Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF)

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Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF):Aviation needs SAF SAF needs your technologies!Day 3, Keynote #1Steve CsonkaExecutive Director, CAAFIFirst flight from continuous commercial production of SAJF, 10Mar’16Fuel from World Energy - Paramount (HEFA-SPK 30/70 Blend).09Oct’19

Overall industry summary:Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF) activity SAF are key for meeting industry’s commitments Delivers net GHG reductions of 65-100%, other enviro services Aviation enterprise aligned; 26B gpy US & 90B GPY worldwide opt’y CAAFI and others (e.g. AIREG) are working to foster, catalyze, enable,facilitate, participate Segment knows how to make it; Activities from FRL 1 to 9 Pathway identified for fully synthetic (50% max blend today) First facilities on-line, producing SAF at various run-rates Commercial agreements being pursued, fostered by policy and otherunique approaches Making progress, but still significant challenges – onlymodest production: focus on enabling commercial viability Potential for acceleration a function of engagement, firstfacilities’ success replication, additional technologies24 October 20192

Aviation takes its environmentalresponsibility seriously Decades of progress with: Airport community noise Tailpipe emissionsCO, UHC, Smoke, NOxPM (recent addition) Fuel mileage std. (recent)All have ratcheting stringency under ICAOCAEP oversight via global treaty Fuel efficiencyDriven by inherent demand to continuouslyimprove aviation’s productivity; addressinghighest expense categoryNow facing the societal pressureof addressing GHGs and growth,while other sectors potentiallyshrink via incorporation of newtechnologies

Aviation takes its environmentalresponsibility seriously on GHGs tooIndustry commitments in 2009, 2012, 2015, 2019

Aviation Industry Commitment to Actionon Climate Change: 3 Goal Approach24 October 2019Four Pillars of the Commitment:Technology, Operations, Infrastructure, and Market-Based MeasuresTechnology includes the development and commercialization ofSustainable Aviation Fuels5Source: Boyd, Robert (IATA). 2018 CBGM. Policy Panel Discussion. Available at:http://caafi.org/resources/pdf/1.9 Policy Discussion.pdf

Industry Annual GHG emissionsAviation Industry Commitment to Actionon Climate Change: 3 Goal ApproachCourtesy of ATAG: htmlBeginner’s Guide to Sustainable Aviation FuelBusiness Aviation made similar commitmentsGOAL 1: 1.5%annual eff’cyCORSIASAF a key component of the Technology Pillar;enabler for GHG containment strategy24 October 20196

Why not simply aircraft / enginetechnologies? Each major engine OEM spending 1B per year in R&D andproduct development to maintain or improve upon an -2%/yrtechnology introduction trend a tough taskReducing Fuel ConsumptionTechnology alone( 1.5-2.0% aair)insufficient to keepup with projectedtraffic growth( 4-5% aagr)24 October 20197

Jet fuel usage will continue Through several decades, with tomorrow’s technologyCO2 Reduction Roadmap & GoalsCO2EmissionsAircraft model intros“2015-2020” TechOpsInfraE-Jet E2, MRJ, A220ARJ-21, C919, MC-21737 Max, A320 Neo787 FBO, A330 NeoA350 FBO777-XBiofuels Add’l Tech SSBJ SS Pax NMA 737 & A320 Redux15 year min production runs20 year min useful service life following EIS200520102020203020402050

and into the intro period of “RadicalNew Technologies”CO2 Emissions ReductionConcepts IntroductionCO2 Reduction ConceptsPotential Break Points, e.g.:Aircraft / engine configuration changes Brayton cycle entitlement (UHBR, GTF, UDF)drive terminal / runway changes? Hybrid: gas turbine HP augmented w/ electrics Distributed propulsion / Ultra span conceptsDuplicate fuelingsystems New thermodynamic cycle concepts / Variable cycle Dual fuel, new fuel (LNG, H2, )New hydrant Cryogenic Fuel - intercooled / variable cycle engines,systems / newsupercooled conduction, associated tech, airports Cryogenic fuels – unconventionally fully-electricQuick Battery/fuel-cells – conventionally fully-electric aircraftcharge/change Battery powered full electric (off by factor of 50)aircraft configs Super-/hyper-sonic slingshot aircraft, scramjet Potential 30-70 pax regionalLEV / ZEV aircraft family?20302040205020602070

Between a Rock and a Hard Place No technology on the horizon to decarbonize current /advanced commercial aircraft ( 100 seats) Energy and Power densities of batteries and electrical systemsare 50X off the levels needed to replace hydrocarbon fuels No fuel switches (X-OHs, diesel, LNG, CNG, H2, ) appear viable So, for the next 3-4 decades, we’re forced to look primarily tothe fuel to enable carbon reduction. SAF - Maintaining our license to grow! SAF – Perhaps maintaining our license to exist!24 October 201910

IATA Recommitment to SAF at 75th AGM02Jun’19 Resolution PronouncementRenewed emphasis on SAF in Resolution ENCOURAGES all ICAO Member States to demonstrate climate andaviation leadership; URGES all IATA members to take part in the long-term energytransition of air transport towards sustainable aviation fuels; Theseare key to achieving the industry’s 2050 commitment. EMPHASIZING that IATA member airlines have consistentlyconsidered that meeting aviation’s climate goals relies not only onindustry action but is also subject to governments incentivizingtechnological research and development for airframes and enginesand the commercial development of sustainable aviation fuels, More to follow from Lufthansa and JetBlue Chair IATA appointmentsfor the next 2 years.Similar statement followed from Aerospace Industries Association.24 October 201911

CAAFI - Public/Private PartnershipA reflection of the unaddressed focus on industry GHGsAn aviation industry coalition established in 2006 to facilitateand promote the introduction of sustainable aviation fuel(SAF), coincident with the industry’s commitmentsGoal is development of non-petroleum, drop-in, jet fuelproduction with: Equivalent safety & performance Comparable cost Environmental improvement Security of energy supply for aviationEnables its diverse stakeholders to build relationships, shareand collect data, identify resources, and direct research,development and deployment of alternative jet fuels24 October 201912www.caafi.org

SAF (Sustainable Aviation Fuel)a.k.a. aviation biofuel, biojet, alternative aviation fuelAviation Fuel: Maintains the certification basis of today’saircraft and jet (gas turbine) engines by delivering theproperties of ASTM D1655 – Aviation Turbine Fuel – enablesdrop-in approach – no changes to infrastructure or equipment,obviating incremental billions of dollars of investmentSustainable: Doing so while taking Social, Economic, andEnvironmental progress into account, especially addressingGHG reductionHow: Creating synthetic jet fuel by starting with a different setof carbon molecules than petroleum a synthetic comprisedof molecules essentially identical to petroleum-based jet (inwhole or in part)24 October 201913

Achieving net Lifecycle GHG Reductionswith SAFPetroleum based JetSustainable AviationFuelResult is a netreduction ofadditionalcarbon beingintroduced intoour biosphereContinuing to pull additionalcarbon from the ground andreleasing it into theatmosphere as CO224 October 2019Acquiring the majority of ourcarbon from the atmosphere, viabiology, turning it back into fuel14

Turbine fuel functional requirementsFoundation for certification basisHow does the aircraft use fuel . . .As a coolantAs a lubricantAs a hydraulic fluidAs a ballast fluid, swelling agent,capacitance agent, And finally, as an energy sourceNeed: Efficiency and safety paramountASTM D-1655AcidityAromatics, max%SulfurDistillationFlash PointDensityFreeze ptViscosityHeat of CombustionCopper strip corrosionJFTOTExistent gumMSEPElectrical conductivityHigh energy content: volumetric & massStable: high flash point (no explosions), low freeze point (liquid at -40C)Unique properties enable required OperabilityTurbine fuel used for multiple purposes So its creation has tobe carefully controlled to get the right fit-for-use properties24 October 201915

Typical jet fuel compositionDefinition around which aviation enterprise is optimizedA middle distillate refinery stream is used for jet fuel Comprised of mixtures of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons withcarbon numbers predominantly in the range of C7-C17, which is typicallya mixture of: 25% / 11% normal / branched paraffins 30% / 12% / 1% mono- / di- / tri-cycloparraffins 16 / 5% mono- / di-nuclear aromatics(25% max aromatics – air quality concern) A Gaussian distribution of hydrocarbons, represented as C12H23There is no standard “formula” for jet fuel Composition that delivers the physical properties and performancebased requirements / characteristics of ASTM D1655 specification

Aviation industry path to SAF ASTM D1655 - Standard Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuels A1.1.2 Aviation turbine fuels with synthetic components produced in accordancewith Specification D7566 meet the requirements of Specification D1655. ASTM D4054 - Standard Practice for Qualification and Approval ofNew Aviation Turbine Fuels 1.1 This practice covers and provides a framework for the qualification andapproval of new fuels and new fuel additives for use in commercial and militaryaviation gas turbine engines ASTM D7566 - Standard Specification for Aviation Turbine FuelContaining Synthesized Hydrocarbons 1.2 Aviation turbine fuel manufactured, certified and released to all therequirements of this specification, meets the requirements of Specification D1655and shall be regarded as Specification D1655 turbine fuel.24 October 201917

Technologies applicable to SAFIndustry approval of SAF via ASTM D4054 ProcessAdditionalConversionProcess PipelineTier 1 &2 testingnearly complete,draft Research Rptin process, shocktube test atStanford & initialreferee rig test atAFRL completed.Virent SAKE.g. Vertimas provided initiationplans to OEMs at June ASTMAnnex A5ATJ-SPK(Isobutanol ðanol)Shell IH2IHI Bb-Oil HEFAATJ-SKA(Swed Biofuels)FT Biocrude Coprocessing (D1655)Fast Tracktesting atUDRIcompletedend of April,R’Rptsubmitted toOEMs June 12Ballot awaitingQ4 releaseSwedish Biofuelsprepared24 Octoberdraft2019 R’Rpt,and discussed at Jun’19ASTM OEM mtgAnnex A4FT-SKAAnnex A3HFS-SIPHFP-HEFA(HDRD orGreen Diesel)Addressing a couple finalconcerns with conductivity.Annex likely to be finalizedby Q1’20.ARACHJWorking improvements: 4054 Clearinghouse, Quick Entry AnnexCAAFI R&D Team engagement prior to D4054: Tier α, Tier β18FAA assistance with costsAnnex A2HEFA-SPKAnnex A1FT-SPKFOG Coprocessing(D1655)

SAJF Progress - technical SAJF are becoming increasingly technically viable Aviation now knows we can utilize numerous productionpathways (5 approved, others pending) Enabling use of all major sustainable feedstocks (lipids, sugars,lignocellulose, H&C slip-streams) Following blending, fuel is drop-in, indistinguishable from petro Some future pathways will produce blending components thatwill need less, or zero, blending Expanding exploration of renewable crude with refiners Significant “pipeline” of new production pathways Continuing streamlining of qualification – time, , methods24 October 201919

SAF progress - commercial The path to SAF commercialization has perhaps commenced In production; in construction; in final design; in conceptualization Some will be readily replicable May be able to leverage existing refineries, as well as alcohol and renewablediesel production facilities The primary impediments to rapid growth: A production cost delta versus petroleum-jet, and; Competition from diesel (road and maritime), and; A policy environment that may not close cost delta, creates marketdistortions, and continues to foster uncertainty Given a policy framework that addresses the above, SAF is perhapson the cusp of rapid expansion and replication Many members of entire supply-chains are working to enable such(academia, national labs, entrepreneurs, big oil, fuel suppliers, pipelinecompanies, farmers and foresters, facilitators, aviation partners)

ASTM D4054 pipelineApproachFeedstockATJ ExpansionHDCJ (direct or co-processing)Microbial conversionHTLCatalytic HTLThermal Deoxyg.SBI CGC PICFTRAcid DeconstructionBio-TCat (thermal catalytic)CCLCHyP (syngas, non-FT)Hydrogenotrophic Conv.Cyanobacterial Prod.STG GTLIonic Liquid Decon.Metal Catalytic ConversionEnzymatic Conversion24 October 2019Alcohols (via sugars)LignocelluloseIsobutene (via sugars)LignocelluloseLignocelluloseLipidsLipids - lluloseCO2 / Producer GasCO2c1-c4 Gas / wedish Biofuels*, ByogyEnsyn/Envergent, RECGlobal Bioenergies*Steeper, Genifuel, Licella, Muradel, QUTForge Hydrocarbons*SBI Bioenergy / ShellMercuriusAnellotech*21* Recent outreach to CAAFI R&D Team, ASCENT C.H. and/or OEMs

Why do we care about the pipeline We need expanded SAF affordability Processes applicable to lower cost, available feedstocks R&DDD applicable to CapEx, OpEx We need SAF availability Available for processing regionally, world-wide, with regionallyavailable feedstocks We need commercialization activity / fuels soon Leverage existing biofuel infrastructure or adjacent production Some will shift strategies and may never produce jet fuel(Amyris), or produce compounds of lesser interest (Virent)24 October 201922

Cost-focus is only part of the need Techno-economicassessments don’taddress total value Expectation thatviability will beenabled via otherrevenue, otherservices, andintegration withexisting facilities andindustries24 October 201923

SAF commercial progress Airline engagement continues, strongly with key instigators BizAv and Corporation engagement initiated and expanding Other convening activities Fuel Suppliers – new business opportunities Refiners – maintaining markets and meeting policy obligations Co-processing activities NGOs – assisting w/ demand aggregation & market signalsAirports – misc explorations, starting w/ infrastructure evaluationsFeedstock development – flight demos whet investor interestSAJF & HDRD Producers – continuous stream of exploration andannouncements OEMs have their own fuel needs24 October 201924

SAF offtake agreementsBeyond numerous demonstration programsneat quantitiesUp to 5 M gpyfrom 2016 (LAX)Paramount3 yr agreement30/70 blend*Misc Flights, e.g. SFOBioportson demand,et al.HalmstadArlandaBrommaGoteborgLeeuwarden90-180 M gpy50 M gpy10 yragreements37.5M gpyProject Development,License, and Offtake24 October 201925* WEP also continues supplying fuel for multiple trial and research activities

SAF offtake agreementsBeyond numerous demonstration programsneat quantities3 M gpy each, 7 yrs(Bay Area, CA)10M gpy, 10 yrs (JFK)4M gpy, 10 yrs (LAX)24M gpy, 10 yrsSAF SupplycollaborationSupply from 2021*UK DfT F4C Funding: ATJDevelopment* 100M gpy by 2023 from 4 facilitiesThese offtakes/efforts represent 350 M gpy, and account for the24 October 201926total production slate of the first several commercialization efforts

Other recent announcementseffortMSW-basedFT-SPK evaluationsIn negotiationBTL #1, Natchez, MS1,400 bpdSAJF Supply explorationMOU to design &implement adoptionCollaboration on supplyexpansionSAF restart at PorvooCarinata supplydevelopment/Up to 1M gpy, 5 yrs France & EU supplyBrisbane SupplyDemonstration/24 October 201927

Other recent announcementseffortFull production slateofftakesMultiple Producers, TBALong-term supply negotiation(from 2023). Fueling alldomestic flights by 2030.GothenburgRefineryNew AircraftDeliveries fromAirbus and BoeingOthers, TBACustomer funding of SAJFpurchase from 2019TBAMultiple Producers &SuppliersAirports andAirline TenantsExploration ofGreater ambition 2M for Grays Harbor, WAfeasibility study24 October 201928

Commitments of Greater AmbitionObtain 30% of jet fuel from alternative sources by 2030; 06Nov’17First U.S. Airline to Pledge to Reduce Own Emissions by 50% (vs.2005) by 2050; 13Sep’18Norway's government introduces 0.5 % blending mandate foradvanced aviation biofuels from 2020; 04Oct’18ParamountMoving forward with 350M expansion to enable 306M gpy totalcapacity & jet capacity of 150M gpy; 24Oct’18Netherlands committed to transition all military aircraft to 20/80 AJFblend by 2030 and 70% by 2050; 23Jan’19India’s SpiceJet commits to flying 100 M passengers on SAF by 2030;23Sep’19Horizon 2030: offset 100% of domestic CO2 from 2020; reduce 2030’sCO2/pax-km by 50% from 2005; R&D for French SAF industry; 01Oct’1924 October 201929

Commitments of Greater AmbitionAirlines using passenger booking options to offset costCustomer option to pay for incremental price of SAF of 29.50 on any flightCustomer option to pay for incremental price of SAF in 20min blocks of flight time for 10 / block (up to 80% CO2reductions); fuel being allocated to future flightsCompensaid – calculates specific cost of SAF for specificflights and enables customer to pay for incremental priceCustomer option to pay for incremental price of SAF for 3categories of flight: intra-Finland ( 10), intra-EU ( 20),International ( 65); fuel being allocated to future flights24 October 201930

Paradigm changing announcementsCorporate intent to help close price premiumsResilient and SustainableAviation Fuel (RSAF) creditClean Skies for Tomorrow ProgramPurchase of SAF for US-Netherlands flights(beyond offsetting employee travel)24 October 201931

SAF tactical situationApproaching CNG2020 aviation commitments U.S. airlines could use the annual addition of 300-400 M gpy ofneat SAJF to enable offset of expected industry init’l growthobligations (total US production at 26B gpy and growing). Activity needed in next 2-3 years for SAF to have a materialimpact against goal and expected carbon monetizationAviation a willing offtaker, w/ 10-15 yr offtakes available Engagement possible, see Guidance for Selling Alternative Fuelsto Airlines Engage with CAAFI for navigation assistance.24 October 201932

Potential for U.S. SAF build-outTargets of opportunity“Waste” streamsSAF from various feedstocks (GPY, using standard conversions)3.8 B3.1 B6.1 B0.4 B0.8 B1.3 Bx.x B 15.6 B24 October 2019Wet Waste (manures, sanitary, misc streams)MSW (municipal solid waste: wood, paper, yard, plastics, textiles, food)Agricultural residues (primary crop residues only, 31% removal)Forestry residues (30% of production uncommitted)F.O.G. (Fats oils and greases: estimates vary significantly, up to 3.0B)Industrial off-gases (steel, aluminum, petroleum)Other (C&D waste, telephone poles, rail ties, invasive tree removal)Current Total Potential (approx. 58% of 2019 U.S. demand)33

Summary Thank you for your interest in SAF-range molecules!! Interestfrom the industry is real. Multiple feedstock sources / targeted conversion technologies Please continue to focus on TEA and LCA driven technologyexplorations – the industry needs affordable, low-CI jetblending components If you are working in the gasoline/diesel space – you areworking in the SAF space – please highlight SAF and itsfocused market-pull Less certainty over the life of the bio-refinery for gasoline anddiesel (targeted at road transport or shipping) demand due likelytechnology shifts – not the same for aviation.24 October 201934

Steve CsonkaExecutive Director, CAAFI a@caafi.orgwww.caafi.org

SAF (Sustainable Aviation Fuel) a.k.a. aviation biofuel, biojet, alternative aviation fuel. Aviation Fuel: Maintains the certification basis of today’s aircraft and jet (gas turbine) engines by delivering the properties of ASTM D1655 – Aviation Turbine Fuel – enables drop-in approach – no changes to infrastructure or equipment,

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