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Politicsin States andCommunitiesA01 DYE94724 05 SE FM.indd 113/12/13 9:01 PM

A01 DYE94724 05 SE FM.indd 213/12/13 9:01 PM

Politicsin States andCommunitiesFifteenth EditionThomas R. DyeFlorida State University, EmeritusSusan A. MacManusUniversity of South FloridaWith the assistance ofSandra L. WaldronAshleigh E. PowersResearch AssociatesBoston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle RiverAmsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montréal TorontoDelhi Mexico City São Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei TokyoA01 DYE94724 05 SE FM.indd 313/12/13 9:01 PM

Executive Editor: Charlyce Jones-OwenProgram Manager: LeeAnn DohertyEditorial Assistant: Maureen DianaExecutive Marketing Manager: Wendy GordonMarketing Coordinator: Theresa RotundoProject Manager: Carol O’RourkeFull Service Vendor: PreMediaGlobalArt Director: Maria LangeCover Art: Erich Schlegel/Getty ImagesProcurement Specialist: Mary Ann GloriandePrinter/Binder: Courier, KendallvilleCover Printer: Lehigh-Phoenix Color Corp.Credits and acknowledgments borrowed from other sources and reproduced, with permission, in this textbook appear on theappropriate page within text and on page 545.Copyright 2015, 2012, 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.All rights reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America. This publication is protected by Copyright, and permissionshould be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in anyform or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. To obtain permission(s) to use material fromthis work, please submit a written request to Pearson Education, Inc., Permissions Department, One Lake Street, Upper SaddleRiver, New Jersey 07458, or you may fax your request to 201-236-3290.Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataDye, Thomas R.Politics in states and communities / Thomas R. Dye, Florida State University, Emeritus, Susan A. MacManus, University of SouthFlorida; With the assistance of Sandra L. Waldron, Ashleigh E. Powers, Research Associate. — Fifteenth edition.pages cmIncludes bibliographical references and index.ISBN-13: 978-0-205-99472-4ISBN-10: 0-205-99472-51. State governments--United States. 2. Local government—United States. I. MacManus,Susan A. II. Title.JK2408.D82 2013320.80973--dc23201304570310 9 8 7 6—QWT— 15 14 13www.pearsonhighered.comA01 DYE94724 05 SE FM.indd 4ISBN-10:0-205-99472-5ISBN-13: 978-0-205-99472-413/12/13 9:01 PM

C o n te n tsPreface xiii1. Politics in States and Communities  1A Political Approach to States and Communities 2The Comparative Study of States and Communities 2Race and Ethnicity 6Population Size and Projected Growth Rate, 2010–2030 7Income and Education 8Rankings of the States: Hispanic and African American Populations 10Rankings of the States:Rankings of the States:The Politics of Immigration 11Up Close: Arizonav. United States on Immigration 15Liberalism and Conservatism in the States 15State Political Cultures 16Religion in the States 17Rankings of the States:Religion and Ideology (Liberalism) 18State Political Leadership 19Policy Responsibilities of States and Communities 19“States,” “Districts,” and “Territories” 22Chapter Highlights 262. Democracy and Constitutionalism in the State 27Constitutional Government in the States 28State Constitutions: An Overview 32Up Close: TheSandy Hook Shootings and the Right to Bear Arms 33State Gun Law Restrictiveness and Firearms Death Rate 35Rankings of the States:Constitutional Change in the States 36Democracy in the States 40Direct versus Representative Democracy 43The Politics of State Initiatives 44Initiative Campaigns 50DID YOU KNOW? TermLimits Are Still Controversial 53Chapter Highlights 543. States, Communities, and American Federalism 55What Is Federalism? 56Why Federalism? 56Federalism’s Faults 58Up Close:Nation versus States: Legalizing Pot 59The Structure of American Federalism 61Up Close:Federalizing Crime 63Battles in the States over Constitutional Amendments 66How Money Shifted Power to Washington 68vA01 DYE94724 05 SE FM.indd 513/12/13 9:01 PM

Up Close:Historic Landmarks in the Development of American Federalism 69Reliance on Federal Aid 73Rankings of the States:Federalism: Variations on the Theme 74Congress and Devolution 80The Supreme Court and the Revival of Federalism 80DID YOU KNOW? TheStates Lose Their Fight against “ObamaCare” 82Interstate Relations and Horizontal Federalism 82DID YOU KNOW? WhichStates Rank Highest on the Gallup-Healthways “Well-Being” Index? 84Chapter Highlights 864. Participation in State Politics  87The Nature of Political Participation 88Explaining Voter Turnout 89Up Close:Getting into Politics 90Rankings of the States: Voter TurnoutRate: 2012 Presidential Election 93Continuing Election Controversies 96Race, Ethnicity, and Political Participation 100Securing the Right to Vote 102Minorities in State Politics 105Women in State Politics 108Young and Old in State Politics 110Interest Groups in State Politics 112Rankings of the States:Registered Lobbyists 115Functions and Tactics of Interest Groups 116Comparing Interest Group Power in the States 118Protest as Political Participation 119Did You Know? TeaParty and Occupy Wall Street Protests Falter but Ideas Stick 121Chapter Highlights 1245. Parties and Campaigns in the States  125American Political Parties: In Disarray or Experiencing a Rebirth? 126Parties and Primaries 130Did You Know?California’s “Top Two” Primary System: Bipartisanship Promise Appeals to Other States 133State Party Organizations and Activists 134PEOPLE IN POLITICS:State Party Chairs—Two Paths to Leadership 138Republican and Democratic Party Fortunes in the States 139Divided Party Government in the States 141Party Competition and Policy Differences within the States 142Professional Media Campaigns 144DID YOU KNOW?How to Read Political Polls Like a Pro 146Money in State Politics 150Rankings of the States:Campaign Contributions to Presidential and State-Level Candidates 152State Campaign Finance Reform 153Up Close: AConflicting View: Eliminating Campaign Spending Limits 156Chapter Highlights 158vi    C o n te n tsA01 DYE94724 05 SE FM.indd 613/12/13 9:01 PM

6. Legislators in State Politics  159Functions of State Legislatures 160Making of a State Legislator 161Minorities and Women in State Legislatures 163Rankings of the States: African Americans, Hispanics, Asians, Native Americans,and Women in State Legislatures 165–166Getting to the State Capitol 168The Great Incumbency Machine 170Legislative Apportionment and Districting 171How Many State Legislators Later Became President? 172Up Close: The Original Gerrymander 175DID YOU KNOW?Legislative Organization and Procedure 176Legislative Institutionalization 179Legislative Committees 183Leadership and Role-Playing in Legislatures 184Party Politics in State Legislatures 187The Growing Role of the Media in the Legislative Process 189Lobbying in State Legislatures 190State Legislatures: A Critical Assessment 193Chapter Highlights 1947. Governors in State Politics  195The Many Roles of a Governor 196The Making of a Governor 198People in Politics:First-time Women Governors: Minority Pathbreakers Rise on the National PoliticalStage 201Did You Know?How Many Governors Later Became President? 202Gubernatorial Politics 202Executive Power in State Government 206Rankings of the States:Institutional Powers of Governors 207The Governor’s Legislative Powers 210Divided Government: Governor versus the Legislature 212Impeachments, Investigations, and Recalls 213The Governor as Political Leader 214Up Close: ThreeScandal-Ridden Governors Embarrass Their States 216Other Executive Offices 218Chapter Highlights 2228. Bureaucratic Politics in States and Communities  223Government and Bureaucracy 224Sources of Bureaucratic Power 224The Growth of Bureaucratic Power 225State Bureaucracies 226Bureaucracy, Democracy, Representativeness, and Responsiveness 229Rankings of the States:Government Spending and Employment 230C o n te n ts       viiA01 DYE94724 05 SE FM.indd 713/12/13 9:01 PM

Up Close:Firing a Public Employee 232The Power of Public Employee Unions 233Up Close: AShowdown over Public Employee Union Power 234State Regulatory Policy 236People in Politics:Scott Walker Tackles Public Employee Unions 237Reform, Privatization, and “Reinventing Government” 238Up Close:Privatizing Prisons: The Pros and Cons 240Bureaucrats Challenged to “Write It Simple!” 241DID YOU KNOW?The Budgetary Process 243The Politics of Budgeting 245Up Close:How to Win at the Budget Game 246Chapter Highlights 2489. Courts, Crime, and Correctional Policy 249Politics and the Judicial Process 250The Lawyering of America 251Judicial Federalism 252The Structure of Court Systems 255The Making of a Judge 259Judicial Decision Making 264Up Close: TheFederalist Society: Proponents of Judicial Restraint 266Crime in the States 267Rankings of the States:Crime Rate and Incarceration Rate 269Police Protection in the States 271Rankings of the States:Police Protection and Death Rates of Law Enforcement and Corrections Officers 272Did You Know?Disturbing Trend: Criminal Attacks on Judicial Officials 273Police and Law Enforcement 274The Politics of Prosecution 277State Prisons and Correctional Policies 278The Death Penalty 282Chapter Highlights 28810. Governing America’s Communities  289So Many Local Governments, So Much Confusion 290Eighty-Nine Thousand Governments 293County Governments: Rural and Urban 296The Structure of County Government 296Rankings of the States:Rankings of the States:General-Purpose Local Governments 297Special-Purpose Local Governments 298Cities as “Municipal Corporations” 302Forms of City Government 304People in Politics:Just Call Me Mayor: Young Politicians on the Rise, One “Strong,” One “Weak” 307Nonpartisan Elections 308Local Election Systems: At Large, District, and Combination 310Special-Purpose Local Governments 314Chapter Highlights 316viii    C o n te n tsA01 DYE94724 05 SE FM.indd 813/12/13 9:01 PM

11. Participation in Community Politics  317Citizen Participation 318Did You Know?Broadcast Television Coverage of Local Campaigns Is Limited 320Parties in Big-City Politics 323Old-Style Machine Politics 324Reformers and Do-Gooders 325People in Politics:Rahm Emanuel: Coming Home to Run Chicago: A Tougher-than-Expected Job 327New Connections with Citizens 330Up Close:Exposing Political Corruption 331Recruiting City Council Members 332Council Members: Responsible Policymakers? 335City Managers in Municipal Politics 337Mayors in City Politics 339Minorities and Women in Local Politics 341People in Politics:San Antonio Mayor Julian Castro: Nonpartisan on Ballot but Democrat in Practice 343Interest Groups in Community Politics 346Did You Know? AmericansRankings of the States:Serve Their Communities by Volunteering 350Citizen Voluntarism Rates 351Chapter Highlights 35212. Metropolitics: Conflict in the Metropolis  353The Metropolis: Setting for Conflict 354Rankings of the States:Number of Metropolitan Statistical Areas in States 355Cities versus Suburbs 359Suburban “Sprawl” 364Combatting Sprawl with “Smart Growth” 365Consolidation or Fragmentation? 366The Case for Metropolitan Consolidation (Regionalism) 366The Case for “Fragmented” Government (Localism) 367Metropolitan Government as a Marketplace 369Managing Metropolitan Areas 370Did You Know?Large Metro Areas Are Magnets for Mega-Commuters 375Chapter Highlights 37613. Community Power, Land Use, and the Environment 377Land Use, Economics, and Community Politics Intertwined 378Models of Community Power 378Economic Elites in Communities 380Political Elites in Communities 381Planning and Zoning 384Innovative Planning Practices: More Discretionary 388Constitutional Concerns: The Takings Clause 389Community Development and Revitalization Policy 391Transportation Policy 394Rankings of the States:Road Mileage and Gasoline Taxes 396C o n te n ts       ixA01 DYE94724 05 SE FM.indd 913/12/13 9:01 PM

Environmental Protection 402Up Close: ARadioactive Waste Dump Proposal Divides a Small Town 406Chapter Highlights 40814. The Politics of Taxation and Finance 409An Overview of Government Finances 410Types of Taxes and Tax Politics 410Explaining State Tax Systems 416Revolting against Taxes and Spending 416Rankings of the States:Per Capita State and Local Government Tax Revenue (Levels)and Tax Burdens 417When Spending Cuts Are Necessary: Cutback Management 419Up Close: TheDecline of the Golden State 420When Ends Don’t Meet: State and Local Debt 421Rankings of the States:Spending and Borrowing 422When a Local Government Goes Bust 425Chapter Highlights 42615. Politics and Civil Rights  427From Protest to Power 428The Struggle against Segregation 429State Resistance to Desegregation 430Racial Balancing in Schools 432The Civil Rights Act of 1964 434People in Politics:Martin Luther King, Jr. 435Affirmative Action Battles 436Up Close: “Diversity” inUniversities: Continued Legal Challenges to Affirmative Action in Admissions 438Hispanics in America 440Hispanic Politics 441Native Americans and Tribal Government 443Americans with Disabilities 446Age Discrimination 447Gender Equality 448Up Close:Sexual Harassment 449Battles Over Abortion 450Rankings of the States:Difficulty of State Abortion Laws 453Politics and Sexual Orientation 454Chapter Highlights 45716. The Politics of Education 459Goals in Educational Policy 460Educational Performance Measurement 461People in Politics:Jeff Charbonneau—”Mr. Robot,” The Nation’s Best Teacher 462Educational Performance 466Rankings of the States:Educational Reform 467The Debate over School Vouchers 468x    C o n te n tsA01 DYE94724 05 SE FM.indd 1013/12/13 9:01 PM

Virtual Schools 469The Common Core State Standards Initiative 470The Federal Role in Education 470No Child Left Behind (NCLB) 472Obama’s Education Agenda 474Organizing Public Education in the States 474Battles over School Finances 476Rankings of the States:Financing Public Schools 477Governing Local Schools 478The Politics of Higher Education 480Reading, Writing, and Religion 484New Challenge: Creating Safe Learning Environments 487Chapter Highlights 48917. The Politics of Poverty, Welfare, and Health 491Poverty in America 492Who Are the Poor? 492Rankings of the States:Poverty Rates 493An Overview of Welfare Policy 495Rankings of the States: TANF(Temporary Assistance for Needy Families) and Medicaid Recipients 497Welfare Reform 499Did You Know? WelfareReform Success Tied to Work 500Health Care 501Stimulus to Health Care Reform 503ObamaCare: Health Care Transformation 504The States and “Obamacare” 505Renewed Focus on Mental Health 506Up Close:Mental Health and Mass Murders 507Chapter Highlights 509Notes 511Photo Credits 545Index 547C o n te n ts       xiA01 DYE94724 05 SE FM.indd 1113/12/13 9:01 PM

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P re f acePolitics in States and Communities is distinguished by:Its focus on politics.Its comparative approach.Its concern with explanation.Its interest in policy.Its focus is on conflicts in states and communities and the structures and processesdesigned to manage conflict.This “conflict management” theme emphasizes the sources and nature of conflict in society,how conflict is carried on, how key decision makers in states and communities act in conflict situations, and how “politicos” emerge and determine “who gets what.” The politicalconflict management theme guides the discussion of formal governmental structures: federalism, state constitutions, parties and primaries, apportionment, legislative organizations,gubernatorial powers, court procedures, nonpartisanship, mayor and manager government,metropolitan government, community power, school boards and superintendents, tax systems, budget making, and so on.An equally important theme is that states and communities in America play an important role in the political life of the nation. State and local governments do more than merelyprovide certain services such as education, road building, and fire protection. They also perform a vital political function by helping to resolve conflicts of interest in American society.New to the Fifteenth Edition Learning objectives at the beginning of each chapter and inserted into the text where each topicis discussed.Chapter Highlights—concise chapter summaries updated.New Visuals to Enhance State Comparisons—50 state maps on marijuana legalization, abortion law restrictiveness, voter ID requirements, professionalism in state legislatures, workers’right-to-work laws, the death penalty, the 2012 presidential election results, and unauthorizedimmigrants.The fifteenth edition presents more in-depth and up-to-date coverage of the following: Demographics is destiny—one of the dominant themes of the 2012 post-presidential electioncoverage; the political impact of changing demographics and political cultures across andwithin states; changes in participation rates and party affiliations of Hispanics and Asians;changing racial/ethnic composition of younger voters and their growing share of the electorate.Generational politics—the growing political clout of the Millennial generation, especially inswing states; higher turnout, election of more young mayors and state legislators, bigger roleas key staffers for state legislators; clashes between young and old on moral and economicissues, the future solvency of Social Security and other age-based programs; upswing in agediscrimination cases; baby boomers versus the Millennials; role reversal—older Americans nowvoting more Republican, Millennials voting more Democratic but more independent leaningthan strongly attached to parties.Immigration—how one becomes a citizen; conflicts over immigration reform; state lawsdealing with undocumented immigrants’ access to drivers licenses and college tuition; stateDREAM Acts.Shifting opinions on moral issues—same-sex marriage, recreational use of marijuana, onlinegambling, contraceptives, abortion, physician-assisted suicide, and gun control; growing ideological and public policy divide between red and blue states.xiiiA01 DYE94724 05 SE FM.indd 1313/12/13 9:01 PM

Privacy and individual rights debates—state and local government use of drones, security cameras, red light cameras; release of gun ownership and registration data; protection of privacyrights in government records (cybersecurity).Campaigns and elections—lower turnout rates in swing states; possible impact of negative adsaturation; the impact of early voting on campaigns; “big data” and micro-targeting in getout-the-vote efforts; polling flaws; campaign spending reform battles; continued debate overthe presidential primary “first” position of the Iowa Caucus and New Hampshire primary ledby diverse states.The “nationalization” of judicial, mayoral, and school board races; infusion of outside interestgroup money into local races due to ideologically divisive issues national in scope.Continuing election system controversies—voter IDs, voter eligibility (felons, noncitizens),online and same-day registration, early voting, polling place location, time in line, mail ballots, absentee voting; partisan priorities: Democrats focused on preventing voter suppression,Republicans on preventing voter fraud.Changing media habits—of voters, elected officials; reduced presence of state public affairsnetworks and the capitol press corps.Increased violence against judicial system officials and at public schools and universities(shootings, bullying); renewed demands for more funding and support for better mental health programs.The Occupy Wall Street and Tea Party movements—the disappearance of street-level protests,the incorporation of key ideas into major parties’ platforms (Tea Party—national debt; OccupyWall Street—income inequality).Declining party competition in state legislatures; more safe seats; fewer states with

UP CLoSE: Getting into Politics 90 RAnkingS of ThE STATES: Voter turnout Rate: 2012 Presidential Election 93 Continuing Election Controversies 96 Race, Ethnicity, and Political Participation 100 Securing the Right to Vote 102 Minorities in State Politics 105 Women in State Politics 108 Young and Old in State Politics 110