada and for payment of postage in cash.Subscription service and Forms 3579, P.O. Box 2774,Boulder, CO 80302. Editorial offices for manuscript contributions, reader inquiries, etc.: One Park Ave., New York,NY 10016.POPULARisELECTRONICS Including ELECTRONICS WORLDindexed in the Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature.Copyright 1973 by ZIFF-DAVIS PUBLISHING COMPANY.All rights reserved.POPULAR ELECTRONICS Including Electronics World

HOPPEREDGAR W.sher fisherW. BURAWAALEXANDER.iasnrrnre F.dito-JOSEPH E. HALLORANWM. A. STOCKLINANDRE DUZANTJOHN J. CORTONJUDITH L. HOGANLITTMANMADELEINEService ManagerEditorial DirectorS. SNITZEREditorTechnical IllustratorMILTONTechnical Editorlanoging Editor1.NEUFELDSTANLEY PublisherJOHN T. FRYEJ. GORDON HOLTRICHARD HUMPHREYWALTER G. JUNGJOHN R. RIGGSEDWARDAu iern singEditorial A.nalvIso:LESLIE SOLOMON.lCrrrisinp DirectorAdvertising SalesBUXBAUMu, tCrateHEBBFURMAN H.PresidentGroup riceElectronics and PhotopraPhicContributing tailorsart DirectorTHE SCENES127096114118J.STEREO SCENEGordon HoltTEST EQUIPMENT SCENELeslie SolomonWalter G. JungSOLID-STATE SCENEHOBBY SCENESURPLUS SCENEAlexander W. BurawaPRODUCT TEST REPORTS78 DYNACO FM -5 STEREO FM TUNER80 SSI QUADRASIZER IV 4-CHANNEL ADAPTER828486WHARFEDALE W60E SPEAKER SYSTEMCOURIER GLADIATOR AM/SSB CB TRANSCEIVERB&K MODEL 501A SEMICONDUCTORDEPARTMENTS6 EDITORIAL MiltonThe825106115116S.CURVE TRACERSnitzerTransistor-After 25 YearsCOMING NEXT MONTHBasic Hi-si Speaker SystemsLETTERSNEWS HIGHLIGHTSNEW PRODUCTSRecommended TV AntennasUsingCBfor EmergenciesBuild Electronic Wind ChimesNEW LITERATUREELECTRONICS LIBRARYMidwestern OfficeThe Pattis Group, 4761 West Touhy Ave.,Lincolnwood, Illinois 60644, 312 679-1100GERALD E. WOLFE, DICK POWELLDICK GOVATSKI, MANLEY LUDWIGWestern Office9025 Wilshire Boulevard, Beverly Hills, California 90211213 273-8050; BRadshaw 2-1161Western Advertising Manager, BUD DEANJapan: James YogiOil Palace Aoyama; 6-25, Minami Aoyama6 Chome, Minato-Ku, Tokyo 407-1930/682111Z1Member Audit Bureau of CirculationsMARCH 1973Ziff -Davis also publishes Boating, Car and Driver, Cycle,Flying, Modern Bride, Popular Photography, Skiing, andStereo Review.Forms 3579 and all subscription correspondence should beaddressed to POPULAR ELECTRONICS Including ELECTRONICS WORLD, Circulation Department, P.O. Box 2774,Boulder, CO 80302, Please allow at least eight weeks forchange of address. Include your old address, as well asnew-enclosing, íf possible, an address label from arecent issue.Editorial contributions must be accompanied by returnpostage and will be handled with reasonable care; however, publisher, assumes no responsibility for return orsafety of art work, photographs or manuscripts.5

9!I!I!'EditorialBy Milton S. Snitzer, EditorTHE TRANSISTOR -AFTER 25 YEARSA little over 25 years ago, three scientists at the Bell Laboratories inventeddevice that would revolutionize the world of electronics. These three areJohn Bardeen, Walter H. Brattain, and William Shockley. Later, in 1956, theywere named Nobel laureates in physics for the invention of the transistor.A recent issue of the "Bell Laboratories Record" recalled and celebrated theevent by asking the three to give their recollections of the transistor's inventionand to assess its impact on science, technology, and society. Some of whatthey had to say is worth a larger audience.Bardeen wrote about all the technical breakthroughs that have followed fromthe invention-single crystals, zone refining, diffusion, oxide masking, planartechnology, integrated circuits of greater and greater complexity, semiconductorrectifiers that have revolutionized the electric power industry, light emittingdiodes and lasers, microwave oscillators and charge -transfer devices. Thoughbased on some previously observed facts, he continued that there had to be aclose interaction between theory and experiment: "At each stage we tried tohave at least a qualitative understanding of what was going on."Brattain also credited basic research and experimentation in order to try tounderstand what was really going on. He then wrote "The technological use thatsociety makes of the understanding that science gives is not always what thescientist would recommend or condone. feel strongly, however, that the scientisthas no right to dictate how his understanding is used. He does have the right toadvise and to act as any other citizen when it comes to deciding what societyshould do, and all citizens are equally responsible for what is done." He goes onto state: "The use of the transistor of which am proudest is the smallbattery -operated radio. This has made it possible for even the most underprivilegedpeoples to. listenThe thing I deplore most is the use of solid-stateelectronics by rock and roll musicians to raise the level of sound to where itis both painful and injurious."William Shockley recalled that exploiting the transistor's potential causedmany headaches. He continued: "A colleague branded it a 'persistor', becausepersistence was what it took to make it-several years and improved experimentalfacilities were needed before really good ones were fabricated. But three yearslater, the first microwatt junction transistors were what really inaugurated theaII.transistor era."Bell Labs' most important policy was not to keep the new transistor informationsecret. The semiconductor industry's almost overnight growth was due in largemeasure to the relatively open information exchanges. Continuing research anddevelopment are still underway today. Charge -coupled semiconductor devices arebeing fabricated which will lead to solid-state flat TV pickup and picture tubes; newtypes of MOS (metal oxide semiconductors) are being worked on to improveswitching techniques; new devices are being researched for use in the microwavefrequencies and beyond. In short, the last 25 years of transistor history have beenremarkable but we expect that the next 25 years will be even more so.aPOPULAR ELECTRONICS Including Electronics World

.1Questions&kw to (Wilt simple elechicolNETER8 6 INDICATORSIfAboutJLaar: IECTS1Ili -aniv F011910I,er.-Obel YAMSg5lutómolke"11:4411Firuipmint'Sams brings you the latestin 10 areas of electronics.Here are ten new or newly revised books from Sams, dealing with specificareas of electronics. All are informative, instructive, and as current as today.One or more of them may be exactly what you've beet looking for.1-2-3-4 SERVICING CASSETTESHI-FI PROJECTS FOR THE HOBBYISTby Forest H. Belt(Second Edition)complete course In servicing the fast growing cassette market includes all you need toknow about the cassette machines. how theywork, and the easy 1-2-3-4 method of findingand curing their trouble, made as simple asby Leonard FeldmanA1-2-3hence the name. 240 pages.55.25No. 2092254.95cell, thermocouple, galvanometer, magnetometer, polarized-vane meter, and moving -coilmeter. 128 pages.53.95AUTOMOTIVE TEST EQUIPMENTYOU CAN BUILDby A. Edward Evensonanalyzer inNo. 20926 4.95by Charles D. RakesShows how to make a wide range of usefulprojects, such as burglar alarms, metal locators, and a long-range listening device. Theuse of the transistor-switching mode and urn-junction-is emphasized. Circuit descriptions.pictorialdiagrams are allused. 128 pages.No. 2092103.95HI-FI STEREO HANDBOOK (Fourth Edition)by William F. BoyceA complete and profusely Illustrated presentation of all stages of electronic sound reproduction. Covers the three major stages of hi-fireproduction, and equipment for all modes offour -channel sound. Includes much new material on latest devices, products and equipmentIn the field. 400 pages.No. 20918No. 20928-I153.95TRANSISTOR RADIO SERVICING COURSE12by Wayne LemonsTRANSISTOR RADIOThis complete course. covering all aspects vIthe transistor radio, is both a text for beginners and a useful reference for servicetechnicians. It covers all a -m and fm transistorcomponents and stages and summarizes eachchapter with a question and answer review.191 pages.56.95PHOTOFACT, GUIDE TO TV TROUBLES(Second Edition)Editorial StallActual photographs show what you see on apicture tube when any component in the receiver becomes defective. With it as a guide.you'll save valuable time In determining justwhich part is tautly. 192 pages.by Howard W. SamsS4.50HOWARD W. SAMS& CO., INC.4300 West 62nd Street. Indianapolis, Indiana 46268PE 033Order from your Electronics Pads Distributor, or mail to Howard W Sams & Co. Inc.3 2092220918enclosed. 'leaseSend books checked at right. SInclude sans tax where applicable. Canadian prices slightly higher.O Send FREE 1973 Sams Book Catalog.20931o 2092503Nameo 20930 0 20928(Please Print)Addres,StaleCityZip020925o 20914020921o 2052165.95CIRCLE NO.MARCH 1973Eequipment. Informative for both beginners andprofessionals. 95 Pages.No. 20521SOLID-STATE ELECTRONIC PROJECTSschematics andHoilryyby Leo G. SandsThe most important aspects of color TV ex.plained in easy -to -understand question andanswer format. Covers theory of operation,installation. sevicing, and modification ofNo. 20914How to build "professional level" instrumentsfor diagnosing and servicing automotive electrical equipment. The first seven chapters describe separate test instruments which areCombined into a multifunctionalchapter eight. 160 pages.tile53.95QUESTIONS & ANSWERS ABOUT COLOR TVHOW TO BUILD SIMPLE ELECTRICALMETERS & INDICATORSby Charles GreenA book for the hobbyist, starting with simpleprojects and progressing to the more complex.The projects include, among others, a voltaicNo. 20930Hi -F1'sPrtlit4e111(Second Edition)pacemakers, defibrillators, patient-rnonitorIngand telemetry systems used in hospitals. Avaluable aid for paramedics and technicianswho service this type of equipment. 144 pages.No. 20931for .IFIetiltaPe?sosmetDetailed instructions for building 19 hl -fl err*.eels. all completely practical. Includes howlo design a printed circuit, how to etch theboards and mount the components. Projectsare progressively more complex throughoutthe 20 chapters. 144 pages.No. 20925ELECTRONICS FOR MEDICAL PERSONNELby Edward J. BuksteinExplains the principles of electrocardiographs,ELECM)ONICII25ON READER SERVICE CARD7

snTEST NEWCIRCUIT IDEAS,DISCRETECOM NENTST:WITRISK:ONLYORM11.1111,:s iiiNtWitObli 1725 MONEY-BACKGUARANTEEAll you need are #4 mounting screws. Justplug-in 1/4 watt resistors, ceramic capacitors,diodes, I.C.s, transistors and more and yourcircuit is built! No special patch cords needed!Interconnect with any solid #22-26 gauge wire.Try it with absolutely no risk for 5 days. If notsatisfied, return your EL Socket and get a fullrefund. Trying is believing. How can you gowrong? Send Check or M.O. today!Nickel/silver plated terminals -low contactresistanceLow insertion forceMounts with #4 screwsInitial contact characteristics beyond 10MinsertionsVertical, horizontal interconnecting matricesHandles wide range of wire, leads from .015"-.032"rFREEIgilátV"iii .79, ,1 i" IICIRCLE NO.8j61ELFirstINSTR,St.,n Telephone:9Franklin, N.C.MASKING TAPE IS BETTER THAN CLIPSIn I. Cordon Ilolt's "A Galaxy of Gadgetry"(Stereo Scene, December 1972), mention ismade of using tape reel clips to prevent unravelling. I would like to point out that maskingtape is somewhat better to use for this job thanis cellophane tape. Most clips tend to warpplastic reels when the latter are stored in boxes.I have not met a broadcaster yet who uses clips.R.S. LEEKU.S. Naval BaseGuantanamo Bay, CubaFORSALE-COMPLETE SET OF PEhave all issues of POPULAR ELECTRONICSdating from October 1954 to the present forsale for 75. I'm letting them go to make roomfor future issues. All 205 issues for sale are intop condition.ID. SEIDLER5827 S. Campbell Ave.Chicago, IL 60629AILLUSTRATEDCIRCUIT DESIGNCATALOG!7tWILLIAM L. SMITH, K4RjMr. Seidler.oralSOIDEA-PACKED,tA new uhf communication record for distance was made between \V6YFK and K4Rj onNovember 22, 1972 between 0619 and 0646GMT. The terrestrial distance between W6YFKin California and K4RJ in North Carolina of2080 miles (3347 km) was bridged on 2304Mllz CW via moon reflection. This breaks therecord of 750 stiles set in October 1970 byW41I11K and \V3GKP.Interested readers, please write directly toASK FOR NEWcrtNEW WORLD'S DISTANCE RECORDAdd 50c for postage, handling25% deposit on C.O.D.sf¡t,;5YLetters }Derby,UMENTSConn.INC.'LUMINATING RESPONSEIn "What's in a Color TV Signal?" (December 1972), Mr. Belt states: "Line 18 of field 1carries the unfartniliar pattern at the top left(Fig. 3)The purpose of this signal was notexplained to either AT&T or the network's station engineers." The signal in question is a.06418203/735-8774ON READER SERVICE CARDsubcarrier-modulated luminance pedestal. Asthe enclosed application note states, this signalis for measuring luminance cross -modulation,POPULARELECTRONICS Including Electronics World

;»which is a shift in the luminance level due torectification of the color subcarrier and is afunction of the aserage picture level.Other than neglecting an explanation of thisuseful signal, the article was very informativeand concise. I would like to see more artic esof this caliber in future issues.D. BRAYService Center SupervisorTektronix, Inc.INFORMATION WANTEDDo you know whe -e I can obtain an up-todate roll chart for a Precise Model 111 tubetester?ROBERT T. COLEC34123 Dryden Dr.48077Sterling Ileights,\lIi recently acquired a US\i-50 oscilloscopethrough the MARS Program (it was made bySentinel Electronics, Inc.). Now I find that Ineed a technical manual to make full use of thescope. Can you help me?II.F. HoovEn4227 S. Dorset Rd.Spokane, \VA 99204i am in dire need of a wiring diagram andinstruction manual for a Precision Model 912tube tester. Can you or any of your readershelp me?F.M. TAYLOR72 Antlions St.East Providence, RI 02914ifWe cannot help, but perhaps our readers can;so, please Write directly to the above.A NOTE OF CAUTIONWhenever you work with an unfamiliarapparatus or substance, especially chemicals, maximum precautions should at alltimes he exercised. This is particularlytrue when handling the ne

MARCH 1973/FIFTY CENTS o 1 u ar CC,, tonics INCLUDING Electronics World UNDERSTANDING NEW FM TUNER SPECS CRYSTALS FOR CB BUILD: 1;: .Á Low Cóst Digital Clock ','Thé Light.Probé *Stage Lighting for thé Amateur s. Po ROCK\ MUSIC AND NOISE POLLUTION HOW WE HEAR THE WAY WE DO TEST REPORTS: - Dynacó FM -51 . ti Whárfedale W60E Speaker System' .