IEEE Standard Glossary Of Software Engineering

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lEEEStd 610.121990(Revisionand reddgnationofIEEEstd7921983)IEEE Standard Glossary ofSoftware Engineering TerminologySponsorstandardscoordinatingcodtteeof theComputer Society of the IEEEApproved September 28,1990IEEEStandardsBOardAbstract: IEEE Std 610.12-1990,IEEE Standard Glossary of Software Engineering Terminology,identifies terms currently in use in the field of Software Engineering. Standard definitions forthose terms are established.Keywords: Software engineering; glossary; terminology; definitions; dictionaryISBN 1-55937467-XCopyright 0 1990 byThe Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers345 East 47th Street, New York, NY 10017, USANo part of this document may be reproduced in any form,in an electronic retrieval system or otherwise,without the prior written permission of the publisher.Authorized licensed use limited to: Hochschule HS Dresden. Downloaded on October 13,2010 at 14:16:07 UTC from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

IEEE Standards documents are developed within the TechnicalCommittees of the IEEE Societies and the Standards CoordinatingCommittees of the IEEE Standards Board. Members of the committeesserve voluntarily and without compensation. They are not necessarily members of the Institute. The standards developed within IEEErepresent a consensus of the broad expertise on the subject within theInstitute as well as those activities outside of IEEE which haveexpressed an interest in participating in the development of thestandard.Use of an IEEE Standard is wholly voluntary. The existence of anIEEE Standard does not imply that there are no other ways t o produce,test, measure, purchase, market, o r provide other goods and servicesrelated to the scope of the IEEE Standard. Furthermore, the viewpointexpressed a t the time a standard is approved and issued is subject tochange brought about through developments in the state of the art andcomments received from users of the standard. Every IEEE Standardis subjected t o review a t least once every five years for revision orreaffirmation. When a document is more than five years old, and h a snot been reaffirmed, it is reasonable to conclude that its contents, although still of some value, do not wholly reflect the present state of theart. Users are cautioned t o check t o determine that they have the latestedition of any IEEE Standard.Comments for revision of IEEE Standards are welcome from anyinterested party, regardless of membership affiliation with IEEE.Suggestions for changes in documents should be in the form of a proposed change of text, together with appropriate supporting comments.Interpretations: Occasionally questions may arise regarding themeaning of portions of standards as they relate t o specific applications. When the need for interpretations is brought to the attention ofIEEE, the Institute will initiate action t o prepare appropriate responses. Since IEEE Standards represent a consensus of all concerned interests, it is important t o ensure that any interpretation hasalso received the concurrence of a balance of interests. For this reasonIEEE and the members of its technical committees are not able t oprovide an instant response t o interpretation requests except in thosecases where the matter has previously received formal consideration.Comments on standards and requests for interpretations should beaddressed to:Secretary, IEEE Standards Board345 East 47th StreetNew York, NY 10017USAIEEE Standards documents are adopted by the Institute of Electricaland Electronics Engineers without regard t o whether their adoptionmay involve patents on articles, materials, or processes. Such adoption does not assume any liability t o any patent owner, nor does i tassume any obligation whatever to parties adopting the standardsdocuments.Authorized licensed use limited to: Hochschule HS Dresden. Downloaded on October 13,2010 at 14:16:07 UTC from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

Foreword(This Foreword is not a part of IEEE Std 610.12-1990, IEEE Standard Glossary of Software Engineering Terminology.)The computer field is continuing to expand. New terms are being generated and new meaningsare being adopted for existing terms. The IEEE Computer Dictionary project was undertaken t odocument this vocabulary. Its purpose is to identify terms currently in use in the computer fieldand to establish standard definitions for these terms. The dictionary is intended to serve as auseful reference for those in the computer field and for those who come into contact with computerseither through their work or in their everyday lives.The dictionary is being developed as a set of subject-area glossaries covering ComputerArchitecture, Computer Processors, Computer Storage, Software Engineering, Mathematics ofComputing, Theory of Computation, Computer Applications, Artificial Intelligence, DataManagement, Image Processing and Pattern Recognition, Modeling and Simulation, ComputerGraphics, Computer Networking, Computer Languages, and Computer Security and Privacy. Thisglossary contains the terms related to Software Engineering. It updates IEEE Std 729-1983, IEEEStandard Glossary of Software Engineering Terminology (ANSI).Every effort has been made to use definitipns from established standards in this dictionary.When existing standards were found t o be incomplete, unclear, o r inconsistent with other entriesin the dictionary, however, new, revised, or composite definitions have been developed.At the time this glossary was approved, the following people formed the steering committee of theComputer Dictionary working group:Jane Radatz, Chairperson, Software Engineering GlossaryOther subgroup leaders:Anne GeraciFreny KatkiDr. John LaneLouise McMonegalBennett MeyerDr. Hugh PorteousDr. Fredrick SpringsteelPaul WilsonMary YeeJohn YoungOther working group members who contributed t o this glossary were as follows:Russell J. AbbottA. F r a n k AckermanRoger R. BaldwinH. Ronald BerlackJ. David BezekJames H. BradleyKathleen L.BriggsHomer C. CarneySusann ChonolesTaz DaughtreyFrank J. DouglasWilliam P. DuprasJohn D. EarlsMary Forcht-TuckerDavid GelperinA1 GillenShirley A. Gloss-SolerJohn A. GoetzDavid A. GustafsonVir1 HaasJames IngramGary S . LindsayRobert McBethAlicia McCurdyDr. Jose MuiIozGeraldine NeidhartMary RasmussenMax SchindlerPaul SchmidLeonard W. SeagrenSonja Peterson ShieldsKevin SmithWayne SmithPaul U. ThompsonAndrew H. WeigelW. Martin WongSpecial representatives to the Computer Dictionary working group were as follows:Frank Jay, Advisor, IEEE Standards OfficeRollin Mayer, Liaison, Accredited Standards Committee X3K5Authorized licensed use limited to: Hochschule HS Dresden. Downloaded on October 13,2010 at 14:16:07 UTC from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

The following organizations supported employee participation in the development of thisstandard:LockheedLogiconMarine Midland BankThe MITRE CorporationPerkin-Elmer CorporationQuality Assurance InstituteRabbitt Software CorporationRCASanders AssociatesSILOGICSoftranTeledyne Brown EngineeringUniversity of Wisconsin, MadisonU.S. Naval FacilitiesU S . Dept. of HUDWyse TechnologyAmlied Information DevelopmentAtfantic ConsultantsBabcock and WilcoxBurroughs WellcomeCarney AssociatesComputer Sciences CorporationDatapoint CorporationDutchess Engineering CompanyEdinbom University of PennsylvaniaElectronics Design MagazineEyring Research InstituteGeneral Electric CompanyHarris CorporationInformation Spectrum, Inc.Institute for Zero Defect SoftwareInternational Bureau of Software TestKansas State UniversityThe IEEE 610 working group wishes t o acknowledge the contribution of those who developed IEEEStd 729-1983, IEEE Standard Glossary of Software Engineering Terminology (ANSI), whichformed the basis for this glossary. The steering committee of this group had the followingmembers:Shirley A. Gloss-Soler,ChairRussell J. AbbottJoan P. BatemanStephen R. BeasonMilton E. Boyd, Jr.Kurt F. FischerJohn M. IvesJohn J. McKissick, J r .Albrecht J. NeumannJohn N. PostakJane W. RadatzMarilyn J. StewartAlan N. SukertDonald A. WoodmancyDavid YablonAuthorized licensed use limited to: Hochschule HS Dresden. Downloaded on October 13,2010 at 14:16:07 UTC from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

The sponsor for the Computer Dictionary project is the IEEE Computer Society StandardsCoordinating Committee, which balloted this document for submission t o the IEEE StandardsBoard. At the time this standard was approved, the committee had the following membership:Harrison BeasleyH. Ronald BerlackWilliam BillowitchRichard BobergJohn BoebingerPaul L. BorrillTerry BowenElliott BrebnerJ. Reese Brown, J r .Lin BrownFletcher BuckleyRandy BushClyde CampSteve CarterAlan CobbPaul CookBill CorwinAlan DavisSteven DellerBulent DervisogluBob DonnanPaul EastmanD. Vera EdelsteinTim ElsmoreDick EvansRichard FairleyWayne FischerKester FongDavid GelperinAnne GeraciA1 GilmanJohn GrahamSteve GroutDave GustavsonA1 HankinsonFred HarrisonChris HaynesRick HendersonKen HobdayScott HopkinsonJohn HorchRussell HousleyCharles HudsonMarlyn HuckebyMike HumphreyJohn HydeJames IsaakDavid JamesHal JespersonRichard KalishMatt KaltenbachHans KarlssonFreni KatkiGuy KelleyKim KirkpatrickBob KnightenStanley KrolikoskiJohn B. LaneRon LeckieKevin LewisWilliam LidinskyDonald C. LoughryA1 LowensteinBill MaciejewskiRoger MartinPhilip MarriottColin MaunderJohn McGroryLouise McMonegalSunil MehtaPaul MenchiniJerry MerskyBennett MeyerLouis MillerJ a m e s MollenauerJ i m MooneyGary A. NelsonTom PittmanRobert M. PostonShlomo Pri-TalJ a n e RadatzMichael RaynhamGordon RobinsonLarry SaundersRichard SchmidtNorman SchneidewindRudolph SchubertDavid SchultzKaren SheafferBasil SherlundSava SherrFred SpringsteelJohn StarkweatherDennis StAnauerRobert SulgmveOryal TanirMichael D. TeenerDonn TerryPat ThalerJoseph ToyLeonard TrippMargaret UpdikeEike WaltzJohn W. WalzCamille White-PartainLes WibberleyCynthia WrightJohn YoungJason ZionsWhen the IEEE Standards Board approved this standard on September 28, 1990, it had thefollowing membership:Marco W.Migliaro, ChairmanJames M. Daly, Vice ChairmanAndrew G . Salem, SecretaryDennis BodsonPaul L. BorrillFletcher J. BuckleyAllen L. ClappStephen R. DillonDonald C. FleckensteinJ a y Forster*Thomas L. HannanKenneth D. HendrixJohn W. HorchJoseph L. KoepBnger*Irving KolodnyMichael A. LawlerDonald J. LoughryJohn E. May, J r .Lawrence V. McCallL. Bruce McClungDonald T. Michael*Stig NilssonRoy T. OishiGary S. RobinsonTerrance R. WhittemoreDonald W. Zipse*Member EmeritusAuthorized licensed use limited to: Hochschule HS Dresden. Downloaded on October 13,2010 at 14:16:07 UTC from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

ContentsSECTIONPAGE1. Scope .72 . Glossary Structure .73 . Definitions for Software Engineering Terms .74 . Bibliography.82FIGURESFig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Fig 12Fig 13Fig 14Fig 1 5Fig 16Fig 1 7Fig 18Block Diagram .Box Diagram .Bubble Chart .Call Graph .Case Construct .Data Flow Diagram .Data Structure Diagram .Directed Graph .Documentation Tree .Flowchart .Graph (1).Graph (2) .If-Then-Else Construct .Input-Process-Output Chart .Sample Software Life Cycle .Structure Chart .UNTIL Construct .WHILE Construct .1313141515242427283336363840687l7982Authorized licensed use limited to: Hochschule HS Dresden. Downloaded on October 13,2010 at 14:16:07 UTC from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

IEEE Standard Glossary ofSoftware Engineering Terminology“test case,” or a n acronym, such a s “CM.”Phrases are given in their natural order (testplan) rather than in reversed order (plan,test).Blanks precede all other characters in alphabetizing. Hyphens and slashes are treatedas blanks. Alternative spellings are shown inparentheses.If a term has more than one definition, thedefinitions are numbered. In most cases,noun definitions are given first, followed byverb and adjective definitions a s applicable.Examples, notes, and illustrations have beenadded to clarify selected definitions.The following cross-references are used t oshow a term’s relationship t o other terms in thedictionary:This glossary defines terms in the field ofSoftware Engineering. Topics covered include addressing; assembling, compiling,linking, loading; computer performanceevaluation; configuration management; datatypes; errors, faults, and failures; evaluationtechniques; instruction types; language types;libraries; microprogramming; operating systems; quality attributes; software documentation; software and system testing; softwarearchitecture; software development process;software development techniques; and software tools.Every effort h a s been made t o include allterms that meet these criteria. Terms were excluded if they were considered t o be parochialt o one group or organization; company proprietary or trademarked; multi-word termswhose meaning could be inferred from thedefinitions of the component words; or termswhose meaning in the computer field could bedirectly inferred from their standard Englishmeaning.This glossary is an update and expansion ofIEEE Std 729-1983, IEEE Standard Glossary ofSoftware Engineering Terminology (ANSI)L3I.l I t increases the number of terms fromapproximately 500 to 1300, and updates o rrefines t h e definitions of many t e r m sincluded in the initial glossary. A few termsthat were included in the initial glossary havebeen moved t o other glossaries in the 610series. Some definitions have been recast in asystem, rather than software, context. Everyeffort has been made t o preserve the fine workthat went into the initial glossary.Contrast with refers t o a term with an opposite or substantially different meaning.S y n refers to a synonymous term.See also refers to a related term.See refers t o a preferred term or to a termwhere the desired definition can be found.The word “deprecated” indicates a term ordefinition whose use is discouraged becausesuch use is obsolete, misleading, or a m b i y ous. “DoD” refers t o usage by t h e U.S.Department of Defense.3. Definitions for Software EngineeringTerms1GL. Acronym for f i r s t generation language.See: machine language.2GL. A

IEEE Std 729-1983, IEEE Standard Glossary of Software Engineering Terminology (ANSI) L3I.l It increases the number of terms from approximately 500 to 1300, and updates or refines the definitions of many terms included in the initial glossary. A few terms that were included in the initial glossary have

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