Activity 1: Types of RadiationObjectivesStudents will: Differentiate between non-ionizing and ionizing radiation. Explore real-world sources of each. Gain an increased awareness of their everyday exposure to radiation.Next Generation Science StandardsThe concepts in this activity can be used to support the following science standard: PS4. Waves and Electromagnetic Radiation.Materials and Resources Radiation Exposure: Teacher Background Information.Vocabulary Materials.Radiation Types and Sources Worksheet (one per student, pair or group or group).Electromagnetic Spectrum image (included in the Radiation Exposure: TeacherBackground Information or the Vocabulary Materials); display with computer andprojector.Radiation Worksheet (one per student, pair or group or group) and Radiation WorksheetTeacher Answer Key.Marbles — approximately eight to ten marbles per group. Use unique sizes or colorswith one marble representing the nucleus, five marbles representing electrons and theremaining two to four marbles representing radiation (e.g., one white, five blue and twoto four red marbles).Radiation Sources in Our Community Worksheet (one per student, pair or group) andRadiation Sources in Our Community Teacher Answer Key (optional activity orextension).Student computers with Internet access (optional).Time45-60 minutes, not including optional activities or extensions.Vocabulary AtomElectromagnetic spectrumDNAGamma raysIonizing radiationNon-ionizing radiationRadiationX-raysU.S. EPA Radiation Education Activities: Radiation ExposurePage 10 of 48
Directions1. Start with a vocabulary activity if students are not familiar with radiation and the terms usedin this activity, or provide students with the terms and definitions.2. Ask students to hypothesize whether all sources of radiation are the same or different. Forexample, have students explain whether there is a difference between the radiation from acellphone, the radiation from the sun, and the radiation used in x-ray machines.3. Distribute the Radiation Types and Sources Worksheet. Explain that radiation is energy thattravels in the form of waves or high speed particles (photons) and makes up theelectromagnetic spectrum in the form of non-ionizing and ionizing radiation. The energy ofthe radiation shown on the spectrum increases from left to right as the frequency rises.4. Direct students to cut out the radiation source images and place them under the matchingtype of radiation on the electromagnetic spectrum. Alternatives: Have students label each source image with the matching type of radiation. Have eight students write a type of radiation on a sheet of paper (extremely lowfrequency radiation to gamma rays) and line up in the order of the electromagneticspectrum. Provide nine other students with a radiation source image (use those providedor larger images of these items) and have them line up accordingly with the studentsrepresenting the electromagnetic spectrum.5. Display the Electromagnetic Spectrum image (included in the Radiation Exposure: TeacherBackground Information or the Vocabulary Materials) so students can use it to check theirwork.6. Distribute the Radiation Worksheet and direct students to complete the demonstrations andrecord their observations. Students should complete the critical thinking questions followingthe demonstrations. A Radiation Worksheet Teacher Answer Key has been provided. Demonstration A shows that non-ionizing radiation can cause atoms to vibrate andmove. A potential effect is heat generated from the vibration or movement. You canprompt students to think about how we use microwaves to heat our food or how cellphones get warm with use. Demonstration B shows that ionizing radiation can change the structure of an atom bybreaking chemical bonds in molecules or removing tightly bound electrons from atomsand creating charged molecules or atoms (ions). A potential effect is cell or DNAdamage when this occurs.7. Have students share their responses.8. Conclude by explaining that people often view ionizing radiation as harmful. However, it isall around us and has been present since the birth of our planet. As a result, our bodies areadapted to some degree of radiation exposure and have developed mechanisms forrepairing cell damage from radiation exposure. Health risks and the amount of cell damagedepends on the type of radiation, the exposure pathway, the radiation’s energy and the totalamount of radiation absorbed.9. Optional activities or extensions: Direct students to identify sources of radiation in theircommunity and determine whether they are sources of non-ionizing and/or ionizingradiation.U.S. EPA Radiation Education Activities: Radiation ExposurePage 11 of 48
Provide students with the Radiation Sources in Our Community Worksheet. Direct themto identify the location of the radiation sources and indicate whether they are a source ofnon-ionizing radiation, ionizing radiation or both. Students can refer to the RadTownUSA website (www3.epa.gov/radtown). A Radiation Sources in Our Community TeacherAnswer Key is provided.Direct students to tour their school, home and/or community and identify sources ofradiation. Have them generate the list of identified sources by energy range (e.g., radio,microwave, ultraviolet or x-ray) in the electromagnetic spectrum and type (e.g., nonionizing radiation, ionizing radiation or both).Have students research and debate the effects of non-ionizing radiation (e.g., use ofmicrowaves and cellphones).U.S. EPA Radiation Education Activities: Radiation ExposurePage 12 of 48
Radiation Types and Sources WorksheetName:Date:Radiation is energy that travels in the form of waves or high speed particles (photons) andmakes up the electromagnetic spectrum. Radiation within the electromagnetic spectrum isdivided into two major categories: ionizing radiation and non-ionizing radiation.Electromagnetic SpectrumSources of RadiationCut out the sources of radiation images. Place them on the electromagnetic spectrum under theappropriate type of non-ionizing or ionizing radiation. Some types of radiation may have morethan one source image.U.S. EPA Radiation Education Activities: Radiation ExposurePage 13 of 48
Radiation WorksheetName:Date:The images and demonstrations represent the effects of radiation when it is absorbed by atoms(represented by the white circles). Complete the demonstrations, record your observations andanswer the questions.Image A: This type of radiationcan cause atoms to vibrate andmove.RadiationDemonstration A:1. Place your hands together. Your hands representatoms.2. Rub them against each other for 10 to 20 seconds.3. Observe and record what happens to the “atoms” andthe potential effects.Image B: This type of radiationcan change the structure of anatom by removing tightly boundelectrons from atoms.RadiationDemonstration B:Equipment: 8 to 10 marbles. Select one marble torepresent an atom nucleus. Select five marbles torepresent electrons that surround the atom nucleus.Select two to four marbles to roll at the atom.1. Place one marble (representing the nucleus of anatom) on a level surface.2. Place five marbles tightly around the “nucleus”marble. The five marbles represent electrons. Younow have a marble atom.3. Roll one marble at a time at the “atom” and try tomove, or knock away, an “electron.”4. Observe and record what happens to the atomnucleus and the potential effects.Questions:1. Does image and demonstration A represent the effects of non-ionizing or ionizing radiation?Consider the effects you observed and what you know about these types of radiation in theelectromagnetic spectrum. How might this type of radiation affect our bodies?U.S. EPA Radiation Education Activities: Radiation ExposurePage 14 of 48
2. Does image and demonstration B represent the effects of non-ionizing or ionizing radiation?Consider the effects you observed and what you know about these types of radiation in theelectromagnetic spectrum. How might this type of radiation affect our bodies?3. Why do you need to be aware of and understand the difference between non-ionizing andionizing radiation and their effects?U.S. EPA Radiation Education Activities: Radiation ExposurePage 15 of 48
Radiation Worksheet Teacher Answer Key1. Does image and demonstration A represent the effects of non-ionizing or ionizing radiation?Consider the effects you observed and what you know about these types of radiation in theelectromagnetic spectrum. How might this type of radiation affect our bodies? Non-ionizingradiation. Low frequency sources of non-ionizing radiation are not known to presenthealth risks. High frequency sources of ionizing radiation (such as the sun andultraviolet radiation) can cause burns and tissue damage with overexposure.4. Does image and demonstration B represent the effects of non-ionizing or ionizing radiation?Consider the effects you observed and what you know about these types of radiation in theelectromagnetic spectrum. How might this type of radiation affect our bodies? Ionizingradiation. It can damage living tissue by changing cell structure and damaging DNA.Children are more sensitive to ionizing radiation than adults because children are stillin the process of growing. There are more cells dividing and a greater opportunity forradiation to disrupt the growth process.2. Why do you need to be aware of and understand the difference between non-ionizing andionizing radiation and their effects?Answers may vary, but students should be aware that ionizing radiation can affectatoms in living things and pose a health risk. Therefore, we may need to takemeasures to limit our exposure to ionizing radiation. Non-ionizing radiation does nottypically pose a health risk. However, higher frequency forms of non-ionizingradiation such as the sun and ultraviolet lights can burn our skin or damage our eyes.U.S. EPA Radiation Education Activities: Radiation ExposurePage 16 of 48
Radiation Sources in Our Community WorksheetName:Date:Review the following sources of radiation and indicate where you might encounter them, suchas outdoors, in specific buildings or in certain work settings. Indicate whether the source is nonionizing radiation, ionizing radiation or both.Sources of RadiationLocationsNon-Ionizing, Ionizing Radiationor BothUltraviolet (UV) lightSecurity scannersComputed tomography(CT) scannersCosmic radiationElectric and magneticfields (EMF)Antique clocks andwatches that glow inthe darkRadonTritium exit signsIonizing smokedetectorsRadioactive waste fromabandoned uraniumminesWireless technologyNuclear moisture anddensity gaugesCigarettes/radiation intobaccoU.S. EPA Radiation Education Activities: Radiation ExposurePage 17 of 48
Radiation Sources in Our Community TeacherAnswer KeySources of RadiationUltraviolet (UV) lightSecurity scannersComputedtomography (CT)scannersCosmic radiationElectric and magneticfields (EMF) frompower linesAntique clocks andwatches that glow inthe darkRadonTritium exit signsIonizing smokedetectorsRadioactive wastefrom abandoneduranium minesWireless technologyNuclear moisture anddensity gaugesCigarettes/radiation intobaccoLocation(s)Outdoors, hospitals, tanningsalons and certain jobs (e.g.,welding or research)Airports, courthouses andother buildingsHospitals, clinics,medical/digital imagingdiagnostic labs, and someveterinary officesNon-Ionizing and/or IonizingRadiationSun, medical uses and certainjobs: BothTanning beds: Non-ionizingIonizingIonizingAirplanes and outdoorsNear power lines and in allbuildings with electricaldevices and electrical outletsHomes, antique stores andflea marketsIonizingNon-ionizingOutdoors and in somebuildings; radon may also beencountered through drinkingwater and soilMany commercial and publicbuildings, as well as landfillsMany homes, schools andcommercial and publicbuildingsIonizingWater, buildings, soil and theair may be contaminated byradioactive wasteMany homes, commercial andpublic buildingsConstruction sitesHomes or designatedsmoking areasU.S. EPA Radiation Education Activities: Radiation ExposureIonizingIonizingIonizing. Ionizing smokedetectors use a small amountof radioactive material todetect smoke. Photoelectricsmoke detectors use a lightsource.IonizingNon-ionizingIonizingIonizing; naturally-occurringradioactive mineralsaccumulate on tobacco leavesPage 18 of 48
Non-ionizing radiation. Low frequency sources of non-ionizing radiation are not known to present health risks. High frequency sources of ionizing radiation (such as the sun and ultraviolet radiation) can cause burns and tissue damage with overexposure. 4. Does image and demonstration B represent the effects of non-ionizing or ionizing radiation?
Non-Ionizing Radiation Non-ionizing radiation includes both low frequency radiation and moderately high frequency radiation, including radio waves, microwaves and infrared radiation, visible light, and lower frequency ultraviolet radiation. Non-ionizing radiation has enough energy to move around the atoms in a molecule or cause them to vibrate .
Medical X-rays or radiation therapy for cancer. Ultraviolet radiation from the sun. These are just a few examples of radiation, its sources, and uses. Radiation is part of our lives. Natural radiation is all around us and manmade radiation ben-efits our daily lives in many ways. Yet radiation is complex and often not well understood.
Ionizing radiation can be classified into two catego-ries: photons (X-radiation and gamma radiation) and particles (alpha and beta particles and neutrons). Five types or sources of ionizing radiation are listed in the Report on Carcinogens as known to be hu-man carcinogens, in four separate listings: X-radiation and gamma radiation .
Ionizing radiation: Ionizing radiation is the highenergy radiation that - causes most of the concerns about radiation exposure during military service. Ionizing radiation contains enough energy to remove an electron (ionize) from an atom or molecule and to damage DNA in cells.
Unit I: Fundamentals of radiation physics and radiation chemistry (6 h) a. Electromagnetic radiation and radioactivity b. Radiation sources and radionuclides c. Measurement units of exposed and absorbed radiation d. Interaction of radiation with matter, excitation and ionization e. Radiochemical events relevant to radiation biology f.
Boiling water CONDUCTION CONVECTION RADIATION 43. Frying a pancake CONDUCTION CONVECTION RADIATION 44. Heat you feel from a hot stove CONDUCTION CONVECTION RADIATION 45. Moves as a wave CONDUCTION CONVECTION RADIATION 46. Occurs within fluids CONDUCTION CONVECTION RADIATION 47. Sun’s rays reaching Earth CONDUCTION CONVECTION RADIATION 48.
Radiation Therapy Radiation Therapy is the planning and application of ionizing radiation to destroy tumours in patients with cancer. Radiation Therapy is commonly delivered to a patient using large sophisticated machines called linear accelerators (external beam radiation therapy) or by use of radioactive sources that are placed
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