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Applied Animal Nutrition 300/500Module3Grain feedingApplied Animal Nutrition: Grain Feeding ANUT300/500 –14 - 1 2009 The Australian Wool Education Trust licensee for educational activities University of New England

Applied Animal Nutrition 300/500Topic1414. Digestion of Grain14.1 Principles of starch digestion14.2 Digestion of carbohydratesdifferent species of animalsin14.3 Starch digestion and fermentation insheep and cattleApplied Animal Nutrition: Grain Feeding ANUT300/500 –14 - 2 2009 The Australian Wool Education Trust licensee for educational activities University of New England

14. Digestion of GrainLearning ObjectivesOn completion of this topic you should be able to: Discuss the animal factors influencing starch digestion inruminants. Discuss the dietary factors influencing starch digestion inruminants. Describe the biochemical processes of starch digestion andthe importance of volatile fatty acid production to thisprocess.Key Terms and ConceptsStarch, fermentation acetate, propionate, butyrate, volatile fattyacid, site of digestionIntroduction to the TopicRuminant animals have evolved with the unique capacity to digestcellulose. The digestive tract of ruminants has developed in a waythat allows them to survive and produce on roughage-based diets.In recent years, there has been an increasing incentive to feedconcentrate diets based on cereal grains. The feeding of grainbased diets can improve animal production and produce a meatproduct that is more desirable to the consumer.As ruminants have evolved to consume roughage-based diets, theprovision of grain-based diets can cause digestive problems thatmay lead to morbidity and mortality. Therefore, carefulmanagement of grain-based feeding to ruminants is required. Withcareful management, significant improvements in the quality andquantity of production (milk, wool, meat and reproduction) can beachieved.Applied Animal Nutrition: Grain Feeding ANUT300/500 –14 - 3 2009 The Australian Wool Education Trust licensee for educational activities University of New England

This module will provide you with an understanding of themetabolic implications associated with introducing grain-baseddiets to ruminant production systems and therefore anunderstanding of the management strategies available forcommercial production.14.1 Principles of starch digestionIn all animals, digestion occurs via a combination of microbial andenzymic digestion. Microbial digestion relies on enzymesproduced by microbes whereas the host’s digestion system relieson endogenous enzymes secreted into the digestive tract.Microbes possess a far wider range of enzymes than the animal’sdigestive system and are able to break down and utilise most feedcomponents.Digestion of organic materials in feeds in the absence of oxygen is referred to asfermentation.The fermentation provides gut microbes with the energy they needto survive and to grow. The end–products of the fermentation areprincipally the volatile fatty acids (VFA) as well as gases such ashydrogen, methane and carbon dioxide. VFA are rapidly absorbedfrom the gut and provide an important source of energy for theanimal. As the microbes grow, microbial protein is synthesisedand, in situations where fermentation occurs prior to gastricdigestion, microbes provide a valuable source of amino acids forthe host animal. When microbial biomass is produced by hindgutfermentation, the animal is not able to digest the protein orabsorb amino acids and they pass from the animal in the faeces.Enzymic digestion occurs in the gastric stomach and in the smallintestine. Protein breakdown occurs in two main steps. The acidconditions in the stomach denature the protein and facilitate theactivity of pepsin that mainly produces large peptide fragmentsand some free amino acids. The peptide fractions and amino acidsare important in stimulating cholecystokinin (CCK) release in theduodenum which then plays a major role in gastric digestion bystimulating pancreatic enzyme production and intestinalenteropeptidase secretion. The supply of pancreatic enzymes intothe small intestine is very important in providing both trypsinogenand –amylase. Trypsinogen enters the intestine in pancreaticjuice and is converted to trypsin by enteropeptidase produced byApplied Animal Nutrition: Grain Feeding ANUT300/500 –14 - 4 2009 The Australian Wool Education Trust licensee for educational activities University of New England

the intestinal mucosa. In addition to trypsin, chymotrypsin andelastase are also active in the small intestine and break down awide range of peptides to amino acids.The digestion of starch can be considered in three stages. Starchis converted by pancreatic –amylase to a mixture of maltose,maltotriose, dextrin and glucose. The di– and poly–saccharides arethen converted to glucose by glucosidases which are surfaceenzymes of the small intestinal epithelial cells. Themonosaccharides (glucose, galactose and fructose) that resultfrom the digestion of di– and polysaccharides are then absorbedeither via the sodium– dependent monosaccharide co–transporterpathway or via sodium–independent facilitated diffusion.14.2 Digestion ofspecies of animalscarbohydratesindifferentThere are some major differences between animal species in theefficiency of intestinal carbohydrate digestion and these aresummarised in Table 14–1.Maize is poorly digested by the horse—even when finely ground.Maize is one of the grains with the highest apparent digestibilityin poultry but is very poorly digested in the small intestine of thehorse even when it is finely ground. Similarly, sorghum grain iswell digested by poultry but is poorly digested in either the rumenor intestines of cattle when dry–rolled or ground. The differencesin digestive efficiency between animal species is almost certainlyrelated to differences in animal enzyme systems, and/orabsorption capacity of the small intestine. An understanding ofthese differences may create exciting opportunities for newtechniques for preparing and feeding cereal grains.In ruminants, the digestion of starch in the small intestine may belimited by the availability of amylase (Ørskov 1986). Thus,oligosaccharidase activity and monosaccharide transport acrossthe enteroctye are not thought to be the limiting factors. To datethe nutritional manipulation of amylase secretion is not readilyunderstood although it appears that protein/peptides entering thesmall intestine can stimulate amylase production and increaseglucose absorption (Taniguchi et al. 1995).Applied Animal Nutrition: Grain Feeding ANUT300/500 –14 - 5 2009 The Australian Wool Education Trust licensee for educational activities University of New England

Table 14–1 Differences between livestock species in theirability to digest cereal grains.14.3 Starch digestion and fermentation in sheepand cattleSheep are often used in nutritional studies of ruminant digestionand the data are then extrapolated to enable interpretation ofresults of feeding trials in cattle. With respect to whole tractdigestibility of starch, the relationship between the proportionfermented in the rumen and that digested post ruminally, differsin measurements made in sheep and cattle. The reason for thedifferent digestive processes is not entirely clear but it is likely tobe related to the different sizes of sheep and cattle intestinaltracts and the dynamics of particle flow through the tract. Thefindings have highlighted the risk of extrapolating the data fromsheep to cattle, particularly when cracked or rolled grain is used.The patterns and efficiency of starch digestion are different in sheep and cattle.The benefits and disadvantages of fermentative and enzymicdigestion in different parts of the tract are summarised in Table14–2. From the animal’s point of view, it is beneficial, in mostsituations, to maximise the digestion of starch and absorption ofglucose from the small intestine. This is based on the energeticefficiency of intestinal digestion being approximately 30% higherthan fermentative digestion. The digestion of starch in theApplied Animal Nutrition: Grain Feeding ANUT300/500 –14 - 6 2009 The Australian Wool Education Trust licensee for educational activities University of New England

intestine carries no risk of acidosis and can supply glucose as animportant nutrient for marbling in beef production (Pethick et al.1997).The benefits of microbial protein production associated withfermentation are not likely to be as important in grain feedingsystems for high levels of production in ruminants as are thepotential risks associated with acidosis and reduced fibredigestibility resulting from an accumulation of acid duringfermentation. In hindgut fermenters, such as the pig and horse, nomicrobial protein from caecal and colonic fermentation is availableto the animal.On the other hand, there are considerable risks, such as laminitis,associated with fermentative acidosis from high levels of starchreaching the hindgut (Godfrey et al. 1993; Rowe et al. 1995).There appear to be no benefits to any species associated withincomplete and inefficient digestion of starch from the smallintestine. The role and manipulation of site of starch digestion isdiscussed in more detail elsewhere.Table 14–2 Significance of site of digestion in determiningnutritional value of grain (Channon and Rowe 2004).The differences between animals in their digestive capacity withdifferent grains highlight the importance of enzymic digestion.The most marked differences highlighted in Table 14–1 are thosebetween the traditional grain eaters, poultry and pigs and thetraditional roughage eaters, cattle and horses, particularly withrespect to digestion of grains such as sorghum and maize. It isnot clear exactly what enzyme systems within the animal areresponsible for these major differences.Applied Animal Nutrition: Grain Feeding ANUT300/500 –14 - 7 2009 The Australian Wool Education Trust licensee for educational activities University of New England

ReadingsSelfAssessmentQuestionsThe following readings are available on CD: Cheng et al. (1998) A review of bloat infeedlot cattle. Journal of Animal Science.76: 299-308. Ghorbani et al. (2002) Effects of bacterialdirect-fedmicrobialsonrumenfermentation, blood variables and themicrobial populations of feedlot cattle.Journal of Animal Science. 80: 19771986. Huntington (1997) Starch utilization byruminants: from basics to the bunk.Journal of Animal Science. 75: 852-867.1. Rank grains in terms of their efficiency ofintestinal starch digestion.2. Why do you think that poultry are able todigest starch more efficiently thanruminant animals?!!3. Do measurements of grain digestibility insheep give a good indication of the likelydigestibility in cattle?4. What are the benefits of enzymatic starchdigestion compared to fermentativedigestion?5. Comment on the value of ground maizeas a feed for horses.ReferencesBeever, D.E., Coelha da Silva, J.F. andArmstrong, D.G. (1970). The effect ofprocessing maize and its digestion in sheep.Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 29, 43A–44A.Channon and Rowe (2004) Manipulatinggastrointestinal starch digestion to improveApplied Animal Nutrition: Grain Feeding ANUT300/500 –14 - 8 2009 The Australian Wool Education Trust licensee for educational activities University of New England

the efficiency of feed utilisation. AustralianJournal of Experimental Agriculture. 44: 475482.Choct, M. and Annison, G. (1990). Anti–nutritive activity of wheat pentosans inbroiler diets. British Poultry Science 31, 811–822.Godfrey, S. I.; Boyce, M. D.; Rowe, J. B.;Speijers, E. J. (1993). Changes within thedigestivetractofsheepfollowingengorgement with barley. Australian Journalof Agricultural Research 44, walner,R.E.(1977).Nutrientutilization in different segments of theequine digestive tract. Proceedings of the 5thEquine Nutrition and Physiology Symposium.p. 44–45. (Missouri, USA).Huntington, G.B. (1997). Starch utilisation inruminants, from basics to bunk. Journal ofAnimal Science 75, 852–867.Meyer, H., Radicke, S., Kienzle, E., Wilke, S.,Kleffken, D. and Illenseer, M. (1995).Investigation on preileal digestion of starchfrom grain, potato and manioc in horses.Journal of Veterinary Medicine 42, 372–381.Mollah, Y., Bryden, W. L., Wallis, I. R.,Balnave, D. and Annison, E. F. (1983). Studieson low metabolisable energy wheats forpoultry using conventional and rapid assayprocedures and the effects of processing.British Poultry Science 24, 81–89.Ørskov, E.R, Fraser, C. and Kay, R.N.B.(1969). Dietary factors influencing thedigestion of starch in the rumen and smallintestine of early weaned lambs. BritishJournal of Nutrition 23, 217–226.Applied Animal Nutrition: Grain Feeding ANUT300/500 –14 - 9 2009 The Australian Wool Education Trust licensee for educational activities University of New England

Ørskov, E.R. (1986). Starch digestion andutilisation in ruminants. Journal of AnimalScience 63, 1624–1633.Owsley, W.F., Knabe, D.A. and Tanksley, T.D.(1981). Effect of sorghum particle size ondigestibility of nutrients at the terminal ileumand over the total digestive tract of growing–finishing pigs. Journal of Animal Science 52,557–566.Pethick, D.W., McIntyre, B.L., Tudor, G., andRowe, J.B. (1997). The partitioning of fat inruminants—can nutrition be used as a tool toregulate marbling. In ‘Recent Advances inAnimal Nutrition in Australia.’ (Eds. J.L.Corbett, M. Choct, J.V. Nolan and J.B. Rowe).Pp.151–158. (University of New England,Armidale).Reisenfeld, G., Sklan, D., Bar, A., Eisner, U.and Hurwitz, S. (1980). Glucose absorptionand starch digestion in the intestine of thechicken. Journal of Nutrition 110, pp117–121.Taniguchi, K., Huntington, G.B. and Glenn,B.P. (1995). Net nutrient flux by viceraltissues of beef steers given abomasal andruminal infusions of casein and starch.Journal of Animal Science 73, 236–249.Applied Animal Nutrition: Grain Feeding ANUT300/500 –14 - 10 2009 The Australian Wool Education Trust licensee for educational activities University of New England

Applied Animal Nutrition 300/500Topic1515. Characteristics of Grain that InfluenceStarch Digestion15.1 Characteristics ofstarch digestibilitygrainaffecting15.2 Fermentation and digestion of grainsmeasured in vitroApplied Animal Nutrition: Grain Feeding ANUT300/500 –15 - 1 2009 The Australian Wool Education Trust licensee for educational activities University of New England

15. Characteristics of Grain that InfluenceStarch DigestionLearning ObjectivesOn completion of this topic you should be able to: Describe the dietary factors influencing starch digestion inruminant and monogastric animals. Explain the importance of non-starch polysaccharides onthe digestibility of grains for monogastric animals. Describe the processes of starch digestion in ruminantanimals.Key Terms and ConceptsStarch Digestions; Digestion of Carbohydrates in different speciesof animals; Starch digestion and fermentation in sheep and cattle.Introduction to the TopicThe selection of a grain and method of processing should aim toprovide a feed that suits the digestive capacity of the animal.Differences between grains are based not only on the macronutrients such as starch, lipid and protein, but also oncomponents such as non–starch polysaccharides (NSP), which canhave a negative effect on intestinal digestion, and lignin whichreduces fermentative digestion. The characteristics of starchgranules and the endosperm matrix also have important effects ondigestibility and response to processing, and must be consideredwhen designing processing techniques.Cereal grains are primarily used in animal diets as energy sources.A simple estimate of energy utilisation by the animal is thedigestible energy. There are, however, limitations in using thisgross measure of energy utilisation to determine the nutritivevalue of grains. Firstly, the animal does not use MJ of energy perApplied Animal Nutrition: Grain Feeding ANUT300/500 –15 - 2 2009 The Australian Wool Education Trust licensee for educational activities University of New England

se but rather uses specific nutrients made available from thedigestion of the feed. Secondly, the pattern of fermentation andsite of digestion can have a significant effect on the nature of thenutrients available and the amount of useable energy available tothe animal. For this reason an understanding of the factors thatinfluence the partitioning between microbial fermentation and theanimal’s enzymic digestion is important in determining thenutritive value. Although there are well established methods ofprocessing grains to achieve efficient digestion across the wholedigestive tract in ruminants, pigs and chickens, information on theeffect of processing and grain type on the site of digestion withinthe digestive tract is scarce.15.1 Seed coat— Each seed is protected by a seed coat, which caninclude a hull, and always a pericarp protecting the grain frommoisture, insects and fungal infection. The seed coat must becracked by chewing or mechanical processing to expose theendosperm and starch for digestion. Once the seed coat iscracked the coat has little impact on the subsequent digestion ofstarch. The main nutritional significance of the seed coat is theextent to which it dilutes the amount of starch in the diet and thisis seen in Table 15–1 for a number of different grains. In oatgrain, the hull represents around 25% of the dry matter and itsdigestibility is important in determining overall nutritive value ofthe grain particularly as the hulls of some cultivars have highlevels of lignin and are almost indigestible On the other hand,grains such as sorghum, the pericarp represents only 3% to 6% ofthe grain weight and, provided the grain is efficiently cracked, thisseed coat has little effect on the overall nutritional value of thegrain.Endosperm—The endosperm contains the individual starchgranules surrounded by a matrix consisting of protein and non–starch polysaccharides (NSP). The nature and chemicalcomposition of this matrix has a profound effect on the physicalcharacteristics of the endosperm and the exposure of starchgranules to enzyme digestion. In maize and sorghum, the proteinmatrix coating the starch granules in the corneous and peripheralendosperm is important in reducing digestibility. In wheat theprotein matrix consists of gluten which completely surrounds thegranules in the case of hard wheats and only partially for softwheats. The effect of protein levels in wheat and barley onfermentation and digestion does not appear to be wellApplied Animal Nutrition: Grain Feeding ANUT300/500 –15 - 3 2009 The Australian Wool Education Trust licensee for educational activities University of New England

established. However, in wheat, barley, oats and rye the proteinmatrix is closely associated with NSP such as glucans andarabinoxylans which can have an important effect on digestion(Table 15– 1 and Figure 15–1). Together the NSP and the proteinmatrix of the endosperm play a very important role in starchdigestion and these are discussed below.Non–starch polysaccharides—Much of the variation in nutritionalvalue of cereal grain fed to monogastric animals is explained bythe soluble NSP content of the endosperm and the adverse effectsthese compounds have on digesta viscosity and the efficiency ofdigestion. Figure 15–1 shows the relationship between the NSPcontent of different grains fed to poultry and the apparent MEderived from these feeds. The soluble NSP play a role in thedepression of pre– ileal starch digestion in poultry. For example,the ileal digestibility of starch in a sorghum based broiler diet was98% but when purefied wheat soluble NSP was added this declinedto 92%.Table 15–1 Characteristics of different cereal grains (from 1Nocek and Taminga (1991); 2 Huntington (1994); 3Opatpatanakit et al. (1994); 4 Leach (1965) and 5 Choct (1997).The data refers to grains hammermilled or dry rolled.The effects of soluble NSP are now well recognised in the poultryindustry and grains of low soluble NSP are selected and/orenzymes are used to overcome the problems associated with theNSP fraction. The importance of NSP in the nutrition of otheranimal species is not well established. In pigs, horses andruminants, hind gut fermentation ensures that carbohydrateundigested in the small intestine is broken down and efficientlyabsorbed as VFA. The combination of fermentative and enzymicdigestion in these species produces a consistently high value fordigestible energy but a pattern of digestion which may beinefficient through higher levels of fermentative digestion andreduced intestinal absorption. It is not only the negative effect ofenergy loss, through fermentative digestion of NSPs as opposed tointestinal absorption of glucose which reduces the apparentmetabolisable energy, but the effect that the NSP have on theviscosity of digesta and the absorption of other nutrients. Theeffect of NSP on viscosity of digesta may also increase the risk ofApplied Animal Nutrition: Grain Feeding ANUT300/500 –15 - 4 2009 The Australian Wool Education Trust licensee for educational activities University of New England

bloat which results from the formation of a stable foam duringfermentation.Figure 15–1 The relationship between apparent metabolisableenergy (MJ/kg DM) and NSP content (% of DM) of grains inbroiler chickens. From Choct and Annison (1990).Protein bodies and the protein matrix—The importance ofprotein in the endosperm is very well defined in the case ofsorghum where it is present in two components in both theperipheral and corneous endosperm. One component is a matrixconsisting largely of glutelin and the second, globular proteinbodies made up of kafirins. The starch granules in the peripheral,corneous, endosperm are surrounded by far more of these proteinglobules and a more dense matrix than the granules in the flouryendosperm near the centre of the grain which are more accessibleto enzyme degradation. While both the protein storage bodies andthe glutelins in the endosperm matrix are insoluble in water, it isinteresting that the glutelins can be extracted by alkali and thatthe kafirins are soluble in alcohol. This suggests that chemicaltreatment using alkali and/or alcohol may be useful in modifyingthe endosperm and improving starch digestibility of sorghum.Further evidence that the protein content of the endosperm is aprimary factor limiting starch digestion is the finding of increasedglucose release following pre–treatment of sorghum endospermwith the proteases, ‘Pronase’ or pepsin.Starch characteristics—The chemical composition of the starchin cereal grains also determines the rate and extent of digestion.Applied Animal Nutrition: Grain Feeding ANUT300/500 –15 - 5 2009 The Australian Wool Education Trust licensee for educational activities University of New England

Starch is primarily a branched chain polymer amylopectin with asmaller amount of the linear polymer amylose. Amylopectin has aless crystalline structure, a greater solubility and is more rapidlybroken down by amylase than the linear amylose. A lowertemperature is required for gelatinising starches containing lowlevels of amylose. The waxy genotypes of maize and sorghum,and barley have higher levels of amylopectin (nearly 100%) whilethe non–waxy varieties have less amylopectin (75%) and moreamylose (25%) (Rooney and Pflugfelder 1986). In cattle, the waxygenotypes of maize and sorghum produce increased animalperformance even with dry processing (cracking, rolling)compared to the non–waxy varieties, indicating more completedigestion of starch with lower amylose content. With the currentperception that starch fermentation in the human hindgut mayhave benefits for health there is an increased production of highamylose maize which has the property of low intestinal digestionbecause the straight amylose chains form tight bundles of starchmolecules preventing penetration by water and amylolyticenzymes.Gelatinisation of starch—Moisture and elevated temperaturesstart the process of gelatinisation which is characterised by adisruption of the matrix binding the starch cells by an expansionof the starch granules. The starch granules do not change inappearance until a certain critical temperature is reached. At thispoint they swell and lose their characteristic polarisation crossesand this point is easily recognised by microscopic examination.The temperature at which this change occurs is called thegelatinisation temperature and is characteristic of different grains.The temperature ranges over which gelatinisation occurs differsbetween grains and are summarised in Table 15–1. It is clear thatmaize and sorghum have far higher temperatures of gelatinisationthan wheat. Gelatinisation temperature is not markedly affected bywhether or not the grain is of a waxy or non–waxy type. On theother hand high–amylose maize starch shows exceptionalbehaviour in that it resists gelatinisation even in boiling water. It isthought that this is due to the linear nature of its molecules whichare highly associated and able to resist water penetration. Thegelatinisation temperature can be altered by various chemicals.For example, sodium nitrateor urea can be used to lower thegelatinisation temperature and to increase swelling. On the otherhand, sodium sulphate can be used to reduce granulegelatinisation. This again suggests new ways in which differentprocessing techniques may be adapted to manipulate site and rateof digestion.Although there are significant differences between grains in thesize and characteristics of starch granules it appears that the rolesof the protein matrix and NSP in binding the granules together areApplied Animal Nutrition: Grain Feeding ANUT300/500 –15 - 6 2009 The Australian Wool Education Trust licensee for educational activities University of New England

more important than granule structure per se in determining therate and extent of fermentation). The digestibility of purifiedstarch granules isolated from different cultivars of sorghum andmaize showed sorghum starch to be more digestible than cornstarch and emphasises the importance of the endosperm matrix indetermining starch digestibility in the animal. Studies also suggestthat that the characteristics of the endosperm are more importantthan the presence or absence of the seed coat in determining rateof digestion of ground grain.15.2 Fermentation and digestion of different grainsmeasured in vitroDr Simon Bird and his colleagues developed methods formeasuring the rate of rumen fermentation of starch and itsdigestibility in the small intestine. Some differences between grainidentified during these studies are summarized in Table 15–2.Table 15–2 Fermentation of starch in different grains (%disappearance in 5 hours) and the conversion of starch toglucose by amylase and amyloglucosidase (1 hour). (From Birdet al 1999).The data of Bird et al. (1999) shows the significant differencesbetween barley and sorghum grain in terms of rate offermentation as well as enzymatic digestion of starch. Thisexplains this why sorghum requires extensive processing if it is tobe efficiently used by cattle. The data also shows a large range inthe rate of fermentation of wheat grain and this partly explainsvariability in the risk of acidosis when wheat grain is fed to sheepor cattle. It is interesting that grain is such as oats that are knownto be safe for ruminant feeding actually fermented more quicklythan grain is considered to be more dangerous such as wheat andbarley. One possible explanation for this apparent anomaly is theApplied Animal Nutrition: Grain Feeding ANUT300/500 –15 - 7 2009 The Australian Wool Education Trust licensee for educational activities University of New England

hypothesis that the consequences of fermented of acidosis in thehind gut may actually be more severe than rapid fermentation inthe rumen.The relatively low enzyme digestibility of wheat is consistent withits high level of non–starch polysaccharide and a relatively lowcontest the digestion indicated in Figure 15–1.ReadingsSelfAssessmentQuestionsThe following readings are available on CD: Bird et al. (1999) In vitro fermentation ofgrain and enzymatic digestion of cerealstarch. Recent advances in animalnutrition in Australia. 12: 53-58. Owens et al. (1997) The effect of grainsource and grain processing on theperformance of feedlot cattle. Journal ofanimal science. 75: 868-879. Rowe (1999) How much acid in the gut istoo much? Recent advances in animalnutrition in Australia. 12: 81-86.1. Rank the main feed grains in order of rateof fermentation.2. Which feed grains are likely to require themost extensive processing in order toincrease starch digestibility in cattle?!!3. What characteristics of grain influence therate and extent of digestion andfermentation?4. Under what conditions does the seed coatinfluence the digestibility of the grain?5. Why is the temperature of gelatinisationlikely to be an important characteristic ofa cereal grain?ReferencesBird, Rowe, Choct, Stachiw, Tyler andThompson (1999) In vitro fermentation ofApplied Animal Nutrition: Grain Feeding ANUT300/500 –15 - 8 2009 The Australian Wool Education Trust licensee for educational activities University of New England

grain and enzymatic digestion of cerealstarch. Recent Advances in Animal Nutritionin Australia 12, 53–61Choct, M. and Annison, G. (1992). Anti–nutritive effect of wheat pentosans on broilerchickens, roles of viscosity and gutmicroflora. British Poultry Science 33, 82–834.Choct, M., Hughes, R.J., Wang, J., Bedford,M.R., Morgan, A.J. and Annison, G. (1996).Increased small intestinal fermentation ispartly responsible for the anti–nutritiveactivity of non–starch polysaccharides inchickens. British Poultry Science 37, 609–621.Huntington, G.B. (1994). Ruminant starchutilisation—progress has been extensive.Feedstuffs

14.1 Principles of starch digestion In all animals, digestion occurs via a combination of microbial and enzymic digestion. Microbial digestion relies on enzymes produced by microbes whereas the host’s digestion system relies on endogenous enzymes secreted into the digestive tract. Microbes possess a far wider range of enzymes than the animal .

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